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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest crop science research. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Example: Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci., doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086.

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Current issue: Crop Sci. 55(5)


    • Hanny T. Elsadr, M.A. Susan Marles, Gina V. Caldas, Matthew W. Blair and Kirstin E. Bett
      Condensed Tannin Accumulation during Seed Coat Development in Five Common Bean Genotypes

      Condensed tannins (CT) are important determinants of the colorful seed coats characteristic of many dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market classes. These compounds are also important for plant development and human nutrition. Understanding the dynamics of CT accumulation during seed development and the genetic basis of this trait will contribute to the development of more nutritionally beneficial bean cultivars. Differences in patterns of CT accumulation were evaluated in the seed coats of five dry bean genotypes, which had contrasting final CT concentrations. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Brittany Hazard, Xiaoqin Zhang, Mahmoudreza Naemeh, M. Kristina Hamilton, Bret Rust, Helen E. Raybould, John W. Newman, Roy Martin and Jorge Dubcovsky
      Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

      Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. (continued)

      Published: October 2, 2015


    • Aaron J. Lorenz and Kevin P. Smith
      Adding Genetically Distant Individuals to Training Populations Reduces Genomic Prediction Accuracy in Barley

      One of the most important factors affecting genomic prediction accuracy appears to be training population (TP) composition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genomic relationship on genomic prediction accuracy and determine if adding increasingly unrelated individuals to a TP can reduce prediction accuracy. To accomplish this, a population of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines from the University of Minnesota (lines denoted as MN) and North Dakota State University (lines denoted as ND) breeding programs were used for model training. Predictions were validated using two independent sets of progenies derived from MN × MN crosses and ND × ND crosses. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Hallie G. Dodson-Swenson and William F. Tracy
      Endosperm Carbohydrate Composition and Kernel Characteristics of shrunken2-intermediate ( sh2-i/sh2-i Su1/Su1 ) and shrunken2-intermediate–sugary1-reference ( sh2-i/sh2-i su1-r/su1-r ) in Sweet Corn

      The Shrunken2 (Sh2) gene in maize (Zea mays L.) codes for ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Corn homozygous for the shrunken2-reference (sh2-r) allele does not produce ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, resulting in greatly reduced starch production and increased sugar in the endosperm. The shrunken2-intermediate (sh2-i) allele produces some enzyme and more starch than sh2-r. The sugary1-reference (su1-r) allele results in endosperm with large amounts of water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP), which gives sweet corn good mouth feel. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Marvellous M. Zhou and Eastonce T. Gwata
      Location Effects and Their Implications in Breeding for Sugarcane Yield and Quality in the Midlands Region in South Africa

      The genotype × environment interaction (G×E) influences the values of genetic gains attained by plant breeding programs when breeding materials are evaluated in diverse agro-ecological areas. This study was designed to evaluate a broad spectrum of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) genotypes for G×E and determine the yield and quality differences in the Midlands sugarcane production region of South Africa. Three of the testing locations consisted of a humic soil type, whereas the remainder was under sandy soils. Data collected from the plant and first and second ratoon crops in randomized complete block trials with three replications were analyzed. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Junjie Xing, Melissa H Jia, James C. Correll, Longping Yuan, Huangfeng Deng and Yulin Jia
      Confirming and Identifying New Loci for Rice Blast Disease Resistance using Magnaporthe oryzae Field Isolates in the US

      Quantitative trait loci (QTL) play important roles in controlling rice blast disease. In the present study, 10 field isolates of the races IA1, IB1, IB17, and IC1 of US rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae collected in 1996 and 2009 were used to identify blast resistance QTL with a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 227 F7 individuals derived from the cross of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Lemont and Jasmine 85. Jasmine 85 is an indica cultivar that is moderately resistant, and Lemont is a tropical japonica cultivar susceptible to rice blast in greenhouse inoculation. Disease reactions of the parents and RILs were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Shalu Jain, Norman F. Weeden, Ajay Kumar, Kishore Chittem and Kevin McPhee
      Functional Codominant Marker for Selecting the Fw Gene Conferring Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 in Pea

      Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) is a major soil-borne pathogen and the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of pea (Pisum sativum L.), resulting in significant yield losses. Resistant cultivars have become the most effective method for controlling this fungal disease. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Mohammad Barati, Mohammad Mahdi Majidi, Aghafakhr Mirlohi, Fateme Pirnajmodini and Negar Sharif-Moghaddam
      Response of Cultivated and Wild Barley Germplasm to Drought Stress at Different Developmental Stages

      Little is known about response of root-related traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare; hereafter, Hvu) and its wild relative H. vulgare L. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Norma C. Manrique-Carpintero, Joseph J. Coombs, Yuehua Cui, Richard E. Veilleux, C. Robin Buell and David Douches
      Genetic Map and QTL Analysis of Agronomic Traits in a Diploid Potato Population using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

      Genetic maps now can be constructed using thousands of genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for identification of markers closely associated with agronomic traits. A diploid mapping population for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was developed from a pseudo-testcross between a homozygous line S. tuberosum Group Phureja DM 1-3 516 R44 and a heterozygous outcrossing S. tuberosum Group Tuberosum clone, RH89-039-16. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

    • Sandra M. Dunckel, Eric L. Olson, Matthew N. Rouse, Robert L. Bowden and Jesse A. Poland
      Genetic Mapping of Race-Specific Stem Rust Resistance in the Synthetic Hexaploid W7984 × Opata M85 Mapping Population

      Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) has historically caused severe yield losses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide and has been one of the most feared diseases of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Stem rust has been controlled successfully through the use of resistant varieties. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

    • Donna K. Harris, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, James W. Buck, Daniel V. Phillips, Zenglu Li and H. Roger Boerma
      Soybean Quantitative Trait Loci Conditioning Soybean Rust-Induced Canopy Damage

      Soybean rust (SBR) is caused by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi and is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], with soybean yield losses caused by SBR reported to be as high as 80% in severely diseased fields. Studies indicate that most isolates of P. pachyrhizi overcome at least one of the known resistance genes. Therefore, alternative means of controlling SBR such as non-host-specific resistance combined with single-gene resistance could be beneficial in breeding soybean cultivars for SBR resistance. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

    • Susannah G. Cooper, Vergel Concibido, Ronald Estes, David Hunt, Guo-Liang Jiang, Christian Krupke, Brian McCornack, Rouf Mian, Matthew O’Neal, Vaino Poysa, Deirdre Prischmann-Voldseth, David Ragsdale, Nick Tinsley and Dechun Wang
      Geographic Distribution of Soybean Aphid Biotypes in the United States and Canada during 2008–2010

      Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean cultivar Dowling was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of soybean aphid in Ohio was reported to proliferate on soybeans with the Rag1 gene. The objective was to survey the occurrence of virulent aphid populations on soybean indicator lines across geographies and years. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

    • Sivakumar Sukumaran, Matthew P. Reynolds, Marta S. Lopes and José Crossa
      Genome-Wide Association Study for Adaptation to Agronomic Plant Density: A Component of High Yield Potential in Spring Wheat

      Previous research has shown that progress in genetic yield potential is associated with adaptation to agronomic planting density, though its genetic basis has not been addressed before. In the current study, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) association mapping initiative (WAMI) panel of 287 elite lines was assessed for the effects of plant density on grain yield (YLD), 1000-kernel weight (TKW), and grain number (GNO) in yield plots consisting of four evenly spaced rows. The YLD and GNO of inner (high plant density) rows compared with outer rows (low plant density) indicated a consistent pattern: genotypes that performed best under intense competition (inner rows) responded less to reduced competition (outer rows) while being generally the best performers on aggregate (inner plus outer rows). However, TKW was not affected by plant density. (continued)

      Published: October 2, 2015

    • J. A. Kolmer, E. S. Lagudah, M. Lillemo, M. Lin and G. Bai
      The Lr46 Gene Conditions Partial Adult- Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust, Stem Rust, and Powdery Mildew in Thatcher Wheat

      Disease resistance is a critical goal for many wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improvement programs. Wheat cultivars are affected by multiple diseases including the rusts and powdery mildew. The F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from ‘Thatcher’*3/‘CI13227’ that had been previously characterized as having adult-plant leaf rust resistance gene Lr46 were further tested for resistance to stripe rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew. In field plot tests, the RILs segregated for resistance to stripe rust, stem rust, and powdery mildew, with the highest logarithm of odds (LOD) peak at the sequence tagged site marker csLV46, which is closely linked to Lr46 on chromosome 1BL. (continued)

      Published: August 3, 2015


    • Emad Jahanzad, Amir Sadeghpour, Mohammad B. Hoseini, Allen V. Barker, Masoud Hashemi and Reza Keshavarz Afshar
      Competition, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Productivity of Millet–Soybean Intercropping in Semiarid Conditions

      Increased frequency of drought and shortage of irrigation water has challenged forage production in arid and semiarid regions. Farmers have shifted from corn (Zea mays L.), as their primary source of forage, to more drought-tolerant species such as millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.); however, protein content of millet may be too low to meet the needs of high-producing animals. A 2-yr field experiment was conducted to determine if mixtures of millet with soybean (Glycine max L.) could produce acceptable forage and protein yield and at the same time maintain farmers’ profit level. Main plots consisted of nitrogen (N) rates of 0, 37, and 74 kg N ha−1, and subplots were assigned to intercropping ratios (50:50, 60:40, and 40:60 millet–soybean) along with sole crops. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Guisu Zhou, Xinhua Yin, Yongmei Li, Zhengxiong Zhao, Linzheng Xu and Jinling Ding
      Optimal Planting Timing for Corn Relay Intercropped with Flue-Cured Tobacco

      Conflict in land use between corn (Zea mays L.) as a grain crop and flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) as an economic crop is severe because of limited arable land in mountainous regions. A field study was conducted to determine the optimal planting time for corn as a relay crop in a flue-cured tobacco system to obtain high corn productivity and ensure the quality and yield of tobacco. Four relay-intercropping planting dates (10, 17, 24, and 31 d after tobacco apex excision) and corn monoculture (17 d after tobacco apex excision) were evaluated on the incidence and severity index of diseases and yield of corn at Chuxiong, Yunnan, China in 2010 and 2011. The incidence and severity index of corn common rust (Puccinia sorghi) were reduced 60.3 to 67.8% and 69.2 to 78.9%, respectively, by relay intercropping compared with monoculture corn. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Romulo P. Lollato and Jeffrey T. Edwards
      Maximum Attainable Wheat Yield and Resource-Use Efficiency in the Southern Great Plains

      Maximum reported grain yields for hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the southern Great Plains range from 6 to 8 Mg ha–1 and are significantly lower than yields achieved in other regions of the world. The lack of empirical data for wheat under nonlimiting conditions in this region, however, suggests that maximum reported grain yields for the region might not represent maximum attainable yields. Our objective was to perform the agronomic characterization of wheat grown under nonlimiting conditions across the southern Great Plains. Four dryland and two irrigated fields were sown to ‘Iba’ winter wheat in the 2012–2013 growing season and repeated during 2013–2014 in central Oklahoma. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • Daniel J. Robertson, Margaret Julias, Brian W. Gardunia, Ty Barten and Douglas D. Cook
      Corn Stalk Lodging: A Forensic Engineering Approach Provides Insights into Failure Patterns and Mechanisms

      Stalk lodging is essentially a structural failure. It was therefore hypothesized that application of structural and forensic engineering principles would provide novel insights into the problem of late-season stalk lodging of maize (Zea mays L.). This study presents results from a structural engineering failure analysis of corn stalk lodging, involving detailed inspection and measurements of lodged stalks and a multidimensional imaging study to assess stalk architecture based on structural engineering principles. This work involved in-field observation of >20 varieties of lodged corn stalk in eight international locations and detailed geometric analysis of four varieties. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • Valdson J. Silva, Carlos G.S. Pedreira, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Marcos S.S. Carvalho, Felipe Tonato and Débora C. Basto
      Seasonal Herbage Accumulation and Nutritive Value of Irrigated ‘Tifton 85’, Jiggs, and Vaquero Bermudagrasses in Response to Harvest Frequency

      Grasses within the Cynodon genus are widely used perennial forages, and ‘Tifton 85’ (Cynodon spp.) is one of the most popular commercial cultivars. Jiggs and Vaquero are new C. dactylon (L.) Pers. grasses, but there is little information comparing their performance with Tifton 85 under tropical conditions. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Marie Bourguignon, Jim A. Nelson, Elizabeth Carlisle, Huihua Ji, Randy D. Dinkins, Tim D. Phillips and Rebecca L. McCulley
      Ecophysiological Responses of Tall Fescue Genotypes to Fungal Endophyte Infection, Elevated Temperature, and Precipitation

      Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., nom. cons.) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence often benefits the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and the prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic, and ecological importance, relatively little is known regarding its response to predicted global climate change. We quantified the ecophysiological responses of four tall fescue genetic clone pairs, where each pair consisted of one endophyte-infected (E+) and one endophyte-free clone, to climate change factors of annually elevated temperature and seasonally increased precipitation. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • Haiming Han, Yingxin Zhang, Weihua Liu, Zanmin Hu and Lihui Li
      Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed–Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Chromosome Painting of P Genome Chromosomes in Agropyron cristatum and Wheat– A. cristatum Addition Lines

      Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of wheat, could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. Microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed –polymerase chain reaction (DOP–PCR) is an effective way to isolate specific sequences. The development of specific sequences and functional markers of P genome could lay the foundation for gene mapping and cloning. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • Sridevy Sriskandarajah, Mohammad Sameri, Estelle Lerceteau-Köhler and Anna Westerbergh
      Increased Recovery of Green Doubled Haploid Plants from Barley Anther Culture

      Albinism is a major limitation in the production of doubled haploid plants in cereals. As this trait is partly genetically controlled, the culture method has to be adapted to the plant genotype to reduce albinism. We have improved green plant recovery in the Northern barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) spring cultivar Mitja from 6 to 42% by altering the culture method and composition of the culture media. In a new three-step protocol, the addition of casein hydrolysate to an intermediate regeneration medium gave the highest number of green plants. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Shiqiang Chen, Yong Gao, Xue Zhu, Chao Zhang, Wenguang Cao, George Fedak, Zhentian He, Xiulan Chen and Jianmin Chen
      Development of E-chromosome Specific Molecular Markers for Thinopyrum elongatum in a Wheat Background

      Eleven primers were synthesized according to the reverse transcriptase and long terminal repeat (LTR) conserved regions of retrotransposons BARE-1 from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and RIRE-1 from rice (Oryza sativa L.). Fifty-two pairs of primer combinations based on these 11 primers were used for DNA amplification of Chinese Spring-Thinopyrum elongatum addition lines, substitution lines plus the two parents. It showed that 145 specific fragments of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) were obtained which distributed over all the seven E-genome chromosomes of Th. elongatum. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015


    • James O. Eckberg, Michael D. Casler, Gregg A. Johnson, Laura L. Seefeldt, Karen E. Blaedow and Ruth G. Shaw
      Switchgrass Population and Cold–Moist Stratification Mediate Germination

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) breeding and selection have enhanced the agronomic qualities of this species as a crop for forage and bioenergy applications. Previous work has characterized variation in phenotypic traits (e.g., survival, biomass yield, and cell wall carbohydrates) among wild and cultivated populations. Despite the importance of low dormancy to the establishment of a productive switchgrass stand, there is little information characterizing the dormancy of selectively bred cultivars vs. wild populations of switchgrass. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • C. Mariano Cossani and Matthew P. Reynolds
      Heat Stress Adaptation in Elite Lines Derived from Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat

      The contribution of synthetic hexaploids in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding has been documented under drought stress, but not previously under heat stress. A set of six advanced wheat lines derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat (ASD) was compared to their conventional hexaploid (Conv-Hex) and synthetic derivative (Syn-Der) parents under three different temperature scenarios in the field (temperate or non-stress, heat-stress environment, and late- or extreme heat environment). The ASD lines showed a yield advantage under heat and extreme heat stress compared to the best parent (Syn-Der) by on average 15 and 13%, respectively, while the average yield advantage under temperate conditions was just 5%. A similar pattern to yield was observed for grain number, while individual kernel weight of ASD lines was similar to the best parent (Syn-Der) in all three environments. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Marco Pessoa-Filho, Ana Luisa S. Azevedo, Fausto S. Sobrinho, Ediene G. Gouvea, Alexandre M. Martins and Márcio E. Ferreira
      Genetic Diversity and Structure of Ruzigrass Germplasm Collected in Africa and Brazil

      Ruzigrass [Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germain & Evrard) Crins, syn. Brachiaria ruziziensis Germain & Evrard] is a tropical forage native to Africa, first introduced in Brazil in the 1960s. Ruzigrass is diploid, presents sexual reproduction, and is a model species for the generation of genomic resources in the Brachiaria genus. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Quan Xie, Sean Mayes and Debbie L. Sparkes
      Spelt as a Genetic Resource for Yield Component Improvement in Bread Wheat

      Novel germplasm resources are required to broaden the genetic diversity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for further yield improvement. In this study, the usefulness of spelt (T. spelta L.) as a genetic resource to improve yield components of bread wheat was determined. A recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat Forno and spelt Oberkulmer was used to quantify the yield components. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Dong Luo, Qiang Zhou, Lichao Ma, Wengang Xie, Yanrong Wang, Xiaowen Hu and Zhipeng Liu
      Novel Polymorphic Expressed-Sequence Tag–Simple-Sequence Repeat Markers in Campeiostachys nutans for Genetic Diversity Analyses

      Campeiostachys nutans (Griseb.) J. L. Yang, B. R. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015


    • Hao Wu, Yosvanis Acanda, Alka Shankar, Michael Peeples, Calvin Hubbard, Vladimir Orbovic´ and Janice Zale
      Genetic Transformation of Commercially Important Mature Citrus Scions

      A Mature Citrus Facility (MCF) was established at the University of Florida’s Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) to produce transgenic citrus (Citrus spp.) tolerant to canker and greening bacterial diseases. Plants produced from mature tissue should flower and fruit early. Budsticks of ‘Hamlin’, ‘Valencia’, and ‘Pineapple’ sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and ‘Ray Ruby’ grapefruit (C. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • D. B. Egli
      Is There a Role for Sink Size in Understanding Maize Population–Yield Relationships?

      The most consistent change in management practices associated with the increase in maize (Zea mays L.) yield in the United States since 1930 has been a steady increase in plant population. Populations increased from roughly 30,000 plants ha–1 at the beginning of the hybrid era to >75,000 plants ha–1 in recent years. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the potential role of sink size in historic maize yield–population relationships. The steady increase in yield (∼4×) during the hybrid era required an increase in source activity since there was no change in harvest index. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Jinfa Zhang, Soum Sanogo, Zhiying Ma and Yanying Qu
      Breeding, Genetics, and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Cotton

      Fusarium wilt (FW), caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), with eight races recognized, is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Employment of FW-resistant cultivars has proven to be the most cost-effective method to control the disease. (continued)

      Published: October 2, 2015

    • Ioannis S. Tokatlidis
      Conservation Breeding of Elite Cultivars

      It is now well known that the genome is more flexible and plastic than previously assumed and undergoes constant remodeling and restructuring. Residual heterozygosity and molecular mechanisms that generate de novo variation may result in considerable intracultivar variation. In the long term, cultivars adopted and widely grown by farmers may lose their identity and healthiness. Nevertheless, longevity of elite cultivars is of paramount importance due to time-consuming and costly endeavors to breed them. (continued)

      Published: August 3, 2015


    • Claire H. Luby, Jack Kloppenburg, Thomas E. Michaels and Irwin L. Goldman
      Enhancing Freedom to Operate for Plant Breeders and Farmers through Open Source Plant Breeding

      The Open Source Seed Initiative (OSSI) (www.osseeds.org) seeks to address the dramatic transition over the past 100 yr in how plant germplasm is distributed, developed, and released: from a freely available resource primarily located in the public sector to proprietary structures managed largely by the private sector. OSSI was developed by a group of plant breeders, farmers, seed companies, nonprofit organizations, and policymakers with the goal of promoting and maintaining open access to plant genetic resources worldwide. OSSI seeks to provide an alternative to pervasive intellectual property rights agreements that restrict freedom to use plant germplasm through the development and promulgation of a Pledge which is intended both to raise awareness of these issues and to ensure that germplasm can be freely exchanged now and into the future. In this paper we discuss the historical forces and trends that have led to various types of biological and intellectual property protections and how this has potentially limited plant breeders’ “freedom to operate” and farmers’ sovereignty over seed. (continued)

      Published: May 21, 2015


    • Lynn E. Sollenberger
      Challenges, Opportunities, and Applications of Grazing Research

      Grazing experiments provide fundamental information on the biology of grassland ecosystems, enable selection of persistent forage cultivars that support animal production, and develop management guidelines for end users. Challenges to proper conduct of grazing research include achieving meaningful time and spatial scales, difficulty in measurement of key variables, and scarcity of research funding. Opportunities are emerging for grazing research as a result of increasing awareness of grassland multifunctionality, ecosystem services, and environmental impacts. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require increased participation in grazing research by collaborators from a broader range of ecosystem sciences. (continued)

      Published: June 12, 2015


    • James J. Luby and David S. Bedford
      Cultivars as Consumer Brands: Trends in Protecting and Commercializing Apple Cultivars via Intellectual Property Rights

      For many fruit and vegetable crops, consumers are unaware of the cultivar they consume. Thus, cultivars, the ultimate products of breeding programs, have no special recognition by the consumer. Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is unusual in that individual cultivars are readily recognized by consumers based on their appearance, flavor and texture. Consequently, variety denominations or trademarks are used to represent cultivars as brands to consumers. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Jakub Paderewski, Hugh G. Gauch, Wieslaw Mądry and Edward Gacek
      AMMI Analysis of Four-Way Genotype × Location × Management × Year Data from a Wheat Trial in Poland

      Grain yield data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) trials in Poland had a four-way factorial design of 24 genotypes by 20 locations by two managements by 3 yr. The experimental design had genotype–management strip plots with two replications for genotypes, with somewhat more genotypes than the 24 having no missing data. The research objectives were to extend additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis from two-way to higher-way datasets to reduce spurious complexity originating from noise, delineate wheat mega-environments in Poland, and make genotype recommendations within each mega-environment. Statistical analysis began with adjusting the yield estimates using the strip-plot experimental design and then combining the results in a genotype × location × management × year (GLMY) table. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Robert J. Jondle, Krista K. Hill and Tony Sanny
      Current Legal Issues in Intellectual Property Rights and Protection for Crop Plants

      Numerous intellectual property protection options are available for plants and plant-based inventions both in the United States and abroad, including utility and plant patents, plant variety rights, plant breeders’ rights, trade secrets, contract law, and trademarks. Careful planning and consideration of these options is critical to obtaining and maintaining optimum intellectual property protection. R (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015

    • Philip H. Howard
      Intellectual Property and Consolidation in the Seed Industry

      Intellectual property protections on seeds have increased dramatically in recent decades, from the granting of patent-like protections on certain types of seeds in 1970 to the enforcement of contract provisions for seeds beyond the first sale in 2013. During this same period, the seed industry has experienced rapid consolidation. Although as recently as the 1970s, it was characterized by thousands of small, mostly family-owned business, by 2011, just three agrochemical firms controlled more than half of the global proprietary seed market. These trends have resulted in rapidly increasing prices for commodity seeds and reduced farmers’ ability to save seeds. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

    • F. M. Rouquette
      Grazing Systems Research and Impact of Stocking Strategies on Pasture–Animal Production Efficiencies

      Grazing systems research includes a wide array of component experimentation to assess plant–animal responses on pastures during short-term, seasonal, and long-term periods. Pasture-animal experiments seek to assess forage growth responses to grazing and to quantify relationships between forage growth and nutritive value to gains per animal and per hectare. These experiments have used fixed and variable stocking rate management, continuous or rotational methods of stocking, and other stocking strategies to evaluate levels of production efficiencies. Stocking strategies require the integration of periodic and total forage mass, associated nutritive attributes, specific defoliation regimen responses, and incorporation of weather conditions to meet end-point objectives. (continued)

      Published: August 3, 2015

    • Robert L. Kallenbach
      Describing the Dynamic: Measuring and Assessing the Value of Plants in the Pasture

      The dynamic nature of pastures makes them difficult to quantify. Understanding the near-constant change in plant morphology and development in relation to both biotic (grazing, pathogens, and insects) and abiotic (drought, cold, and heat) events provide the scientific basis for optimizing pasture management plans. Challenges include (i) the cost, primarily for skilled labor, to measure these parameters and (ii) having a scientific team large enough and diverse enough to analyze and interpret the data. New technologies offer opportunities to inexpensively measure pasture growth dynamics. (continued)

      Published: June 26, 2015


    • Denis J. Mahoney, Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries and Matthew L. Polizzotto
      Arsenic Distribution and Speciation in a Managed Turfgrass System Following Monosodium Methylarsenate Application

      Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is an organic arsenical herbicide commonly used in certain warm-season turfgrasses. Recently, concerns about MSMA use have arisen because of the release of As into the environment, although the fate of applied As is not well quantified for realistic management scenarios. Greenhouse lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine As distribution and speciation over time following an MSMA application to established bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. At 1 wk after treatment (WAT), up to 65% of As from MSMA was detected in bermudagrass clippings and the remaining aboveground vegetation. (continued)

      Published: September 15, 2015

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