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This article in CS

  1. Vol. 50 No. 2, p. 730-736
    Received: Apr 30, 2009

    * Corresponding author(s): mricha@uark.edu
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Measurement of Golf Ball Lie in Various Turfgrasses Using Digital Image Analysis

  1. Michael D. Richardson *,
  2. Douglas E. Karcher,
  3. Aaron J. Patton and
  4. John H. McCalla
  1. Dep. of Horticulture, Univ. of Arkansas, 316 Plant Sciences Bldg., Fayetteville, AR 72701


Lie is the position in which a golf ball comes to rest following a stroke. Although the lie of a golf ball is an important factor affecting the play of the next stroke, there have been few attempts to measure this characteristic or determine how management practices, turfgrass species, or cultivars affect ball lie. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a new technique using digital image analysis for measuring ball lie in various turfgrasses. The technique uses a stage that positions a digital camera at the top of a mowed turfgrass canopy and collects an image of a golf ball positioned at the same focal length in each frame. The image was then subjected to digital image analysis to determine the percentage of the golf ball that was visible above the canopy. The new technique was calibrated by positioning a golf ball at a defined height above the soil and also compared with another published technique, called Lie-N-Eye, for accuracy and ease of use. The image analysis technique could distinguish changes in ball height within a turfgrass canopy. In addition, collecting data with the technique was easier and faster compared with the Lie-N-Eye, the only other method of ball lie analysis available. However, the two devices produced data that were highly correlated. Two cultivar trials of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) were evaluated using the technique, and significant differences among cultivars in both species were demonstrated.

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