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Differential Adaptation of CIMMYT Bread Wheat to Global High Temperature Environments


This article in CS

  1. Vol. 45 No. 6, p. 2443-2453
    Received: Nov 16, 2004

    * Corresponding author(s): morten.lillemo@umb.no
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  1. M. Lillemo *b,
  2. M. van Ginkela,
  3. R. M. Trethowana,
  4. E. Hernandeza and
  5. J. Crossaa
  1. b Dep. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway
    a International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico DF, Mexico


A good understanding of the target environment and the extent of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction is essential for all cereal breeding programs. Differential adaptation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to various heat-stressed environments around the world was analyzed by cumulative cluster analysis of locations and genotypes in 9 yr of CIMMYT's High Temperature Wheat Yield Trial (HTWYT). The grouping pattern of yield-testing environments could largely be explained by the temperature at different growth stages and relative humidity at booting. A clear distinction was observed between sites with heat stress and more temperate locations, and the heat-stressed environments could be grouped into sites experiencing high temperature throughout the season and sites with more specific terminal heat stress. In addition, dry and humid heat-stressed locations tended to differentiate. The ability of individual locations to predict yield in different heat-stressed environments was studied by the shifted multiplicative model (SHMM) site clustering method, and identified locations like Tandojam (Pakistan), which associated well with both heat-stressed and temperate environments. The good ability of the January planting date in Ciudad Obregon (Mexico) to predict yield performance in many heat-stressed environments was also confirmed. Genotypes grouped according to their relative performance in different locations, and specific adaptation to the various types of heat-stressed environments was apparent. However, a subset of genotypes was identified that showed stable, and high yield across all types of environments, both heat-stressed and temperate.

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