Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Nitrogen Management on Spring Wheat Quality
- E. J. Souzaa,
- J. M. Martin *b,
- M. J. Guttieria,
- K. M. O'Briena,
- D. K. Habernichtb,
- S. P. Lanningb,
- R. McLeanc,
- G. R. Carlsond and
- L. E. Talbertb
- a Univ. of Idaho Aberdeen Research and Extension Center, P.O. Box 870, Aberdeen, ID 83210
b Dep. of Plant Sci. and Plant Pathology, Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717-3140
c Pendleton Flour Mills, 463 W. Hwy 26, Blackfoot, ID 83221
d Northern Agric. Res. Center, Star Route No. 36, Box 43, Havre, MT 59501
Bread baking is the primary end-use criterion used to select hard spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for the northwestern USA, yet the use of hard wheats has expanded beyond traditional pan breads to include Asian noodles. We assessed the relative influence of genotype, N management, and location on quality characteristics of a set of spring wheat cultivars that provided a range in gluten strength and acceptability for bread and Asian noodle quality, and determined whether grain characteristics could predict bread and/or noodle market suitability. Seven spring cultivars were grown at four locations across 3 yr with two levels of N fertilizer in irrigated and moisture-limited conditions. Bread quality, alkaline noodle color, and Chinese noodle color and texture were assessed on grain samples. Cultivar was the most important determinant of bread and noodle quality traits in both the irrigated and moisture-limited environments. Nitrogen level influenced only Chinese noodle color in irrigated environments, but impacted test weight, flour ash, loaf volume, and bake absorption in moisture-limited environments. Responses to N management and location were usually not cultivar specific, as interactions were not important relative to main effects of cultivar and location. Grain protein had more value than test weight or grain hardness in predicting bread and noodle quality, and was most useful in predicting loaf volume and Chinese noodle color characteristics. Cultivar selection is critical for achieving a desired end use, with location effects being of secondary importance. Nitrogen management for a particular end use will be difficult, with N level being much less important than cultivar selection and location. Grain protein may be the best predictor of the suitability of a particular cultivar produced in a specific year for alternative end-use possibilities, with high-protein grain most suitable for bread production and low-protein, high-quality grain more suitable for noodle production.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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