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Crop Science : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 54(5)



  • BIOMEDICAL, HEALTH BENEFICIAL & NUTRITIONALLY ENHANCED PLANTS

    • Parminderjit Bangar, Raymond P. Glahn, Yong Liu, Gene C. Arganosa, Susan Whiting and Thomas D. Warkentin
      Iron Bioavailability in Field Pea Seeds: Correlations with Iron, Phytate, and Carotenoids

      Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a nutritious pulse crop consumed as food and animal feed in many countries. The present study was performed to determine the potential effects of Fe, phytate, and carotenoid concentrations on Fe bioavailability (FeBIO) of field pea seeds. Selected PR-07 (recombinant inbred line [RIL] population derived from the cross ‘Carrera’/‘CDC Striker’) lines, which segregated for Fe concentration and cotyledon color, showed positive correlation between their Fe concentration and FeBIO. In a second study, lines 4802-8 (derived from the cross 1-2347-144/‘CDC Raezer’) and 4803-4 (derived from the cross 1-150-81/‘CDC Limerick’), segregating for phytate concentration and cotyledon color were evaluated for FeBIO. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0682
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • CROP BREEDING & GENETICS

    • Michael D. Casler, Sergio Sosa, Lindsey Hoffman, Hilary Mayton, Calvin Ernst, Paul R. Adler, Arvid R. Boe and Stacy A. Bonos
      Biomass Yield of Switchgrass Cultivars under High- versus Low-Input Conditions

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is undergoing development as a biomass crop to support conversion of cellulosic biomass to energy. To avoid the competition of biomass with food or feed crops, most commercialization proposals suggest that switchgrass should be grown exclusively on marginal lands that are not fit for food or feed production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for cultivar × environment interactions that would affect the methods and approaches for breeding and evaluating switchgrass cultivars, including both upland and lowland types, for high-input versus low-input types of environments. Biomass yield was measured on 14 cultivars that were present in 28 replicated field experiments representing seven regions, ranging from 75 to 100° W and spanning USDA Hardiness Zones 4 through 7. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0698
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • Daniel W. Sweeney, Militza Carrero-Colón and Karen A. Hudson
      Characterization of New Allelic Combinations for High-Oleic Soybeans

      A soybean line with elevated levels of oleic acid was identified in a forward genetic screen. The causative mutation was identified and the line contained a C to T transition mutation causing a novel amino acid substitution in FAD2-1B, a gene that encodes an enzyme critical for soybean fatty acid biosynthesis. Alone, this fad2-1b mutation resulted in a 30% increase in seed oleic acid levels. Double mutant combinations with four previously isolated mutant alleles of the FAD2-1A gene were produced to determine the synergistic effects of mutation in both genes on oleic acid levels in seeds. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.09.0596
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Deena Fraiman-Meir, Ilan Hedvat, Galya Kayam and Ran Hovav
      Identification and Genetic Evaluation of a New Source of Pod Wart Resistance for Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)

      Pod wart disease severely damages in-shell peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production in areas in which peanut is routinely rotated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). It is caused by soil-borne Streptomyces that cause unsightly scabs that render the affected pods unmarketable. Since all elite peanut cultivars are susceptible to pod wart, a new genetic source of resistance is required. Here, the identification and evaluation of a new genetic source of pod wart resistance is reported. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.11.0684
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Tingting Wu, Xiushi Yang, Shi Sun, Caijie Wang, Ying Wang, Hongchang Jia, Weiqun Man, Lianshun Fu, Wenwen Song, Cunxiang Wu, Hongrui Yan, Bingjun Jiang, Wensheng Hou, Guixing Ren and Tianfu Han
      Temporal–Spatial Characterization of Seed Proteins and Oil in Widely Grown Soybean Cultivars across a Century of Breeding in China

      Soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are the predominant source of plant protein and vegetable oil in the human diet, and nutritional components, especially protein and oil, are important in soybean production and breeding. The current study aimed to identify the genetic progress of seed protein and oil in soybean cultivars grown widely over a century and to assess the spatial distribution of seed proteins and oil among four production regions (the Northern Heilongjiang region [NH], the Mid-Southern Heilongjiang region [MSH], the Jilin and Liaoning region [JL], and the Huang-Huai-Hai River Valley [HH] region). Eighty-nine widely grown soybean cultivars representing a span of 84 yr (1923–2007) of release were included, and a combination of analytical techniques was used to quantify seed protein, oil, amino acid, and fatty acid contents. It was found (i) that the temporal pattern over nine decades of genetic breeding exhibited a decreasing trend with regard to the concentrations of proteins and amino acids (arginine, glutamic acid, and histidine) and with stable trends for oil content. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0336
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Moctar Kante, Henry Frederick W. Rattunde, Willmar L. Leiser, Baloua Nebié, Bocar Diallo, Abdoulaye Diallo, Abocar Oumar Touré, Eva Weltzien and Bettina I.G. Haussmann
      Can Tall Guinea-Race Sorghum Hybrids Deliver Yield Advantage to Smallholder Farmers in West and Central Africa ?

      Many farmers in West and Central Africa (WCA) prefer tall (>3 m) grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] for various reasons. This study seeks to determine (i) what yield superiority newly bred, tall, photoperiod-sensitive guinea-race sorghum hybrids can provide relative to an adapted landrace variety across a wide range of productivity conditions, and (ii) the risk of these hybrids failing to provide yield superiority for individual farmers. Seven hybrids, one local check, and eight pure-line progenies were evaluated in 37 farmer-managed, on-farm yield trials across three Malian zones and 3 yr. Environments were classified into four productivity groups (low [0.78–1.10 Mg ha−1], mid-low [1.10–1.50 Mg ha−1], mid-high [1.50–2.00 Mg ha−1] and high [2.00–2.65 Mg ha−1]) based on their trial mean grain yield. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0765
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Alena K. Kurasch, Volker Hahn, Willmar L. Leiser, Norbert Starck and Tobias Würschum
      Phenotypic Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in 1008 RILs from a Diallel of Early European Soybean Varieties

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the most important leguminous crop worldwide, but Europe is currently heavily dependent on soybean imports. A prerequisite for further expansion of soybean cultivation in Europe is the improvement of cultivars by breeding. In our study, 1008 F5:8 recombinant inbred lines derived from an incomplete half-diallel cross of five early-maturing European soybean varieties were evaluated in multilocation field trials for grain yield, thousand-kernel weight, plant height, protein content, and oil content. We observed significant genotypic variances, high heritabilities (h2 > 0.7), and transgressive segregation for all traits. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0318
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • A. O. Talabi, B. Badu-Apraku and M. A. B. Fakorede
      Genetic Variances and Relationship among Traits of an Early Maturing Maize Population under Drought-stress and Low Nitrogen Environments

      Drought and low soil nitrogen (low N) are major causes of low grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An early maturing maize population, TZE-Y Pop DT STR, had undergone four cycles of selection for drought tolerance, followed by four selection cycles for resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth., which is normally conducted under low N (about 30 kg N ha-1). The objectives of this study were to estimate residual genetic variances, predict future gains from selection, and investigate inter-trait relationships in the population under drought-stress, low N and across research environments. North Carolina Design I was used to develop 250 full-sib progenies from the improved population, which were evaluated in three drought-stress and two low N environments in Nigeria, 2011 to 2013. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0177
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Nicholas George, Joy Hollingsworth, Wan-Ru Yang and Stephen Kaffka
      Canola and Camelina as New Crop Options for Cool-Season Production in California

      Annual crop production in California is mostly dominated by warm-season species that require irrigation. Irrigation has been restricted due to drought and policy and may become more uncertain due to climate change. To adapt to these changes, more cool-season crop options that require less water than summer annuals are needed. Wheat is the most common cool-season crop, and in other parts of the world canola (Brassica napus L.), and other Brassica oilseed species have diversified and improved the productivity and profitability of cereal-based agricultural systems. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0208
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Orlando Noldin, Pedro Revilla and Bernardo Ordás
      Genetic Analysis of the Floury Race of Maize Avati Morotî

      Floury maize (Zea mays L.) is widely used across America as a staple food. A single racial complex of floury maize predominates in South America. One of the most representative races of this complex is Avati Morotî, which is used by the Guarani people as a basic food supply; however, the richness of this race has not been capitalized upon in advanced breeding programs. As a first step to profit from the potential of this race for breeding programs, we performed a genetic analysis of a core collection of the Avati Morotî race from Paraguay. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0153
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Matthias Rapp, Heinrich Beck, Hermann Gütler, Wendelin Heilig, Norbert Starck, Peter Römer, Catherine Cuendet, Friedrich Uhlig, Hannes Kurz, Tobias Würschum and C. Friedrich H. Longin
      Spelt: Agronomy, Quality, and Flavor of Its Breads from 30 Varieties Tested across Multiple Environments

      Spelt (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. spelta) is an old hulled wheat currently receiving renewed interest of consumers, bakers, millers, and farmers. Our objectives were (i) to assess the genetic variability and heritability of agronomic and quality traits together with the flavor and odor of breads, (ii) to investigate correlations among these traits, and (iii) to draw conclusions for spelt breeding targeting improved yield, quality, and flavor of end products. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0331
      Published: January 12, 2017



    • Leonardo A. Crespo-Herrera, Jose Crossa, Julio Huerta-Espino, Enrique Autrique, Suchismita Mondal, Govindan Velu, Mateo Vargas, Hans J. Braun and Ravi P. Singh
      Genetic Yield Gains In CIMMYT’s International Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trials By Modeling The Genotype × Environment Interaction

      We calculated the annual genetic gains for grain yield (GY) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) achieved over 8 yr of international Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trials (ESWYT), from 2006–2007 (27th ESWYT) to 2014–2015 (34th ESWYT). In total, 426 locations were classified within three main megaenvironments (MEs): ME1 (optimally irrigated environments), ME4 (drought-stressed environments), and ME5 (heat-stressed environments). By fitting a factor analytical structure for modeling the genotype × environment (G × E) interaction, we measured GY gains relative to the widely grown cultivar Attila (GYA) and to the local checks (GYLC). Genetic gains for GYA and GYLC across locations were 1.67 and 0.53% (90.1 and 28.7 kg ha1 yr1), respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0553
      Published: January 12, 2017



    • Paul A. Johnston, Catherine Munro, Ruth C. Butler, Janelle Browne, Andrea Gibbs and Steve Shorter
      The Future of Lr34 in Modern, High-Input Wheat Breeding Programs

      Lr34 is an important adult plant resistance gene that is effective against a number of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) diseases and has proved durable for over 100 yr. However, the energy requirements of Lr34 resistance, combined with the pleiotrophic effect of leaf tip necrosis, can result in reduced yield potential. To evaluate the absence of Lr34 from elite breeding material, a cross was made between similar-yielding, milling wheat cultivars ‘Conquest’ (Lr34sus) and ‘Bakker Gold’ (Lr34res). Independent lines were carried forward and, at the F4 stage, sister pairs were selected for the different homozygous alleles of the marker csLV34, corresponding to Lr34res or Lr34sus. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0158
      Published: January 5, 2017



    • Penghao Wu, Jiaojiao Ren, Xiaolong Tian, Thomas Lübberstedt, Wei Li, Guoliang Li, Xingli Li and Shaojiang Chen
      New Insights into the Genetics of Haploid Male Fertility in Maize

      Doubled haploid (DH) lines have become widely used in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding. Haploid genome doubling is an important step in developing DH lines. The low rate of spontaneous genome doubling, which causes low haploid male fertility (HMF), seriously limits the largescale application of DH breeding without colchicine treatment. Our objective was to gain new insights into the genetics controlling HMF to improve the rate of HMF in DH breeding procedures. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.01.0017
      Published: January 3, 2017



    • Sandra Dunckel, Jose Crossa, Shuangye Wu, David Bonnett and Jesse Poland
      Genomic Selection for Increased Yield in Synthetic-Derived Wheat

      The loss of genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to bottlenecks from polyploidy, domestication, and modern plant breeding can be compensated by introgressing exotic germplasm. A successful approach to capture genetic diversity is the production of primary synthetic bread wheats, which are contemporary reconstitutions of the ancestral genomes of wheat from diverse wild relatives. However, this diverse germplasm has many undesirable characters, making direct use in breeding programs difficult. To increase the speed of introgression of exotic germplasm, genomic selection approaches could be applied to enable rapid cycles of selection. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0209
      Published: January 3, 2017



    • Jared Crain, Matthew Reynolds and Jesse Poland
      Utilizing High-Throughput Phenotypic Data for Improved Phenotypic Selection of Stress-Adaptive Traits in Wheat

      Efficient phenotyping methods are key to increasing genetic gain and precisely mapping genetic variation. Recent phenotyping developments have resulted in high-throughput phenotyping platforms that utilize proximal sensing to simultaneously measure multiple physiological traits. However, there has been limited exploration of this high-resolution, multiple phenotypic data. To address this, two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) biparental populations were grown for 3 yr under two different treatments, drought and heat stress, at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0135
      Published: January 3, 2017



    • Aina Kokare, Linda Legzdina, Chris Maliepaard, Rients E. Niks and Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren
      Comparison of Selection Efficiency for Spring Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) under Organic and Conventional Farming Conditions

      The main objective of this research was to analyze whether selection under conventional conditions (indirect selection) is as effective as selection under organic conditions (direct selection) to develop varieties suitable for organic farming systems. Two F3 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) populations ‘Primus’/‘Idumeja’ (P/I) and ‘Anni’/‘Dziugiai’ (A/Dz) targeted for organic variety development were selected in two organically and two conventionally managed environments during F3 to F3:6. From there, the performance of the five best F3:6 lines selected in each of the four environments from each cross (in total, 40 lines) were compared at all four sites during two years. For obtaining varieties adapted to organic conditions for the P/I cross, it did not matter at which condition the selection was performed. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.11.0691
      Published: January 3, 2017



    • Craig T. Beil, Harish K. Manmathan, Victoria A. Anderson, Alexey Morgounov and Scott D. Haley
      Population Structure and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Germplasm from the Winter Wheat Eastern European Regional Yield Trial (WWEERYT)

      Characterization of population structure and genetic relatedness within wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm collections is critical for genomewide association studies (GWAS) and training population development for genomic selection (GS). Cooperative regional or international nurseries are well suited for GWAS and GS studies due to the availability of multi-environment datasets that are often produced. In this study, we analyzed population structure and genetic diversity of 283 genotypes from 7 yr of the Winter Wheat Eastern European Regional Yield Trial (WWEERYT). The collection was genotyped with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained via genotyping-by-sequencing; a subset of 548 highly polymorphic SNPs was used for all analyses. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0639
      Published: January 3, 2017



    • Phillip N. Miklas, Deidré Fourie, Bernardo Chaves and Constance Chirembe
      Common Bacterial Blight Resistance QTL BC420 and SU91 Effect on Seed Yield, Seed Weight, and Canning Quality in Dry Bean

      Common bacterial blight (CBB) disease limits dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. Resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) have been used to develop dry bean lines with high levels of CBB resistance. This study examines the effects that two QTL from tepary bean BC420 (B) on chromosome Pv06 and SU91 (S) on Pv08 have on agronomic (seed yield and seed weight) and canning quality traits (water uptake, percentage washed drained weight [PWDWT], texture, and visual appearance). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0557
      Published: January 3, 2017



  • CROP BREEDING & GENETICS—NOTE

    • Thomas Stefaniak and Kevin McPhee
      Comparison of Hybridization Techniques in Chickpea

      Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flowers are difficult to hybridize. Optimizing hybridization techniques would improve breeding progress and enhance cultivar development efforts. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate four combinations of pollination methods in chickpea to give breeders insight into the usefulness of emasculating and/or hormone application to female flowers. The failure or successful generation of confirmed viable hybrids was the only response variable considered. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0253
      Published: January 3, 2017



  • CROP BREEDING AND GENETICS

    • Genqiao Li, Xiangyang Xu, Guihua Bai, Brett F. Carver, Robert Hunger and J. Michael Bonman
      Novel Sources of Leaf Rust Resistance in Winter Wheat

      Leaf rust is one of the most widespread diseases of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.), causing significant yield losses. More than 70 leaf rust resistance genes have been identified, but most of them have lost their effectiveness in the southern Great Plains of the United States. The objectives of this study were to evaluate leaf rust resistance of newly released wheat breeding lines and to identify novel resistance sources from a worldwide collection of landraces and historical cultivars. Results showed that only 4 out of 183 cultivars and breeding lines recently developed in the United States were highly resistant in the seedling stage to Pt2013, a bulk of Puccinia triticina Eriks. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0725
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • CROP ECOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

    • Spyridon Mourtzinis, David Marburger, John Gaska, Thierno Diallo, Joe G. Lauer and Shawn Conley
      Corn, Soybean, and Wheat Yield Response to Crop Rotation, Nitrogen Rates, and Foliar Fungicide Application

      Crop rotations involving corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are well-known production systems across the Midwestern United States, but the addition of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the rotation has received less attention. Additionally, the interactive effect of crop rotation with nitrogen (N) fertilizer and foliar fungicide application on yields for these three crops is not yet well understood. Data were collected in Wisconsin from a long-term crop rotation experiment during 2013 to 2015 to measure corn (grain and silage), soybean, and wheat yield response to crop rotation frequency (seven rotations involving corn, soybean, and wheat), six levels of N, and foliar fungicide use. During the 3 yr of the experiment, minimal interactive effects were detected, which suggested that the examined management decisions can remain separate for growers in Wisconsin. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.10.0876
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Martin Burger, Matthew R. Dumlao, Juan Wang, Barzin A. Moradi, William R. Horwath and Wendy K. Silk
      Cover Crop Development Related to Nitrate Uptake and Cumulative Temperature

      Cover crops have been shown to deplete soil nitrate and reduce nitrate leaching in Mediterranean climates. Cover crop canopy development, N uptake, and root system development were studied during three rainy seasons in Yolo silt loam and Rincon silty clay loam soils, with two cover crops with contrasting root systems and N acquisition strategies: triticale (× Triticosecale), a monocot wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–rye (Secale cereale L.) hybrid with a fibrous root system, and bell bean (Vicia faba L.), a taprooted legume that fixes N. Weed growth was substantial in bell bean plots. Triticale consistently developed a uniform stand and produced a deeper and denser root system with a faster root penetration rate than the bell bean–weed mixture. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0741
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Andrea K. Clemensen, Fredrick D. Provenza, Stephen T. Lee, Dale R. Gardner, George E. Rottinghaus and Juan J. Villalba
      Plant Secondary Metabolites in Alfalfa, Birdsfoot Trefoil, Reed Canarygrass, and Tall Fescue Unaffected by Two Different Nitrogen Sources

      Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) may increase the sustainability of agriculture systems by reducing inputs, as PSM protect plants against herbivores and pathogens, act as pesticides, insecticides, and anthelmintics while also attracting pollinators and seed dispersers. Therefore, it is important to understand what affects PSM fluctuation in plant tissues. Limited research has investigated how different nitrogen (N) sources affect PSM concentration in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Alf), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., BFT), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L., RCG), and endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., E+TF). We investigated how fecal manure (feces) and synthetic N fertilizer (urea, 46% H2NCONH2) influence N concentrations and the PSM ergovaline, gramine, saponins, and extractable condensed tannins (CT) in E+TF, RCG, Alf, and BFT, respectively. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0680
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Madhav Bhatta, Kent M. Eskridge, Devin J. Rose, Dipak K. Santra, P. Stephen Baenziger and Teshome Regassa
      Seeding Rate, Genotype, and Topdressed Nitrogen Effects on Yield and Agronomic Characteristics of Winter Wheat

      Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield produced in Nebraska is often inconsistent, mainly due to environmental variability. Managing production practices could partially mitigate this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of seeding rate (0.5, 1, and 2 times of the normal seeding rate), genotype (6), and topdressed nitrogen (0 and 34 kg N ha−1 at the flag leaf stage) on the yield and agronomic characteristics of winter wheat. Experiments were conducted under rainfed conditions at the Agronomy Research Farm (ARF; Lincoln, NE) and the High Plains Agricultural Laboratory (HPAL; Sidney, NE) in 2014 and 2015. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0103
      Published: January 3, 2017



  • CROP PHYSILOGY & METABOLISM

    • L. Reale, A. Rosati, E. Tedeschini, V. Ferri, M. Cerri, S. Ghitarrini, V. Timorato, B. E. Ayano, O. Porfiri, G. Frenguelli, F. Ferranti and P. Benincasa
      Ovary Size in Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is Related to Cell Number

      In wheat and other grain species, variations in kernel size are related to variations in ovary size. It is not known whether environmental factors that are known to affect kernel size may also affect ovary size, thus maintaining the kernel size-ovary size correlation. Additionally, it is not known whether variations in ovary size in wheat depend on cell size, cell number or both. In this study, ovary size was measured with a stereomicroscope, and ovary wall cell size and number were measured in equatorial cross-sectional areas of the ovary wall in two common wheat cultivars with different kernel size: Bora (large kernels) and Bologna (small kernels). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0511
      Published: February 2, 2017



  • CROP PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM

    • Daniel J. Robertson, Margaret Julias, Shien Yang Lee and Douglas D. Cook
      Maize Stalk Lodging: Morphological Determinants of Stalk Strength

      An incomplete understanding of stalk strength and stalk lodging impedes efforts to improve maize (Zea mays L.) production. To develop a more complete understanding of stalk strength, the current study examined the effect of stalk morphology on stalk bending strength. A detailed geometric analysis was conducted on five varieties of dent corn sown at five planting densities in two replicates at each of two locations near Greenville, IA, in 2013. Stalks were imaged using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, and morphological features of the stalk were quantified using customized computer code. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0569
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Jin Kakiuchi and Tohru Kobata
      A Quantitative Method for Analyzing Nitrogen Assimilation in Soybeans

      Seed yield in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] strongly depends on nitrogen (N) assimilation (NA). The NA in nodulated soybeans is based on two N sources, soil and N fixation. Hence, the controlling NA in soybean to increase seed yield is more difficult than in many other crops that depend on fertilizer. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between NA by plants and N applied via fertilizer (NF) to increase soybean seed production. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0373
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Giedrė Kacienė, Austra Dikšaitytė, Irena Januškaitienė, Diana Miškelytė, Jūratė Žaltauskaitė, Gintarė Sujetovienė, Sandra Sakalauskienė, Jurga Miliauskienė, Gintarė Juozapaitienė and Romualdas Juknys
      Different Crop and Weed Performance under Single and Combined Effects of Elevated CO 2 and Temperature

      The factors of global climate change specifically affect crop and weed performance. Peas (Pisum sativum L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) were exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) (1400 or 700 vs. 400 μmol mol−1) and air temperature (25/18 vs. 21/14°C, day/night) to study the single and combined effects on plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and carbohydrate metabolism. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0598
      Published: January 31, 2017



  • CROP PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM—NOTE

    • Kevin A. Hobbie, Nathan Rooney, Richard P. Scott and Kim A. Anderson
      An Alternative Method to Produce Shikimic Acid Chemical Feedstock by Applying Glyphosate to Forage Crops

      Shikimic acid is the critical precursor to manufacture the antiviral drug Oseltamivir phosphate, also known as Tamiflu. Current sources of shikimic acid feedstock have been strained during pandemic influenza outbreaks. This article proposes an alternative process to produce shikimic acid feedstock through the bioenhancement of graminoid crops using glyphosate. To demonstrate, a Gulf cultivar of Italian annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in controlled greenhouse conditions and Yamhill winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in a field trial. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.11.0921
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • CROP WILD RELATIVES SPECIAL SECTION

    • Gerald J. Seiler, Lili L. Qi and Laura F. Marek
      Utilization of Sunflower Crop Wild Relatives for Cultivated Sunflower Improvement

      Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the United States. The current USDA–ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2519 accessions comprising 53 species—39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank collections, however, researchers need more detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within the collection. The wild species are adapted to a wide range of habitats and possess considerable variability for most biotic and abiotic traits. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.10.0856
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Wei Zhang, Yaping Cao, Mingyi Zhang, Xianwen Zhu, Shuangfeng Ren, Yuming Long, Yadav Gyawali, Shiaoman Chao, Steven Xu and Xiwen Cai
      Meiotic Homoeologous Recombination-Based Alien Gene Introgression in the Genomics Era of Wheat

      Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect homoeologous recombination. This has limited the progress of alien gene introgression in wheat improvement. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0819
      Published: January 31, 2017



  • EUROPEAN TURFGRASS SOCIETY CONFERENCE

    • James W. Hempfling, Charles J. Schmid, Ruying Wang, Bruce B. Clarke and James A. Murphy
      Best Management Practices Effects on Anthracnose Disease of Annual Bluegrass

      Increased N fertilization, mowing height, and sand topdressing are management practices that can suppress anthracnose disease of annual bluegrass [Poa annua L. f. reptans (Hausskn) T. Koyama; ABG] caused by Colletotrichum cereale Manns. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0492
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Glen R. Obear, William C. Kreuser, Ken Hubbard, Brad DeBels and Douglas J. Soldat
      Plant Colorants Interfere with Reflectance-Based Vegetation Indices

      Reflectance-based vegetation indices are commonly used to quantify turfgrass color, estimate chlorophyll content, and make inferences about plant health. These methods are often substituted for visual color ratings, as they are well correlated but more objective. This study examines the utility of reflectance-based vegetation indices for evaluating turfgrass treated with iron or plant colorants. In a study in Madison, WI, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) was treated with ammonium sulfate (2.4 or 9.8 kg nitrogen [N] ha−1), Turf Screen (untreated or 4.0 L ha−1), or ferrous sulfate (untreated or 12.2 kg Fe ha−1). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0440
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Erik. H. Ervin, Nathaniel Reams, Xunzhong Zhang, Adam Boyd and Shawn Askew
      An Integrated Nutritional and Chemical Approach to Poa Annua Suppression in Creeping Bentgrass Greens

      Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) provides an ideal putting surface for golf courses located in temperate climates but is invaded by annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) and silvery-thread moss (Bryum argenteum Hedw.). There are no currently registered herbicides for annual bluegrass control in bentgrass greens. Paclobutrazol and FeSO4 will suppress one or both of these pests, but research on the effectiveness of the two together has not been reported. Our objectives were to determine the effects of repeated high rates of FeSO4 and paclobutrazol on transitioning annual bluegrass out of a creeping bentgrass green and determine if seaweed extract (SWE) aids the transition. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0308
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Mert Çakir, Songul Sever Mutlu and Haris Djapo
      Gamma-Ray Irradiation Improves Turfgrass Characteristics of St. Augustinegrass

      St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is a warm-season turfgrass with medium to high shade tolerance, a valuable trait for use in lawns, particularly in smaller residential landscapes and other green spaces where trees are dominant. However, their long internodes and very coarse leaf and stolon texture are undesirable in home lawns and public spaces. Gamma (γ) irradiation has been used to induce useful variations for various morphological traits in turfgrass breeding. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0414
      Published: December 22, 2016



    • David S. McCall, Erik H. Ervin, Camden D. Shelton, Nathaniel Reams and Shawn D. Askew
      Influence of Ferrous Sulfate and Its Elemental Components on Dollar Spot Suppression

      Dollar spot (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett) is a common disease of Agrostis stolonifera L. and is especially devastating on putting greens. Sequential fungicide applications are often required throughout the growing season for adequate control. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0383
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries and Khalied A. Ahmed
      Irrigation and Soil Surfactants Affect Abamectin Distribution in Soil

      Nematodes are microscopic, soil-dwelling organisms that adversely affect many turfgrass systems, including golf course putting greens. Abamectin controls many nematode species in golf course putting greens; however, high sorption to accumulated organic matter near the soil surface in established turfgrass systems may limit its distribution in soil, thereby limiting its efficacy. Field research was conducted on ‘A1/A4’ creeping bentgrass and ‘Champion’ ultradwarf bermudagrass putting greens to evaluate abamectin distribution in soil following treatment regimens including abamectin application (37 g a.i. ha–1) alone, or tank-mixed with soil surfactant (Revolution) in tandem with various irrigation timings to promote downward distribution. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0320
      Published: November 1, 2016



    • Sara Calvache, Tatsiana Espevig, Tina E. Andersen, Erik J. Joner, Agnar Kvalbein, Trond Pettersen and Trygve S. Aamlid
      Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Mowing Height, and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Effects on Red Fescue and Mixed Fescue–Bentgrass Putting Greens

      Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0240
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Trygve S. Aamlid, Tatsiana Espevig and Arne Tronsmo
      Microbiological Products for Control of Microdochium nivale on Golf Greens

      Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0301
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Chenxi Zhang, Garland D. Pinnix, Zheng Zhang, Grady L. Miller and Thomas W. Rufty
      Evaluation of Key Methodology for Digital Image Analysis of Turfgrass Color Using Open-Source Software

      Digital image analysis is a frequently used research technique to provide an objective measure of turfgrass color, in addition to the traditional visual rating. A commonly used method relies on commercial software package SigmaScan Pro to quantify mean hue angle, saturation, and brightness values from turf images, and to calculate a dark green color index as the measure of color. To enable turf image analysis to function on an open-source platform, a method was developed within ImageJ to batch process turf images for color parameters. This Java-based ImageJ plugin quantifies hue angle, saturation, and brightness values and calculates a dark green color index. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0285
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • FORAGE & GRAZINGLANDS

    • Michael D. Caslera and Hans-Joachim G. Jung
      Lignin and Etherified Ferulates Affect Digestibility and Structural Composition of Three Temperate Perennial Grasses

      Breeding grasses for increased digestibility increases their value and profitability in ruminant livestock production systems. Digestibility can be improved in grasses by either increasing the concentration of soluble and readily fermentable carbohydrates or by altering the plant cell wall to create faster and more ready access to carbohydrates by rumen microbes. Two mechanisms to accomplish the latter are to decrease lignin concentration or to decrease the frequency of lignin-ferulate covalent bonds. The purpose of this study was to quantify the relative impact of these two mechanisms on in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility for three forage grasses: orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0311
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • José C.B. Dubeux, Ann R.S. Blount, Cheryl Mackowiak, Erick R.S. Santos, José D. Pereira Neto, Ulises Riveros, Liza Garcia, David M. Jaramillo and Martin Ruiz-Moreno
      Biological N 2 Fixation, Belowground Responses, and Forage Potential of Rhizoma Peanut Cultivars

      Grasslands in warm-climate regions are often based on grass monocultures, increasing their dependence on N fertilizers. Integrating perennial legumes into grass pastures is a logical option. The objective of this 2-yr study was to assess seven rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) cultivars: Arbrook, Arblick, Ecoturf, Florigraze, Latitude 34, UF Peace, and UF Tito. Above- and belowground responses included biomass, in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD), N concentration, N content, δ15N, proportion of N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), and biological N2 fixation (BNF). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0810
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Justin Rogers, Liliana Florez-Palacios, Pengyin Chen, Moldir Orazaly, Luciano M. Jaureguy, Ailan Zeng and Chengjun Wu
      Evaluation of Diverse Soybean Germplasm for Forage Yield and Quality Attributes

      Information on biomass yield and forage nutritive value of grain- and forage-type soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars is of interest to livestock and row-crop farmers. We studied grain and forage genotypes for biomass, forage nutritive value, and seed yield across two Arkansas locations over 2 yr. Results revealed that stem and total biomass at the R1 (beginning bloom) reproductive growth stage were significantly greater in forage genotypes than in grain genotypes. Forage genotypes had a greater amount of stem biomass (208.7 and 484.0 g m−2) at both R1 and R6 stages and leaf biomass (246.2 g m−2) at R1 than grain genotypes (140.4, 309.2, and 243.8 g m−2, respectively). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0574
      Published: January 3, 2017



  • GENOMICS, MOLECULAR GENETICS & BIOTECHNOLOGY

    • Nikhil Y. Patil, Robert R. Klein, Crescenda L. Williams, S. Delroy Collins, Joseph E. Knoll, A. Millie Burrell, William F. Anderson, William L. Rooney and Patricia E. Klein
      Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Anthracnose Resistance in Sorghum

      Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is highly susceptible to the fungal disease anthracnose, which is a major biotic constraint to forage and grain production. With an aim to develop durable resistance to anthracnose, , two unique genetic sources of resistance in sorghum were selected to create genetic mapping populations and identify genomic regions that control anthracnose resistance. A series of quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that conferred variable levels of resistance, three of which controlled stable resistance across all environments, while two QTL were environment specific. A major anthracnose-resistance QTL on chromosome 9 of the SC155-14E genome was observed in all environments and controlled from 19 to 62% of the phenotypic variance. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0793
      Published: February 16, 2017



  • INTERNATIONAL TURFGRASS SOCIETY CONFERENCE

    • Yuanwen Guo, Yanqi Wu, Justin Q. Moss, Jeffrey A. Anderson and Lan Zhu
      Genetic Variability for Adaptive, Morphological, and Reproductive Traits in Selected Cold-Hardy Germplasm of Common Bermudagrass

      Common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] has been widely used as a major warm-season turf and forage grass in the southern United States and in other regions with similar climates around the world. However, it will suffer severe winterkill when grown beyond its region of adaptation. Cold-hardy bermudagrass germplasm have been developed, but its genetic variation for important turfgrass traits remains unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify genetic variability and determine relationships among adaptive, morphological, and reproductive traits in selected cold-hardy common bermudagrass germplasm, including 48 clonal plants from ‘Riviera’ and 50 clonal plants from ‘Yukon’. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0369
      Published: February 23, 2017



    • Elisha Allan-Perkins, Katie Campbell-Nelson, James T. Popko, Hyunkyu Sang and Geunhwa Jung
      Investigating Selection of Demethylation Inhibitor Fungicide-Insensitive Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Isolates by Boscalid, Flurprimidol, and Paclobutrazol

      Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett, is the most economically important disease of golf course turfgrass in the northern United States. Fungicide resistance, especially to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides, is common for S. homoeocarpa. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0467
      Published: February 16, 2017



    • Kelly A. Moore, M. Carolina Zuleta, Aaron J. Patton, Brian M. Schwartz, Goretti Aranaz and Susana R. Milla-Lewis
      SSR Allelic Diversity Shifts in Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) Cultivars Released from 1910 to 2016

      Selection during varietal improvement has been shown to reduce genetic diversity in several different crop species. A reduction in genetic diversity can be detrimental to future breeding efforts and increase susceptibility to biotic stresses. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in levels of allelic diversity at the gene and population levels in 40 zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp. Willd.) cultivars released between 1910 and 2016 using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0452
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Jing Zhang, Kevin Kenworthy, J. Bryan Unruh, Bishow Poudel, John E. Erickson, Diane Rowland and Jason Kruse
      Physiological Responses to Soil Drying by Warm-Season Turfgrass Species

      A study describing the overall physiological responses to drought and exploring the underlying mechanisms in multiple turfgrass species and genotypes is needed to make improvements in breeding for turfgrass species that are tolerant to water-limiting conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the differential canopy and physiological responses of 14 genotypes of warm-season turfgrasses during a controlled water withdrawal experiment in a greenhouse. Fourteen genotypes from St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntz], Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), manillagrass [Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.], and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] were planted in acrylic tubes. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0316
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • D. S. McCall, X. Zhang, D. G. Sullivan, S. D. Askew and E. H. Ervin
      Enhanced Soil Moisture Assessment using Narrowband Reflectance Vegetation Indices in Creeping Bentgrass

      Turfgrasses are measured aesthetically and by their ability to withstand stressors. Historically, researchers quantified acceptability by visual quality, but inconsistencies necessitate the use of vegetation indices (VIs) as an objective measurement. Indiscernible relationships have been established between turfgrass canopy normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and important variables such as soil moisture and leaf chlorophyll content. Alternative and variable–specific indices have been established in cropping systems. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0471
      Published: February 2, 2017



    • Susana R. Milla-Lewis, Katharine M. Youngs, Consuelo Arrellano and Yasmin J. Cardoza
      Tolerance in St. Augustinegrass Germplasm against Blissus insularis Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

      StAugustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is a widely used lawn grass in the southern United States due to its stoloniferous growth habit and shade tolerance. However, St. Augustinegrass is prone to thatch accumulation, which is conducive to pest problems, with the southern chinch bug (Blissus insularis Barber, SCB) being the most economically important one. Previous work to identify additional sources of SCB resistance reported genotypes with comparatively high numbers of recovered insects but low damage ratings. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0361
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Ambika Chandra, Susana Milla-Lewis and Qingyi Yu
      An Overview of Molecular Advances in Zoysiagrass

      Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp. Willd.) is a perennial warm-season grass adapted to the tropical and southern temperate regions of the world. Species of Zoysia and their interspecific hybrids are recognized for their low cultural requirements and tolerance to a wide array of biotic and abiotic stresses, and are widely used as turfgrass on golf courses, athletic fields, home lawns, and other recreational sites. Plant breeders predominantly use conventional breeding methods involving hybridization and phenotypic selection to make genetic improvements in zoysiagrass. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0822
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Michael C. Cox, Sandeep S. Rana, John R. Brewer and Shawn D. Askew
      Goosegrass and Bermudagrass Response to Rates and Tank Mixtures of Topramezone and Triclopyr

      Postemergence herbicide options for mature goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] control in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. Rich.) turf are lacking. Greenhouse and field trials were conducted to determine the lowest rate at which topramezone, with or without triclopyr, controls goosegrass while maintaining acceptable bermudagrass quality. Greenhouse dose–response studies determined herbicide rates for field trials. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0439
      Published: January 31, 2017



    • Xunzhong Zhang, Erik H. Ervin, Wenli Wu, Naina Sharma and Alyssa Hamill
      Auxin and Trinexapac-Ethyl Impact on Root Viability and Hormone Metabolism in Creeping Bentgrass under Water Deficit

      Plant growth regulators have been used to improve turfgrass quality and drought tolerance. This study was designed to investigate if foliar application of auxin (indole-3-butyric acid [IBA] at 2 μM) and trinexapac-ethyl (TE, 45 g ha−1), alone or in a combination, improves creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) root growth and hormone metabolism under water-deficit conditions. The plants were subjected to well-watered or water-deficit stress (40–50% evapotranspiration replacement) conditions for up to 42 d in growth chambers. Water deficit reduced turf quality and net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) content, and root viability. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0434
      Published: January 5, 2017



    • John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski and Timothy T. Lulis
      Effect of Phosphite Rate and Source on Cyanobacteria Colonization of Putting Green Turf

      Cyanobacteria compete with putting green turf, resulting in algal surface crusts that can reduce turf density and quality. The objectives of this study were to assess preventive control of surface cyanobacteria colonization of putting green turf with various phosphite salt sources and formulations. An optimal rate of phosphorous acid to suppress cyanobacteria while minimizing phytotoxicity was also examined. Two field studies were conducted concurrently on an ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting green in Storrs, CT, during 2010 and 2011. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0469
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner
      Effects of Blue Light and Phenotype on Anthocyanin Accumulation in Accessions and Cultivars of Rough Bluegrass

      Anthocyanins are increasingly being used as natural alternatives in medicinal, food, and industrial products. However, production of anthocyanin extract is often inefficient due to agronomic limitations. On the other hand, the use of turfgrasses for anthocyanin production has been suggested to increase yield twofold. Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) cultivar ‘Havana’ has been shown to increase anthocyanin content by 117-fold under high light treatment, exhibiting concentrations similar to current anthocyanin sources, and could be an alternative source of anthocyanin. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0438
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Nikolaos Ntoulas and Panayiotis A. Nektarios
      Paspalum vaginatum NDVI when Grown on Shallow Green Roof Systems and under Moisture Deficit Conditions

      Management of conventional crops must adapt to the particularities of urban greening techniques, such as green roofing. The aim of the study was to determine seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz ‘Platinum TE’) response when grown in shallow green roof substrates and under moisture deficit conditions during two summer periods. Treatments included: (i) six different green roof substrates formulated from locally available materials by mixing combinations of sandy loam soil, pumice, perlite, clinoptilolite zeolite, peat, and compost; (ii) two substrate depths (7.5 or 15 cm); and (iii) two irrigation regimes (60 or 100% crop evapotranspiration). Measurements included the determination of substrate moisture content (SMC) and turfgrass normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0381
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Qing Mao and David R. Huff
      Characterizing Small RNA Profiles in Allotetraploid Poa annua L. and its Diploid Parents

      A role for small RNAs has been implicated for polyploid evolution. This study was designed to examine the small RNA profiles of Poa annua L. and its diploid parental species. Four profiles, Poa infirma Kunth., Poa supina Schrad., perennial-type Poa annua, and annual-type Poa annua, were analyzed using three biological replicates representing each profile, resulting in a total of 12 libraries, totaling 20,920,659 small (18–30 nucleotide) RNA sequences. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0462
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • J. Poro, J. S. Ebdon, M. DaCosta and P. W. Brown
      Effects of Mowing Height of Cut and Nitrogen on FAO-56 PM Crop Coefficients for Recreational Turf in the Cool-Humid Region

      Irrigating recreational turf requires ET (evapotranspiration) replacement for water conservation and to sustain optimal leaf growth and turf function under traffic stress. Lysimeter measured actual ET (ETa) can be estimated using a reference crop ET (ETo) from meteorological data adjusted using a crop coefficient (Kc, ETa/ETo) to correct for cultural affects on ETa. Previous studies have not fully investigated the effects of turf culture on Kc. The objective of this research was to develop reliable Kc when ETo is computed using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation, with Kc adjusted according to the effects on ETa of two mowing heights of cut (HOC), two N rates, and three species. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0363
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Lisa A. Beirn, James W. Hempfling, Charles J. Schmid, James A. Murphy, Bruce B. Clarke and Jo Anne Crouch
      Differences among Soil-Inhabiting Microbial Communities in Poa annua Turf throughout the Growing Season

      There is increasing interest in understanding plant-associated microbial communities and their impact on plant health. However, research has been limited to major agronomic systems and little is known about the resident microorganisms in economically important specialty crops, such as turfgrass. In this study, we generated a community-wide inventory of the archaea and bacteria that inhabit the soil of Poa annua L. putting green turf at five time points over a 1-yr period. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0463
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Francisco J. Flores, Stephen M. Marek, Gabriela Orquera and Nathan R. Walker
      Molecular Identification and Multilocus Phylogeny of Ophiosphaerella Species Associated with Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass

      Spring dead spot (SDS) is a devastating disease of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], a widely used turfgrass in the transition zone of the United States. The fungi causing SDS have been identified as belonging to three species of the genus Ophiosphaerella based on cultural characters and the morphology of seldom encountered pseudothecial stages. The three species [O. herpotricha (Fr.) Walker, O. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0437
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Chunzhen Zhang, Shui-zhang Fei, Peng Liu, Tieming Ji, Jiqing Peng, Ursula Frei and David J. Hannapel
      Transcriptome Changes in Response to Cold Acclimation in Perennial Ryegrass as Revealed by a Cross-Species Microarray Analysis

      Freezing tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) can be dramatically increased by a period of cold acclimation. To understand the mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in L. perenne, a cross-species microarray study was conducted by using total RNA from cold-acclimated and nonacclimated L. perenne to hybridize with Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChips from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0252
      Published: November 1, 2016



    • Shane Griffith, Nicholas Bero, John Stier, Glen Obear, Sabrina Ruis and Douglas Soldat
      Biosolids as an Alternative Fertilizer for Kentucky Bluegrass Sod Production in Wisconsin

      Land application of biosolids holds the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for synthetic fertilizer applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic impacts of using biosolids to produce Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod on a silt loam soil in Wisconsin. Anaerobically digested biosolids cake and biosolids cake mixed with sand and sawdust in a 2:1:1 ratio by volume (MetroMixTM) were produced by and obtained from the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District. Each material was applied at three rates based on their estimated supply of plant-available nitrogen (PAN). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0367
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • David Jespersen and Bingru Huang
      Effects of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Daconil Action (Acibenzolar- S -Methyl and Chlorothalonil) on Heat and Drought Tolerance of Creeping Bentgrass

      The plant growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is known for its effects of suppressing shoot vertical growth. Some fungicides are claimed to promote the physiological health of plants in the absence of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether acibenzolar-S-methyl (one of the active ingredients in Daconil Action), TE alone, or the combination of the two may be most effective in promoting creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) tolerance to heat and drought stress under field conditions. Daconil Action and TE were foliar applied alone or in combination to creeping bentgrass managed under fairway conditions at Rutgers University in 2014 and 2015. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0377
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Clint M. Mattox, Alec R. Kowalewski, Brian W. McDonald, John G. Lambrinos, Brian L. Daviscourt and Jay W. Pscheidt
      Nitrogen and Iron Sulfate Affect Microdochium Patch Severity and Turf Quality on Annual Bluegrass Putting Greens

      Microdochium patch is an important turfgrass disease in cool-humid regions and is caused by the pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett. Control of the pathogen is necessary to provide acceptable putting-green-quality turf, and fungicide applications are the predominant method of control. Increasing pesticide restrictions have generated interest in alternative management techniques of Microdochium patch. This research evaluated the effects of three nitrogen and five iron sulfate rates on Microdochium patch development on a trafficked, sand-based, annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting green in Corvallis, OR for over 2 yr in the absence of fungicides. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0123
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Jialin Yu, Patrick E. McCullough and Mark A. Czarnota
      Selectivity and Fate of Monosodium Methylarsenate in Bermudagrass, Centipedegrass, and Seashore Paspalum

      Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) can be weedy species with other turfgrasses. Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) selectively controls these grasses in polyculture with tolerant species such as bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], but the mechanisms of selectivity are not well understood. The objectives of this research were to investigate the efficacy and behavior of MSMA in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and seashore paspalum. In greenhouse experiments, the hierarchical rank of injury ranges for species from high to low was centipedegrass > seashore paspalum > bermudagrass. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0291
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Dehu Xiang, Zhimin Yao, Yanhua Liu, Xiaolei Gai, Yongmei Du, Zhongfeng Zhang, Ning Yan, Aihua Wang and Qiujuan Fu
      Analysis on Solanesol Content and Genetic Diversity of Chinese Flue-Cured Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.)

      Solanesol is an important pharmaceutical intermediate that also affects the quality of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves. To explore novel applications of tobacco leaves and to broaden the genetic basis of flue-cured tobacco breeding varieties, the solanesol content of 168 Chinese flue-cured tobacco germplasm resources, planted at four geographical regions of China in 2014 and 2015, was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Solanesol content and genetic diversity were analyzed using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The results indicated that solanesol content of flue-cured tobacco ranged from 0.70 to 4.13% and the mean content of samples from the northern regions (2.60%) were higher than that from the southern regions (1.67%) of China. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0568
      Published: January 31, 2017



  • PULSE SYMPOSIUM

    • Xingbo Wu, Nana Li, Junjie Hao, Jinguo Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang and Matthew W. Blair
      Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) Collections

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and a core collection from the National Genebank of China (NGC). The Chinese and global collections had 295 and 305 accessions, respectively. A total of 259 alleles were detected in the full 600 accessions, with a mean of 8.7 alleles per locus. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0271
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • TURFGRASS SCIENCE

    • Samuel J. Bauer, Brian P. Horgan, Douglas J. Soldat, Daniel T. Lloyd and David S. Gardner
      Effects of Low Temperatures on Nitrogen Uptake, Partitioning, and Use in Creeping Bentgrass Putting Greens

      Late-fall nitrogen (N) fertilization is commonly recommended for turfgrass nutrition in the Upper Midwest, although research identifying its efficiency and subsequent benefit is lacking for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficiency and agronomic benefits of late-fall N applications on creeping bentgrass putting greens. Silt loam and sand putting greens were established with ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass 7 yr prior to this study in St. Paul, MN, and Madison, WI. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0767
      Published: February 9, 2017



    • Matthew D. Jeffries, Travis W. Gannon and Fred H. Yelverton
      Zoysiagrass Sod Establishment along Guardrails: Evaluation of Cultivars, Soil Preparation Techniques, and Planting Timings

      Appropriately designed and installed guardrails are structures that enhance motorist safety; however, their inherent design requires additional vegetation management inputs to maintain safe, acceptable driving conditions. Establishing low-growing, perennial vegetation under guardrails may reduce long-term management inputs. Field research was initiated 17 Dec. 2012 and 3 Dec. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.09.0740
      Published: January 3, 2017



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