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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 56(6)


    • Samuel Trachsel, Juan Burgueno, Edgar A. Suarez, Felix M. San Vicente, Ciro S. Rodriguez and Thanda Dhliwayo
      Interrelations among Early Vigor, Flowering Time, Physiological Maturity, and Grain Yield in Tropical Maize ( Zea mays L.) under Multiple Abiotic Stresses

      We studied the interrelation among time to anthesis, physiological maturity, and grain yield in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) facing terminal drought and nitrogen deficiency. Sixty-one hybrids were grown under optimum, nitrogen-deficient (LN), and drought-stressed (DS) conditions. Grain yield was negatively correlated with time to anthesis under DS (r = −0.4*) and positively correlated with the grain-filling period (optimum: r = 0.54**; LN: r = 0.61***; DS: r = 0.69***) across treatments. These results suggest that coselecting for grain yield, early anthesis, and a long grain-filling period within a maturity group could help increase grain yield. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Benhilda Masuka, Gary N. Atlin, Mike Olsen, Cosmos Magorokosho, Maryke Labuschagne, Jose Crossa, Marianne Bänziger, Kevin V. Pixley, Bindiganavile S. Vivek, Angela von Biljon, John Macrobert, Gregorio Alvarado, B.M. Prasanna, Dan Makumbi, Amsal Tarekegne, Bish Das, Mainassara Zaman-Allah and Jill E. Cairns
      Gains in Maize Genetic Improvement in Eastern and Southern Africa: I. CIMMYT Hybrid Breeding Pipeline

      Monitoring of genetic gain in crop genetic improvement programs is necessary to measure the efficiency of the program. Periodic measurement of genetic gain also allows the efficiency of new technologies incorporated into a program to be quantified. Genetic gain within the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) breeding program for eastern and southern Africa were estimated using time series of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. A total of 67 of the best-performing hybrids from regional trials from 2000 to 2010 were selected to form an era panel and evaluated in 32 trials in eight locations across six countries in eastern and southern Africa. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • N. Ace Pugh, Joseph M. Awika and William L. Rooney
      Heritability of Popping Characteristics in Sorghum Grain

      Popped sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has become popular among niche food consumers. To provide product for this market, producers are usually popping grain from hybrids that were not developed for popping. With selection, the popping quality of sorghum could likely be improved substantially, but the relative effects of genotype, environment, and the heritability of popping-related traits remain unknown. (continued)

      Published: October 17, 2016

    • Steffen Hadasch, Johannes Forkman and Hans-Peter Piepho
      Cross-Validation in AMMI and GGE Models: A Comparison of Methods

      In plant breeding, the interaction of genotypes and environments is of major interest for breeders to develop genotypes that are well adapted to target environments. To investigate this interaction, multi-environmental trials, which are typically laid out as randomized complete block designs (RCBD) or as resolvable incomplete block designs (rIBD) within each environment, are conducted. The analysis of multi-environmental trials may be done by the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) or by the GGE (genotype and genotype × environment interaction) model. The objectives in the application of these models are (i) to determine the true number of multiplicative terms underlying the data, which is needed to obtain reliable biplots and (ii) to estimate the true genotype–environment means as precisely as possible. (continued)

      Published: October 17, 2016

    • Agustina Amelong, Fernando Hernández, A. Daniel Novoa and Lucas Borrás
      Maize Stand Density Yield Response of Parental Inbred Lines and Derived Hybrids

      Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield has a parabolic response to stand density changes, creating an optimum stand density that maximizes yield. Argentinean commercial hybrids differ in their optimum stand density when grown at similar environments, generating the need to test precommercial hybrids for adequate product management recommendations. For breeding purposes, any information from parental inbred lines that is indicative of derived hybrid performance is highly desirable. However, correlations between parental inbred line and derived hybrid performance for maize yield response to stand density are unknown. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Smit Dhakal, Chor-Tee Tan, Li Paezold, Maria P. Fuentealba, Jackie C. Rudd, Brock C. Blaser, Qingwu Xue, Charlie M. Rush, Ravindra N. Devkota and Shuyu Liu
      Wheat Curl Mite Resistance in Hard Winter Wheat in the US Great Plains

      Viral diseases transmitted by wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) have been a persistent concern to farmers and researchers for at least six decades. Yield losses caused by mite–virus complexes up to 100% at the field level have been reported in several states of the Great Plains. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of resistance of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm lines and cultivars to WCM. Four sets of wheat lines from 2014 trials were screened, including 40 lines from the Northern Regional Performance Nursery, 40 lines from the Southern Regional Performance Nursery, 40 Texas elite wheat lines, and 52 cultivars and elite breeding lines. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Dongdong Gu, Xiupeng Mei, Tingting Yu, Nana Sun, De Xu, Chaoxian Liu and Yilin Cai
      QTL Identification for Brace-Root Traits of Maize in Different Generations and Environments

      Elucidating the correlations among maize (Zea mays L.) brace-root traits and identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the traits are important for genetic improvement of brace-root traits. Two maize inbred lines, Yi17 (well-developed root system) and Yi16 (poorly developed root system), an F2 population derived from their cross containing 276 individuals, and an F2:3 population containing 241 families were used to analyze the correlations among brace-root traits and determine the QTL for brace-root traits at Xiema and Hechuan in 2014 and 2015. All brace-root traits were highly significantly correlated with each other. In particular, brace-root diameter was highly correlated with brace-root fresh weight (r = 0.730), brace-root dry weight (r = 0.729), root fresh weight (r = 0.734), and root dry weight (r = 0.754). (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Helga Amdahl, Trygve S. Aamlid, Petter Marum, Åshild Ergon, Muath Alsheikh and Odd Arne Rognli
      Seed Yield Components in Single Plants of Diverse Scandinavian Tetraploid Red Clover Populations ( Trifolium pratense L.)

      Satisfactory seed yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars is crucial for the availability of seeds on the market. Many breeders and researchers have used seed yield components to measure, compare, and explain differences in seed yield between diploid and tetraploid red clover cultivars and populations; however, the relative importance of each component varies between studies. In 2011 and 2012, single-plant trials with several tetraploid and one diploid red clover cultivar were established at the Norwegian plant breeding station at Bjørke. The goal was to study the impact of different seed-yield components on the seed yield of tetraploid plants. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Mohammad Mobashwer Alam, Erik J. van Oosterom, Alan W. Cruickshank, David R. Jordan and Graeme L. Hammer
      Predicting Tillering of Diverse Sorghum Germplasm across Environments

      Prediction of fertile tiller number (FTN) is important for predicting crop leaf area development and provides an avenue to identify genotypes with specific adaptation to variable environments. However, previous tillering prediction models in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were limited to only a few genotypes. This study aimed to develop an approach to predict FTN for a large number of genotypes grown in multiple environments. A set of 756 genotypes from 17 diverse families of a backcross-derived, sorghum nested association mapping population were evaluated in test cross combinations with a single female tester. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Kari L. Hugie, C. Wayne Smith, Kolbyn S. Joy and Donald C. Jones
      Divergent Selection for Fiber Length and Bundle Strength and Correlated Responses in Cotton

      Cotton (Gossypium spp.) breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based on their potential for the genetic improvement of fiber quality. Realized heritability estimates for UHML and Str were calculated for each cycle, and correlated responses among fiber properties and lint percent were measured as they responded to selection for UHML and Str. The results suggest that early-generation selection for UHML and Str is an effective strategy for the genetic improvement of fiber quality at College Station, TX. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Heathcliffe Riday, David W. Johnson, Tracy A. Engh and Mark E. Darling
      Measuring the Inefficiency of Allowing Self-Pollinated Alfalfa Progeny into Breeding Nurseries

      Although alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered an outcrossing species, the self-pollination incidence during insect pollination can be substantial, with an observed 30% average selfing rate. Despite this, alfalfa breeders utilizing space-plant evaluation nurseries make no attempt to discriminate self-pollination-derived progeny (selfs) from outcross progeny. Due to alfalfa’s substantial inbreeding depression, the selfed individuals have much lower breeder utility. This study examines an alfalfa space-plant breeding nursery in which selfed and outcross progeny had been identified using DNA markers for the following phenotypic traits: plant vigor, fall height, fall dormancy, first and second winter survival, plant lodging, and profusion of flowering. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Linghe Zeng, Jixiang Wu and Efrem Bechere
      Comparative Genetic Analysis of Lint Yield and Fiber Quality among Single, Three-way, and Double Crosses in Upland Cotton

      Appropriate crossing systems for genetic improvement of quantitative traits are critical in cotton breeding. Determination of genetic variance for lint yield and fiber quality in three different crossing schemes (single cross [SC], three-way cross [TWC], and double cross [DC]) of upland cotton (Gossypium histutum L.) will help breeders decide which crossing scheme to use in hybrid production and pure-line development. This study was designed to compare agronomic performance and fiber quality among SCs, TWCs, and DCs and determine genetic variance for evaluated traits in the three crossing systems. A balanced set of 10 F2 hybrid populations from each crossing system was planted with their five parents in 2013, 2014, and 2015. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016


    • Judy A. Tolk and Robert C. Schwartz
      Do More Seeds per Panicle Improve Grain Sorghum Yield?

      Seed number, rather than seed mass, is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum mutant line with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil–Plant–Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA–ARS, Bushland, TX, in 2014 and 2015 to provide field validation of the tri-seed line’s ability to increase yield. The SPER facility had a rain shelter to control the soil-water balance. The parent inbred line BTx623 and the tri-seed line MSD-P5, which originated as a mutant of BTx623, were grown in weighing lysimeters with undisturbed soil profiles of four agriculturally productive soils (Pullman clay loam, Ulysses silt loam, Amarillo sandy loam, and Vingo fine sand) of the US Great Plains. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Hussain Sharifi, Robert J. Hijmans, James E. Hill and Bruce A. Linquist
      Using Stage-Dependent Temperature Parameters to Improve Phenological Model Prediction Accuracy in Rice Models

      Crop phenology models that use constant temperature parameters across developmental stages may be less accurate and have temperature-dependent systematic prediction error (bias). Using the DD10 model, we evaluated default and optimized (DD_Opt) temperature parameters using data from seven California rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in six locations over 3 yr (2012–2014). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of using stage-dependent temperature parameters on model performance using two- and three-stage optimization approaches. Optimized temperature parameters, or DD_Opt (RMSE: 2.3–5.4 d), performed better than DD10 (RMSE: 2.9–7.3 d). (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Yves Y. Emendack, Chad M. Hayes, Ratan Chopra, Jake Sanchez, Gloria Burow, Zhanguo Xin and John J. Burke
      Early Seedling Growth Characteristics Relates to the Staygreen Trait and Dhurrin Levels in Sorghum

      Dhurrin content in leaves of the mature sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre- and postflowering drought tolerance, with high dhurrin contents expressed in postflowering drought-tolerant lines. Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum has been linked to the staygreen trait and associated with increased grain yield during postanthesis stress. Seasonal variability in postflowering drought occurrences makes selection for the staygreen trait unpredictable and the efficiency and reliability of screening for the trait using only conventional breeding low. Differences in dhurrin content between high and low dhurrin levels lines is only markedly favored to the high dhurrin level lines in the upper leaves of matured field-grown plants. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Bhupinder Singh, K. Raja Reddy, Edilberto D. Redoña and Timothy Walker
      Developing a Screening Tool for Osmotic Stress Tolerance Classification of Rice Cultivars Based on In Vitro Seed Germination

      Dry direct seeding is the common practice for growing rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the US Mid-South. Dry soil conditions during sowing may cause delayed and nonuniform seed germination that can be further aggravated by the low temperature conditions. Understanding the response of rice cultivars to drought stress during seed germination would be useful in optimizing direct seeding practices. An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the impact of osmotic stress using polyethylene glycol on seed germination traits of 15 rice cultivars commonly grown in the US Mid-South production system. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016

    • Xiaowu Pan, Yongchao Li, Haiwen Zhang, Sanxiong Liu, Huafeng Deng and Xiaoxiang Li
      Screening and Comparative Analysis of Drought Tolerance of Rice Varieties at the Reproductive Stage

      Seasonal drought is a major constraint for rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in rainfed lowland rice ecosystems. Water deficiency that occurs during reproduction always results in severe yield loss in these areas. Therefore, drought-tolerant rice varieties are needed to avoid food security problems. The objectives of this study were (i) to find the relationship between drought and yield-related traits for field conditions, (ii) to screen rice varieties that have high yield under drought stress, and (iii) to identify the variety-specific mechanism of drought tolerance by investigating the gene expression and physiological characteristics of rice anther. (continued)

      Published: October 12, 2016


    • Sara Calvache, Tatsiana Espevig, Tina E. Andersen, Erik J. Joner, Agnar Kvalbein, Trond Pettersen and Trygve S. Aamlid
      Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Mowing Height, and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Effects on Red Fescue and Mixed Fescue–Bentgrass Putting Greens

      Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Trygve S. Aamlid, Tatsiana Espevig and Arne Tronsmo
      Microbiological Products for Control of Microdochium nivale on Golf Greens

      Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Chenxi Zhang, Garland D. Pinnix, Zheng Zhang, Grady L. Miller and Thomas W. Rufty
      Evaluation of Key Methodology for Digital Image Analysis of Turfgrass Color Using Open-Source Software

      Digital image analysis is a frequently used research technique to provide an objective measure of turfgrass color, in addition to the traditional visual rating. A commonly used method relies on commercial software package SigmaScan Pro to quantify mean hue angle, saturation, and brightness values from turf images, and to calculate a dark green color index as the measure of color. To enable turf image analysis to function on an open-source platform, a method was developed within ImageJ to batch process turf images for color parameters. This Java-based ImageJ plugin quantifies hue angle, saturation, and brightness values and calculates a dark green color index. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Shane Griffith, Nicholas Bero, John Stier, Glen Obear, Sabrina Ruis and Douglas Soldat
      Biosolids as an Alternative Fertilizer for Kentucky Bluegrass Sod Production in Wisconsin

      Land application of biosolids holds the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for synthetic fertilizer applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic impacts of using biosolids to produce Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod on a silt loam soil in Wisconsin. Anaerobically digested biosolids cake and biosolids cake mixed with sand and sawdust in a 2:1:1 ratio by volume (MetroMixTM) were produced by and obtained from the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District. Each material was applied at three rates based on their estimated supply of plant-available nitrogen (PAN). (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • David Jespersen and Bingru Huang
      Effects of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Daconil Action (Acibenzolar- S -Methyl and Chlorothalonil) on Heat and Drought Tolerance of Creeping Bentgrass

      The plant growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is known for its effects of suppressing shoot vertical growth. Some fungicides are claimed to promote the physiological health of plants in the absence of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether acibenzolar-S-methyl (one of the active ingredients in Daconil Action), TE alone, or the combination of the two may be most effective in promoting creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) tolerance to heat and drought stress under field conditions. Daconil Action and TE were foliar applied alone or in combination to creeping bentgrass managed under fairway conditions at Rutgers University in 2014 and 2015. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Clint M. Mattox, Alec R. Kowalewski, Brian W. McDonald, John G. Lambrinos, Brian L. Daviscourt and Jay W. Pscheidt
      Nitrogen and Iron Sulfate Affect Microdochium Patch Severity and Turf Quality on Annual Bluegrass Putting Greens

      Microdochium patch is an important turfgrass disease in cool-humid regions and is caused by the pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett. Control of the pathogen is necessary to provide acceptable putting-green-quality turf, and fungicide applications are the predominant method of control. Increasing pesticide restrictions have generated interest in alternative management techniques of Microdochium patch. This research evaluated the effects of three nitrogen and five iron sulfate rates on Microdochium patch development on a trafficked, sand-based, annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting green in Corvallis, OR for over 2 yr in the absence of fungicides. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Jialin Yu, Patrick E. McCullough and Mark A. Czarnota
      Selectivity and Fate of Monosodium Methylarsenate in Bermudagrass, Centipedegrass, and Seashore Paspalum

      Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) can be weedy species with other turfgrasses. Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) selectively controls these grasses in polyculture with tolerant species such as bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], but the mechanisms of selectivity are not well understood. The objectives of this research were to investigate the efficacy and behavior of MSMA in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and seashore paspalum. In greenhouse experiments, the hierarchical rank of injury ranges for species from high to low was centipedegrass > seashore paspalum > bermudagrass. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Christina S. Jreisat and Howard M. Laten
      Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Regions Identify Possible Misidentification or Mislabeling among Trifolium (Clover) Specimens from Germplasm Collections

      Accurate identification and labeling of plant germplasm is essential for creating new hybrids with enhanced agronomic characteristics and for basic genetic and evolutionary studies. Expert collectors and seed banks do their best to attain high levels of accuracy and reliability, but errors are inevitable. During the course of a study of clover (Trifolium) transposable elements, we obtained DNA sequence results that led us to question the species designation of some accessions. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Surya Kant, Emily Thoday-Kennedy, Sameer Joshi, Jignesh Vakani, Jess Hughes, Lancelot Maphosa, Andy Sadler, Meri Menidis, Anthony Slater and German Spangenberg
      Automated Rainout Shelter’s Design for Well-Defined Water Stress Field Phenotyping of Crop Plants

      Field phenotyping to identify water stress-tolerant crop genotypes is challenging due to uncertainty in the timing of rainfall. Rainout shelters offer a way of establishing controlled water stress environments by excluding untimely rain events. Here, we present a detailed description of custom-designed rainout shelters. These shelters are fully automated and portable. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Xingbo Wu, Nana Li, Junjie Hao, Jinguo Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang and Matthew W. Blair
      Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) Collections

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and a core collection from the National Genebank of China (NGC). The Chinese and global collections had 295 and 305 accessions, respectively. A total of 259 alleles were detected in the full 600 accessions, with a mean of 8.7 alleles per locus. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Phillip L. Vines, Thomas W. Allen, Janice DuBien, Barry R. Stewart and Maria Tomaso-Peterson
      Ultradwarf Bermudagrass Performance as Influenced by Cultivar Selection and Cultural Management Practice

      Ultradwarf bermudagrass (UDB) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] cultivars are prolific thatch producers, a trait linked to decreased playability and plant health. A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of cultural management practice and cultivar selection on plant health and playability of ‘Champion’ and ‘MiniVerde’ UDB cultivars. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

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