Green Leaf Chemistry of Various Turfgrasses
- Albert W. Johnson *a,
- Maurice E. Snookb and
- Billy R. Wisemanc
Six grass species (zoysiagrass, bermudagrass, centipedegrass, tall fescue, St. Augustinegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were analyzed for polyphenols and flavonoids by high performance liquid chromatography. Each gave a characteristic leaf chemistry profile that allowed it to be differentiated from the other grasses. ‘Emerald’ zoysiagrass was characterized by the presence of chlorogenic acid and a group of luteolin-glycosides containing glucose and/or arabinose. ‘Tifgreen’ bermudagrass contained no chlorogenic acid, and at least two of the flavonoids were apigenin-glycosides in addition to several luteolin-glycosides. Common centipedegrass and Ky 31 tall fescue both contained high levels of chlorogenic acid, but their flavonoid composition was different. Centipedegrass contained luteolin-type flavonoid-glycosides and maysin, an unusual luteolin-diglycoside that possesses a unique keto-sugar. Tall fescue contained quercetin-type flavonoids rather than luteolin. Rutin was found as a major constituent of tall fescue. ‘Kenblue’ Kentucky bluegrass and ‘Raleigh’ St. Augustinegrass contained no chlorogenic acid. These two grasses contained several luteolin-glycosides but not the broad, multiple flavonoid profiles of zoysiagrass and bermudagrass. Fall armyworm [FAW; Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] larval growth was significantly affected by the type of grass they fed upon in laboratory no-choice tests. Fall armyworm larval weight reductions (as a percentage of the bermudagrasses) at 7 d after infestation were 90, 79, and 29% for zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, and St. Augustinegrass, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and the flavonoid-glycosides rutin, maysin, and isoorientin were highly active in a laboratory bioassay in reducing FAW larval weights; however, no correlations could be made between FAW resistance and the levels of chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, or total phenolics extractable from the grasses evaluated.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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