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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 56(5)


    • Carrie J. Butts-Wilmsmeyer and Martin O. Bohn
      High-Throughput Extraction of Insoluble-Bound Ferulic Acid In Maize

      Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid that possesses positive health benefits and plays a role in both pathogen and insect resistance in maize (Zea mays L.). Many protocols for the extraction of insoluble-bound ferulic acid in maize use methods that are low-throughput and are not conducive to analyzing the large number of samples used in field research or breeding programs. We examined two protocols for the extraction of insoluble-bound ferulic acid that use small sample sizes typical of experiments where a large number of samples need to be analyzed. The main distinguishing feature between the two protocols is the inclusion of a starch digestion step in Protocol A to inhibit the swelling of intact starch when introduced to an alkali reagent. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • T. Martinelli, E. Potenza, A. Moschella, F. Zaccheria, S. Benedettelli and J. Andrzejewska
      Phenotypic Evaluation of a Milk Thistle Germplasm Collection: Fruit Morphology and Chemical Composition

      Milk thistle [Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.] is an officinal crop species native to the Mediterranean. The species is gaining increasing interest as a multipurpose crop, but lack of information exists about the natural phenotypic variability available in the species for the traits of interest. In the present work, the fruit morphological and chemical traits of a collection of 26 milk thistle accessions have been analyzed. The results show that the most variable traits are related to single flavonolignan content. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Yu-Hsiang Tung and Lean-Teik Ng
      Effects of Soil Salinity on Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, and γ-Oryzanol Accumulation and their Relation to Oxidative Stress in Rice Plants

      Tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), and γ-oryzanol (GO) are major bioactive compounds of rice that have been known to possess various pharmacological properties. Understanding the stress effects on the accumulation of these compounds may aid in the improvement of rice grain quality. In this study, our aim was to examine the effects of soil salinity on Toc, T3 and GO contents, as well as their role in antioxidant status in rice plants. Four levels of salinity treatments with electrical conductivity values of 0, 2, 4, and 8 dS m−1 were conducted during the reproductive stage of rice (95 d after transplanting). (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Michael Stein, Fernando Miguez and Jode Edwards
      Effects of Plant Density on Plant Growth before and after Recurrent Selection in Maize

      Breeding for higher grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) using increased selection densities has produced varieties that are adapted to grow at higher population densities. While the effects of density on final grain yield and plant phenotypes are well known, how density affects the early-season growth of the plant has been less studied. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of high planting density on the growth of stalk, tassel, and ear shoots in unselected Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) and Iowa Synthetic Corn Borer No. 1 (BSCB1) and in populations that have been selected for high grain yield via a reciprocal recurrent selection program. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Florencia C. Spagnolli, Emma Mace, David Jordan, Lucas Borrás and Brenda L. Gambin
      Quantitative Trait Loci of Plant Attributes Related to Sorghum Grain Number Determination

      The genetic basis of grain number determination in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] was studied based on canopy growth traits. Traits were crop growth rate (CGR) around flowering, plant reproductive biomass partitioning (PR) to the panicle, and grain-set efficiency (EG) per unit of accumulated panicle biomass. Previous evidence has shown that these traits vary across commercial germplasm and that PR and EG are genotype-specific traits with low environmental effects. Our hypothesis was that PR and EG are highly heritable traits correlated to grain number (and yield) for which environmentally consistent quantitative trait loci (QTL) could be detected. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Kari L. Hugie, David D. Fang, C. Wayne Smith, Ping Li, Lori L. Hinze, Steve S. Hague and Donald C. Jones
      Utility Assessment of Published Microsatellite Markers for Fiber Length and Bundle Strength QTL in a Cotton Breeding Program

      Numerous DNA markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cotton (Gossypium spp.) fiber quality traits have been identified in the literature, but there are still significant challenges regarding the use of these QTL in marker-assisted selection. While one of the primary limitations to the application of marker-assisted selection for fiber quality traits has been the inconsistency of marker–trait associations, more recent studies have reported numerous marker–trait associations and colocating of QTL in different genetic backgrounds and environments. The objectives of this study were to assess the published microsatellite markers linked to upper-half mean fiber length (UHML) and fiber bundle strength (Str) QTL in different genetic backgrounds and to characterize the utility of stable marker–trait associations in selection for improved fiber quality within the context of an applied breeding program. Using the results of 32 published QTL mapping studies, six stable marker–trait associations each for UHML and Str were detected. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Yukiko Naruoka, Kaori Ando, Peter Bulli, Kebede T. Muleta, Sheri Rynearson and Michael O. Pumphrey
      Identification and Validation of SNP Markers Linked to the Stripe Rust Resistance Gene Yr5 in Wheat

      Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) is a devastating disease for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. Yr5 is a race-specific resistance gene, effective to all races that have been identified in the United States. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Ambuj Bhushan Jha, Bunyamin Tar’an, Robert Stonehouse and Thomas D. Warkentin
      Identification of QTLs Associated with Improved Resistance to Ascochyta Blight in an Interspecific Pea Recombinant Inbred Line Population

      Ascochyta blight of pea (Pisum sp.), caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, often results in serious yield losses. Some accessions of Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm. previously showed high levels of resistance and could be used as sources of new resistance genes. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Demissew Abakemal, Hussein Shimelis and John Derera
      Analyses of Combining Ability and Genotype-By-Environment Interaction of Quality Protein Maize Inbred Lines Adapted to Tropical-Highlands

      Production of quality protein maize (Zea mays L., QPM) is an economic and sustainable approach that can help to alleviate protein deficiency in developing countries. However, QPM cultivars with high grain yield and wide adaptation to the tropical-highland subhumid maize agroecologies are yet to be developed and released for farmers. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to determine the magnitude of heterosis and combining ability of elite QPM inbred lines and to establish the genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) of experimental hybrids for cultivar development and recommendation. Twelve parent half-diallel crosses were produced, and 66 experimental hybrids were developed. (continued)

      Published: September 8, 2016

    • Santosh Sharma and Marcelo J. Carena
      BRACE: A Method for High Throughput Maize Phenotyping of Root Traits for Short-Season Drought Tolerance

      There is a need to develop new maize (Zea mays L.) breeding methodologies for the easier screening of quantitative traits that are largely influenced by the environment. Molecular laboratories initially intended to work with these challenging and economically important traits but have targeted genetically simple traits instead, often not a challenge to breeders. Root systems are important components of drought tolerance in maize genotypes. Phenotyping maize root systems without destroying experimental plots, however, is challenging. (continued)

      Published: July 21, 2016

    • Ali Soltani, Marco Bello, Eninka Mndolwa, Stephan Schroder, Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Juan M. Osorno, Phillip N. Miklas and Phillip E. McClean
      Targeted Analysis of Dry Bean Growth Habit: Interrelationship among Architectural, Phenological, and Yield Components

      An ideotype breeding strategy to improve an economically important trait is achievable if subcomponent phenotypes most associated with the trait are targeted for selection. The success of this strategy in modern breeding history can be highlighted in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), where an enhancement in dry bean production was facilitated in the last 25 yr by replacing Type III prostrate growth habit with Type II upright growth habit. This growth habit leads to disease avoidance and enables cost-effective management practices. To better understand the ideotype breeding trajectory in dry bean, and guarantee further improvements, we characterized 16 traits at three locations using a panel consisting of 122 genotypes with different growth habits. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Ahmad H. Sallam and Kevin P. Smith
      Genomic Selection Performs Similarly to Phenotypic Selection in Barley

      Genomic selection uses marker-based predictions to improve and accelerate the breeding process. Numerous studies have investigated the accuracy of genomic predictions; however, few studies have directly compared genomic and phenotypic selection. We compared genomic and phenotypic selection in five sets of selection candidates from a barley breeding program. In each set, about 96 breeding lines were genotyped with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and phenotyped for yield, Fusarium head blight (FHB) severity, and deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Matías de Felipe, José A. Gerde and José L. Rotundo
      Soybean Genetic Gain in Maturity Groups III to V in Argentina from 1980 to 2015

      Genetic progress is assessed to estimate its contribution to on-farm yield increases and to identify traits that have been improved over some period of time. Although Argentina is a major soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] producer, there is limited information about genetic progress in this system. Argentinean soybean cultivars were developed from US commercial cultivars. Because the genetic base of US cultivars is narrow, it would be expected that genetic progress in Argentina to be slower than in the United States. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Moon-Sub Lee, A. Lane Rayburn and D. K. Lee
      Genesis and Identification of Octoploids Generated from Tetraploid Prairie Cordgrass

      Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) is a warm season (C4) perennial grass that could be a potential candidate for studying polyploidization and its effects on environmental adaptability. Polyploidy plays an important role in prairie cordgrass’s adaptation and distribution on different ecoregions in the North American Prairie. However, the genetic backgrounds of polyploidy prairie cordgrass distributed in the different edaphic regions are different. Thus, to extend our knowledge of the effect of polyploidy on environmental adaptation, it is necessary to have diverse ploidy levels of plants with a similar genetic background. (continued)

      Published: August 12, 2016

    • Gislayne K. Coimbra-Gonçalves, Maria C. Gonçalves-Vidigal, Rafael Tessaro Coelho, Giseli Valentini, Pedro S. Vidigal Filho, Giselly F. Lacanallo, Lorenna L. Sousa and Haroldo T. Elias
      Characterization and Mapping of Anthracnose Resistance Gene in Mesoamerican Common Bean Cultivar Crioulo 159

      The common bean cultivar Crioulo 159 provides a valuable source of resistance to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Briosi & Cavara. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic resistance of Crioulo 159 to C. lindemuthianum races 2, 64, 73, and 2047 through inheritance, allelism testing, and molecular analysis. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Sebastian Miersch, Andreas Gertz, Frank Breuer, Antje Schierholt and Heiko C. Becker
      Influence of the Semi-dwarf Growth Type on Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Winter Oilseed Rape

      A higher nitrogen (N) use efficiency is an important breeding goal in crops such as oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that are considered less N efficient compared with crops like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Changes in the plant ideotype, such as reduced plant height of semi-dwarf hybrids, are said to result in an increased harvest index and N harvest index. This could lead to a higher N efficiency, especially when N availability is restricted. A double haploid population was developed that was segregating for the bzh dwarf locus, with 54 dwarf and 54 normal-type lines. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Adedayo Adeyanju, Jianming Yu, Christopher Little, William Rooney, Patricia Klein, John Burke and Tesfaye Tesso
      Sorghum RILs Segregating for Stay-Green QTL and Leaf Dhurrin Content Show Differential Reaction to Stalk Rot Diseases

      The association between postflowering drought tolerance and the stay-green phenotype in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is well established. Recent studies link the stay-green phenotype with levels of dhurrin and soluble sugars in the leaves. Postflowering drought response has always been associated with stalk rot resistance, especially charcoal rot. However, apart from the common knowledge that charcoal rot requires a dry environment, the mechanism governing these associations is not clear. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Mariola Klepadlo, Pengyin Chen and Chengjun Wu
      Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus in PI 438307 Soybean Accession

      Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the most prevalent viral pathogen and economic threat to soybean production worldwide. Three independent genes harboring SMV resistance have been identified: Rsv1, Rsv3, and Rsv4. Although the resistance genes (R-genes) have been found in some germplasm, usually they provide protection to some, but not all, viral strains. The objective of this research was to identify a new source of SMV resistance in Korean soybean accession PI 438307. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • John Belalcazar, Dominique Dufour, Meike S. Andersson, Mónica Pizarro, Jorge Luna, Luis Londoño, Nelson Morante, Angélica M. Jaramillo, Lizbeth Pino, Luis A. Becerra López-Lavalle, Fabrice Davrieux, Elise F. Talsma and Hernán Ceballos
      High-Throughput Phenotyping and Improvements in Breeding Cassava for Increased Carotenoids in the Roots

      Past research developed reliable equations to base selections for high β-carotene on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) predictions (100 genotypes d−1) rather than with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (<10 samples d−1). During recent harvest, CIAT made selections based on NIR predictions for the first time. This innovation produced valuable information that will help other cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) breeding programs. A total of 284 samples were analyzed with NIR and HPLC for total β-carotene (TBC) and by the oven method for dry matter content (DMC). (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Virginia R. Sykes, Fred L. Allen, Alexandria C. DeSantis, Arnold M. Saxton, Hem S. Bhandari, Dennis R. West, Eifion W. Hughes, Matthew E. Bobbitt and Victoria G. Benelli
      Efficiency of Early Selection in Improving Biomass and Predicted Ethanol Yield in Switchgrass

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) takes 3 yr to reach maximum biomass yields, delaying selection and cultivar improvement. This study evaluated the efficiency of early selection in improving third-year biomass and ethanol yields in lowland switchgrass. Fifty-six full-sib families were planted in Knoxville and Crossville, TN, with 1-m spacing in a randomized complete block design. In 2012 to 2014, plants were evaluated for biomass yield, ethanol yield, and morphological traits at 8 wk after emergence and in years one through three. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Sivakumar Sukumaran, Marta S. Lopes, Susanne Dreisigacker, Laura E. Dixon, Meluleki Zikhali, Simon Griffiths, Bangyou Zheng, Scott Chapman and Matthew P. Reynolds
      Identification of Earliness Per Se Flowering Time Locus in Spring Wheat through a Genome-Wide Association Study

      Identification of earliness per se (Eps) flowering time loci in spring wheat are troublesome due to confounding effects of vernalization and photoperiod responses. The Wheat Association Mapping Initiative panel of 287 elite lines was assessed to identify genomic regions associated with Eps and to understand the effects of vernalization and photoperiod treatments in spring wheat. The panel was grown under field conditions with four different treatments: (i) vernalization, where 1-d germinated seeds were kept at 4°C for 6 to 8 wk; (ii) extended photoperiod treatment, from seedling emergence to 10 d after anthesis in the field; (iii) treatments (i) and (ii) in combination; and (iv) a control treatment without either (i) or (ii). The combined vernalization and photoperiod treatments had the greatest effect in advancing the flowering time (4 d). (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Samuel Trachsel, Mayolo Leyva, Manuel Lopez, Edgar Antonio Suarez, Alberto Mendoza, Noel Gomez Montiel, Mauro Sierra Macias, Juan Burgueno and Felix San Vicente
      Identification of Tropical Maize Germplasm with Tolerance to Drought, Nitrogen Deficiency, and Combined Heat and Drought Stresses

      The objective of this study was to evaluate Maize (Zea mays L.) elite lines currently available in CIMMYT’s lowland tropical breeding program in Latin America under multiple abiotic stresses and identify lines with tolerance to drought, N deficiency, and combined heat and drought stress (HTDS). An incomplete line-by-tester design was used to evaluate 436 testcrosses under nonstressed conditions, 507 under N deficiency, 417 under drought stress (DS), and 368 under HTDS in 30 season-by-location combinations between 2012 and 2015. Elite lines CLRCY016, CML269, CML550, and CML551 performed well across all conditions, while CLQRCWQ118, CLWN306, and CML576 showed good performance under DS and N deficiency. CML574 was tolerant to DS and HTDS. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Amos A. Olajide and Christopher O. Ilori
      Estimation of Heterosis for Some Important Quantitative Traits in Cowpea under Drought Stress

      An experiment was conducted to determine the extent of heterosis (a better parent and standard check) in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] under drought stress. It was performed in the Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology at the University of Ibadan during the 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014 dry seasons between October and February. Ten parents and 42 hybrids with diverse drought tolerance were planted in a randomized complete block design (r = 3) under water-stressed and well-watered environments. Out of the 42 hybrids studied, the majority had significant heterosis over their better parental and standard check values, suggesting the effects of nonadditive gene actions for these traits under both environments. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Cai Zhao, Qiang Chai, Yanhua Zhao, Yanping Mu, Yan Zhang, Aizhong Yu, Fuxue Feng, Chang Liu, Wen Yin and Falong Hu
      Interspecific Competition and Complementation is a Function of N Management in Maize-Pea Intercropping Systems

      Intercropping as an effective system for increasing crop yield. However, little is known about how the two intercrops compete for resources under resource-limiting environments. Here, we quantified the competitiveness of the intercrops in response to soil available N during their co-growth period, and determined the complementary effect of one intercrop to the other. A long-season maize was alternated in field strips with a short-season pea under four (N0, N1, N2, and N3) N management systems in northwestern China in 2012 and 2013. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Haile Tewolde, Michael R. McLaughlin, Thomas R. Way and Johnie N. Jenkins
      Optimum Poultry Litter Rates for Maximum Profit versus Yield in Cotton Production

      Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and compare rates that maximize lint yield (PLy) vs. profit (PLp), and identify a practical approach for estimating PLp. Cotton planted on two farms that used conventional and no-tillage systems were fertilized with seven target rates of litter from 0 to 13.5 Mg ha−1 or with a farm standard treatment receiving synthetic fertilizers (Std). (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Fei Deng, Li Wang, Xiu-Feng Mei, Shu-Xian Li, Shi-Lin Pu and Wan-Jun Ren
      Polyaspartate Urea and Nitrogen Management Affect Nonstructural Carbohydrates and Yield of Rice

      In rice (Oryza sativa L.), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) play an important role in grain yield. To investigate the effects of urea type (polyaspartate urea versus conventional urea) and N management method (farmer’s fertilizer practice and optimized N management) on NSC accumulation and remobilization in rice, field experiments were conducted in Wenjiang, China, in 2014 and 2015. Grain yield, effective panicles, and total number of spikelets were positively related to NSC accumulation in aboveground parts and remobilization of stored NSC (RSN) in the stem plus sheath from 20 d after heading to maturity. Polyaspartate urea, in place of conventional urea, increased NSC accumulation in the leaf lamina and the stem plus sheath at the heading stage and promoted RSN in the stem plus sheath from 20 d after heading to maturity, improving grain yield and total aboveground biomass. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Jianguo Man, Zhenwen Yu, Yongli Zhang, Yu Shi and Liqiu Wang
      Water and Nitrogen Use of Winter Wheat under Different Supplemental Irrigation Regimes

      Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the Huang-Huai-Hai plain of China has been threatened by drought. This study was conducted to determine the water and N use of wheat under quantifying irrigation (W1, 60 mm of irrigation each at jointing and anthesis) and supplemental irrigation, determined by measuring the water content in the 0- to 20-cm (W2), 0- to 40-cm (W3), and 0- to 60-cm (W4) soil layers. The highest grain yields of 9177 kg ha−1 in 2012 to 2013 and 9460 kg ha−1 in 2013 to 2014 were obtained in W3, which exhibited greater soil water consumption in the 60- to 140-cm soil layers. Soil nitrate N uptake in the 40- to 160-cm soil layers was higher than in W1, W2, and W4 treatments. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Yunfei Jiang, Jili Li and Claude D. Caldwell
      Glucosinolate Content of Camelina Genotypes as Affected by Applied Nitrogen and Sulphur

      Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] is an alternative oil crop that has potential in aquaculture and food production. However, glucosinolates (GSs) in camelina seed and meal constrain their application in human and animal consumption. Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the Brassicaceae family. The aims of this study were to determine whether nitrogen (N) alone or in combination with sulphur (S) application affected GS concentration in camelina seeds, as well as whether different genotypes differed in GS concentrations. (continued)

      Published: August 4, 2016

    • D. Brian Arnall, M. Joy M. Abit, Randal K. Taylor and William R. Raun
      Development of an NDVI-Based Nitrogen Rate Calculator for Cotton

      The use and adoption of optical sensors to determine midseason nitrogen (N) application rates in cereal grain production has gained increasing acceptance by producers in the past decade; however, the technology has yet to impact mainstream cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production. Overapplication of N in cotton leads to excessive growth and can result in a dramatic yield decrease. This study was designed to develop a sensor-based cotton yield prediction model using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings from an optical sensor, incorporate the model into an algorithm used to determine midseason N rates, and determine if N response can be predicted using NDVI values collected midseason. A GreenSeeker hand held sensor was used to measure NDVI from seven studies at Lake Carl Blackwell (LCB), Stillwater, OK, and Southwest Research Station (SWR), Altus, OK, from 2006 to 2010. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Daryl R. Chastain, John L. Snider, Guy D. Collins, Calvin D. Perry, Jared Whitaker, Seth A. Byrd, Derrick M. Oosterhuis and Wesley M. Porter
      Irrigation Scheduling Using Predawn Leaf Water Potential Improves Water Productivity in Drip-Irrigated Cotton

      To address the effectiveness of predawn leaf water potential in plant-based irrigation scheduling, Gossypium hirsutum L. plants were grown under fully irrigated and dryland conditions and under three predawn water potential (ΨPD) thresholds (−0.5, −0.7, and −0.9 MPa). Measurements included ΨPD, plant height, mainstem node number, lint yield, water productivity, and continuous crop canopy temperature. We found that ΨPD produced similar yields to current practices, while decreasing overall water use from 7 to 31%, depending on rainfall levels and the treatment utilized. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Halimé Mahamat Hissene, Vincent Vadez, José Clavijo Michelangeli, Oumarou Halilou, Ibrahima Ndoye, Afshin Soltani and Thomas Sinclair
      Quantifying Leaf Area Development Parameters for Cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers]

      Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] is a major crop legume for the Sahelian zone in Africa. An accurate simulation of the growth and yield for cowpea that considers the environment would be a robust tool for evaluating improved management and plant genetics. The objective of this study was to parameterize a simple model framework to describe cowpea leaf area development. To obtain field data in divergent environments, leaf area development was measured for four genotypes at two sites: Patancheru, India, and Bambey, Senegal. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Florencia Poeta, Lucas Borrás and José L. Rotundo
      Variation in Seed Protein Concentration and Seed Size Affects Soybean Crop Growth and Development

      Developing high protein (HP) cultivars is often precluded by the inverse relationship between protein and yield. We hypothesized that attaining HP concentration based on contrasting seed size impacts crop growth and development differently. We screened 97 soybean genotypes and found lines with HP concentration (∼450 g kg−1) associated with (i) increased protein content (mg seed−1) in large seed genotypes, and (ii) reduced oil and carbohydrate contents in small seed ones. Then, we evaluated different growth traits in a subset of three HP large and three HP small seed genotypes, as well as in three high-yielding genotypes with average seed size and protein concentration. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Randy Wells, David P.J. Eickholt, Ramsey Lewis, Matthew C. Vann and Loren R. Fisher
      Heat Unit Accumulation and Days to Anthesis Relationship in Tobacco Genotypes with an Introgressed QTL Affecting Leaf Number

      Plant breeders and crop managers would benefit from an increased ability to predict the requirements for onset of anthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). This study was performed to determine the relationship in the field between heat unit (HU) accumulation and the onset of anthesis in tobacco genotypes varying for the zygosity of an introgressed quantitative trait loci (QTL) designated as Many Leaves (Ml) affecting flowering team and leaf number. Three commercially important cultivars or breeding lines (Speight 168, K326, and NCTG-61), their nearly isogenic homozygous (MlMl) and heterozygous (Mlml) counterparts, and three BC6F3 null-segregant (mlml) lines, were evaluated at three locations and over 2 yr. Days to anthesis (DTA) and HU accumulation were determined. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Yunfeng Peng, Xieting Zeng, James H. Houx, Dara L. Boardman, Chunjian Li and Felix B. Fritschi
      Pre- and Post-silking Carbohydrate Concentrations in Maize Ear-leaves and Developing Ears in Response to Nitrogen Availability

      Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield is considered to be highly associated with carbohydrate dynamics in leaves and developing ears during the critical period bracketing silking. Carbohydrate changes are sensitive to variation in nitrogen (N) availability, yet a comprehensive analysis of the N effect on various carbohydrate concentrations around silking remains elusive. A 2-yr field study was conducted to investigate grain yield, N uptake, ear dry matter and carbohydrate concentrations in ear-leaves and whole ears (prior to silking) and kernels (after silking) of maize grown with 0, 150, and 300 kg N ha−1. Greater N availability increased maize shoot dry matter and N content at silking and physiological maturity, as well as grain yield. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Marcelo O. Wallau, Lynn E. Sollenberger, João M.B. Vendramini, Carlos A.M. Gomide, M. Kimberly Mullenix and Kenneth H. Quesenberry
      Performance of Limpograss Breeding Lines under Various Grazing Management Strategies

      Limpograss [Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf et C.E. Hubb.] is a C4, perennial, stoloniferous grass that is well adapted to poorly drained soils and grows throughout frost-free periods during winter in southern Florida. Its use has increased rapidly in recent decades, but nearly all area in cultivation is planted with one cultivar, ‘Floralta’. A breeding program was initiated to develop improved alternatives to Floralta, resulting in a group of breeding lines requiring evaluation under grazing. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016

    • Carlos G.S. Pedreira, Valdson J. Silva, Yoana C. Newman and Lynn E. Sollenberger
      Yearling Cattle Performance on Continuously Stocked ‘Tifton 85’ and ‘Florakirk’ Bermudagrass Pastures

      Cynodon grasses are a major feed source for livestock in the US Gulf Coast region. Although continuous stocking is widely used for regional perennial grass pastures, there has been limited evaluation of animal performance on continuously stocked bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. This 3-yr experiment compared forage and animal performance on continuously stocked ‘Tifton 85’ (Cynodon spp.) and ‘Florakirk’ bermudagrass pastures using a variable stocking rate during summer (average of 159 d yr−1). Tifton 85 had greater herbage accumulation than Florakirk (average of 13.6 vs. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Elif Karayilanli, Jerome H. Cherney, Paul Sirois, Diane Kubinec and Debbie J.R. Cherney
      Botanical Composition Prediction of Alfalfa–Grass Mixtures using NIRS: Developing a Robust Calibration

      Botanical composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)–grass fresh and ensiled mixtures is a key parameter for assessing forage and diet quality as well as for managing mixed stands. Previous attempts to validate near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) equations for estimating botanical composition have had mixed results. This study was conducted to develop a robust NIRS method to estimate botanical composition of binary alfalfa–grass mixtures. Alfalfa–grass samples were collected across New York State over four growing seasons, hand separated, and a subset were ensiled separately. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • A. Meier and D.A. Halterman
      Structural Variation within the Potato Ve Gene Locus and Correlation with Molecular Marker Analysis

      Plant breeders rely on molecular markers to guide the selection of traits that are difficult to phenotype or that show wide variation in field trials as they seek to uncover the intricate relationship between an organism’s genotype and resulting phenotype. Specificity of molecular markers in wild potato (Solanum spp.) and other less-adapted germplasm is complicated by the existence of homologous gene clusters. This study examines the consistency and effectiveness of two previously published cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers that have been shown to predict Verticillium wilt (VW) resistance. The genome of resistant diploid potato clone C287 was resequenced, and examination of the Ve locus indicated only two homologous regions when compared with the three found in the reference potato genome DM1-3. (continued)

      Published: August 18, 2016


    • María Gricelda Vázquez-Carrillo, Israel Rojas-Martínez, David Santiago-Ramos, José Luis Arellano-Vázquez, Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón, Miguel García-Pérez and José Crossa
      Stability Analysis of Yield and Grain Quality Traits for the Nixtamalization Process of Maize Genotypes Cultivated in the Central High Valleys of Mexico

      In the central high valleys of Mexico, no maize hybrid or variety has shown enough stability to satisfy farmers or the processing industry, in terms of either grain yield or quality parameters for tortilla-making. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of grain yield and grain physical characteristics, as well as of variables of the nixtamalization process and the tortilla quality of 11 maize genotypes cultivated in six locations of the central high valleys of Mexico. Stability was assessed based on the sites regression model (SREG). All variables were affected by the genotype by environment interaction, but only grain yield, hundred-grain weight, flotation index, test weight, nixtamal moisture, retained pericarp, and tortilla yield were well explained by the SREG model. (continued)

      Published: September 22, 2016

    • Mounawer Badri, Ghazoua Toumi, Saoussen Mahfoudh, Kamel Hessini, Meriem Abdelguerfi-Laouar, Aissa Abdelguerfi, Mohamed Elarbi Aouani, Chedly Abdelly and Naceur Djébali
      Diversity of Response to Drought in a Collection of Lines of Medicago truncatula , M. ciliaris, and M. polymorpha

      In this study, we investigated variation for tolerance to water deficit in 47 lines of Medicago truncatula Gaertn., M. ciliaris (L.) All., and M. polymorpha L. collected from different ecogeographic regions in Tunisia. (continued)

      Published: September 8, 2016

    • A. Morgounov, M. Keser, M. Kan, M. Küçükçongar, F. Özdemir, N. Gummadov, H. Muminjanov, E. Zuev and C.O. Qualset
      Wheat Landraces Currently Grown in Turkey: Distribution, Diversity, and Use

      From 2009 to 2014 a nationwide effort was made to document, collect, conserve, and characterize wheat landraces grown by Turkish farmers. Spike samples were collected from more than 1600 farmers from 59 provinces, planted as single-spike progenies, and classified into species, subspecies, and botanical varieties (or morphotypes). Altogether, 95 morphotypes were identified representing three species and six subspecies: einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), emmer wheat [T. turgidum subsp. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

    • Cristina Silvar and Carlos A. García-González
      Deciphering Genetic Diversity in the Origins of Pepper ( Capsicum spp.) and Comparison with Worldwide Variability

      Several attempts in recent decades have been devoted to investigating the genetic and phenotypic diversity harbored by the genus Capsicum. Particular efforts have been directed to old varieties or landraces. However, the genus is still under-researched, and further investigations that accurately define the relationships among species and identify those geographic regions with greater variability are required. In the present work, 107 Capsicum landraces from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia were evaluated with a set of 16 microsatellite markers. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016


    • Kevin W. Frank, James R. Crum, Jeff M. Bryan and Aaron D. Hathaway
      Fifteen Years of Nitrogen Leaching from a Kentucky Bluegrass Turf

      Most research on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching in turfgrass was conducted on recently established sites and indicates that leaching poses little risk to the environment. The potential for greater NO3–N leaching from mature turf sites is relatively unknown. Nitrogen (N) leaching from a Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) turf was measured for 15 yr using monolith lysimeters. From 1998 through 2002, half of the lysimeters were treated annually with urea at a high rate of 245 kg N ha−1 (49 kg N ha−1 application−1) and half of the lysimeters were treated at a low rate of 98 kg N ha−1 (24.5 kg N ha−1 application−1). (continued)

      Published: September 8, 2016

    • John C. Inguagiato and Karl Guillard
      Foliar N Concentration and Reflectance Meters to Guide N Fertilization for Anthracnose Management of Annual Bluegrass Putting Green Turf

      Site-specific management using objective assays to determine N requirement based on canopy reflectance could improve current recommendations for cultural control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum cereale Manns sensu lato Crouch, Clarke, and Hillman). The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships among foliar sap nitrate–nitrogen (NO3–N) concentrations, canopy reflectance indices (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI] and chlorophyll index [CI]), foliar total N concentrations, and N rate on anthracnose severity in annual bluegrass (ABG), Poa annua L. f. reptans (Hausskn) T. (continued)

      Published: August 12, 2016

    • Quincy D. Law, Cale A. Bigelow and Aaron J. Patton
      Selecting Turfgrasses and Mowing Practices that Reduce Mowing Requirements

      Mowing remains one of the most energy-intensive cultural practices in maintaining a turf sward. Turfgrass systems can become a larger net C sink if mower emissions are reduced. Establishing slow-growing turfgrasses has been proposed to reduce mowing requirements. Traditional recommendations for home lawns are to mow by the “one-third rule” and return grass clippings. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2016

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