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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 45 No. 4, p. 1504-1510
    Received: Mar 23, 2004

    * Corresponding author(s): evsanten@acesag.auburn.edu
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Dinitroaniline-Induced Genetic Changes in Bermudagrass

  1. Ludovic J. A. Capo-chichia,
  2. J. M. Goatleyb,
  3. W. Philleyc,
  4. J. Kransc,
  5. D. Davisd,
  6. A. Katoe and
  7. Edzard van Santen *a
  1. a Dep. of Agronomy and Soils, 202 Funchess Hall, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849-5412
    b Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Dep., Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061
    c Dep. of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS 39762
    d Plant Science Unit, 52 Agriculture Bldg., Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
    e Dep. of Biological Sciences, 117 Tucker Hall, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211


Off-type bermudagrasses (Cynodon spp.) continue to be a major concern on southern U.S. golf greens because of the disruption of surface uniformity and playability. The current study was undertaken to measure the genetic stability of six bermudagrass cultivars (Champion, Floradwarf, MS-Supreme, Tifdwarf, TifEagle, and Tifgreen) in response to the two dinitroaniline herbicides pendimethalin {N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2, 6-dinitrobenzenamine} and oryzalin (3,5-dinitro-N 4 N 4-dipropylsuffanilamide), which are commonly applied for preemergent weed control in turf management. Four off-types (Off-Type 1, Off-Type 2, Off-Type 3, and Off-Type 4) were derived from Champion treated with dinitroanilines during the experimental cycles. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis identified a total of 311 informative fragments with seven primer combinations, of which 162 (52.09%) were polymorphic. The number of polymorphisms detected per primer combination ranged from 18 to 27. The grouping of cultivars according to molecular and morphological data was made by multidimensional analyses: cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Phenetic analysis as well as CDA revealed that all bermudagrasses and off-types were genetically diverse. Pairwise D 2 estimates ranged from 0.69 to 0.99 with Off-Type 3 being the most genetically dissimilar. Unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average analysis (UPGMA) produced two major clusters. The first contained the six bermudagrass cultivars and Off-Type 1, Off-Type 2, and Off-Type 4, while Off-Type 3 formed the second cluster. Total gene diversity (H T) across all bermudagrasses was estimated to be 0.15 and within Champion and derived off-types gene diversity (Hc) was 0.18. Cytological analysis as well as AFLP comparison with African bermudagrass (C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) supports our assertion that Off-Type 3 (2n = 38) is derived from common bermudagrass. In general, results suggest that dinitroaniline herbicide principles may be used as a pathway to understand the evolutionary processes and the origin of off-types in bermudagrass.

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