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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest crop science research. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

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Current issue: Crop Sci. 55(6)


    • Hari D. Upadhyaya, Sangam L. Dwivedi, Sube Singh, Kanwar L. Sahrawat and Shailesh K. Singh
      Genetic Variation and Postflowering Drought Effects on Seed Iron and Zinc in ICRISAT Sorghum Mini Core Collection

      Drought stress invariably reduces yield and may alter seed chemistry. This experiment was initiated to characterize the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] mini core collection for genetic variation and to study the effect of postflowering drought on seed Fe and Zn concentrations. Accessions with similar maturity, together with controls, were evaluated in split-plot design under irrigated and drought-stressed environments for two postrainy seasons. Residual (or restricted) maximum likelihood (REML) analysis of data considering genotypes as random and drought and year as fixed indicated highly significant variance as a result of genotypes. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015


    • Jiho Park, Jeong Hwa Kim, Panneerselvam Krishnamurthy, Chigen Tsukamoto, Jong Tae Song, Gyuwha Chung, J. Grover Shannon and Jeong-Dong Lee
      Characterization of a New Allele of the Saponin-Synthesizing Gene Sg-1 in Soybean

      Saponins are major components of secondary metabolites in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed that have been broadly studied for their beneficial effects on human health. In soybean, group A acetylsaponins can be classified into two types: Aa- and Ab-series, both of which cause bitter and astringent aftertaste. Therefore, group A acetylsaponin-deficient cultivars can solve a problem that has inhibited the broader use of soybean in the food industry. The objective of this study was to investigate a group A acetylsaponin-deficient soybean mutant (PE1515) generated from the cultivar Pungsannamul (containing Ab-series saponins) by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • Brian K. Pfeiffer and William L. Rooney
      Inheritance of Pericarp Color, Nutritional Quality, and Grain Composition Traits in Black Sorghum

      Black pericarp grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has high levels of phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (3-DOAs), which have application in food science and human nutrition as a high-antioxidant food additive, natural food colorant, and natural food preservative. The inheritance of this trait is complex and has not been the subject of investigation, thus limiting further genetic improvement. To determine the genetic mechanisms governing this novel trait, a generation means analysis was performed using Tx378 (red), Tx3362 (black), and F1, F2, and backcross generations derived from these parents. These six generations were evaluated in 2013 in three diverse Texas growing environments. (continued)

      Published: November 25, 2015

    • Myungsik Kim, Sarah Schultz, Randall L. Nelson and Brian W. Diers
      Identification and Fine Mapping of a Soybean Seed Protein QTL from PI 407788A on Chromosome 15

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is grown primarily as a source of protein and oil. The objectives of this study were to identify soybean seed protein quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the high protein line PI 407788A and to fine map an important QTL for protein on chromosome (chr) 15. The mapping was done in a population of inbred lines developed with one backcross (BC1) using Williams 82 as a recurrent parent and the high protein source PI 407788A as a donor parent. The population was evaluated with genetic markers and for seed protein and oil concentrations in three Illinois locations in 2005 and 2006. (continued)

      Published: November 25, 2015

    • David W. Horne, Magen S. Eller and James B. Holland
      Responses to Recurrent Index Selection for Reduced Fusarium Ear Rot and Lodging and for Increased Yield in Maize

      Fusarium ear rot, caused by the pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, damages maize (Zea mays L.) grain production and is associated with contamination of grain by fumonisin, a mycotoxin harmful to both humans and animals. Recurrent selection may be an effective way to combine improvements in resistance to Fusarium ear rot with improved grain yield and lodging resistance. To test this hypothesis, three cycles of recurrent index selection based on evaluating S0:1 lines for Fusarium ear rot, grain yield, and lodging were implemented in a genetically broad-based population. Direct intrapopulation response to selection in the target traits was measured by comparing lines sampled from Cycle 0 and Cycle 3 populations. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • M.K. Yerka, J.J. Toy, D.L. Funnell-Harris, S.E. Sattler and J.F. Pedersen
      Evaluation of Interallelic waxy , Hetero waxy , and Wild-Type Grain Sorghum Hybrids

      Four near-isogenic Wheatland × Tx430 grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] hybrids differing in allelic status at the Waxy locus were grown in yield trials to determine their potential to expand existing sources of low-amylose starch. The hypothesis tested was that agronomic performance and grain yield do not differ among hybrid genotypes. Hybrids were generated in a two-by-two factorial design using wxb and wild-type (WT) Wheatland as female parents with wxa and WT Tx430 as male parents. Yield trials were conducted at two Nebraska locations in 2009 and 2010. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • N.R. Keep, W.T. Schapaugh, P.V.V. Prasad and J.E. Boyer
      Changes in Physiological Traits in Soybean with Breeding Advancements

      Plant breeding makes important contributions to increased production of food and fiber. The objective of this research was to characterize the changes in physiological traits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that have occurred with breeding advancements. Sixty maturity group (MG) III and 54 MG IV cultivars, released from the 1920s through 2010, were evaluated in MG-specific experiments in dryland and irrigated environments at Manhattan, KS, in 2010 and 2011. Genotypes were planted in four-row, 3.4-m-long plots 76 cm apart and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Chad M. Hayes, Brock D. Weers, Manish Thakran, Gloria Burow, Zhanguo Xin, Yves Emendack, John J. Burke, William L. Rooney and John E. Mullet
      Discovery of a Dhurrin QTL in Sorghum: Co-localization of Dhurrin Biosynthesis and a Novel Stay-green QTL

      Dhurrin [(S)-p-hydroxymandelonitrile-β-D-glucopyranoside] is a cyanogenic glucoside produced by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and is generally considered a natural defense compound capable of producing the toxin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to deter animal herbivory. Recently, high levels of leaf dhurrin have been found in grain sorghum genotypes that also exhibit stay-green during postanthesis water deficit. Post-flowering drought tolerance (stay-green) in sorghum is an economically important trait in sorghum production regions where drought stress postanthesis is common. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Nithya K. Subramanian, Richard Esten Mason, Eugene A. Milus, David E. Moon and Gina Brown-Guedira
      Characterization of Two Adult-Plant Stripe Rust Resistance Genes on Chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in Soft Red Winter Wheat

      Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Cuixia Xue, Hui Zhi, Xuejiao Fang, Xiaotong Liu, Sha Tang, Yang Chai, Baohua Zhao, Guanqing Jia and Xianmin Diao
      Characterization and Fine Mapping of SiDWARF2 ( D2 ) in Foxtail Millet

      Elongation of grass internodes determines the plant height and underlies the grain yield of grass crop species, by enhancing of lodging resistance in elite cultivars. Foxtail millet [Setaria ema (L.) P. Beauv.] is an ancient cereal crop that served as a staple food during early civilization in China and is still grown widely across South and East Asia, Europe, and Africa. In this study, a foxtail millet dwarf mutant (Sidwarf2), derived from ‘Yugu1’, was characterized. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Oğuz Bilgin, Carlos Guzmán, İsmet Başer, José Crossa, Kayıhan Zahit Korkut and Alpay Balkan
      Evaluation of Grain Yield and Quality Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes Cultivated in Northwest Turkey

      A study was performed to evaluate the effects of environment (E) and genotype (G) × E interactions (GGE) for quality traits and grain yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). ANOVA and GGE biplots were used to assess quality performance and stability in 36 genotypes of bread wheat through a three-location trial over two cropping seasons in the Thrace Region of Turkey. The 36 wheat genotypes used were classified into eight different groups, including landraces, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and advanced lines. The data showed a wide range of variation for milling quality parameters with regard to gluten quantity and quality, as well as for grain yield. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • J. Jesus Cerón-Rojas, José Crossa and Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos
      Statistical Sampling Properties of the Coefficients of Three Phenotypic Selection Indices

      The aim of the Smith phenotypic selection index (SPSI), the restricted phenotypic selection index (RPSI), and the predetermined proportional gains phenotypic selection index (PPG-PSI) is to maximize the response to selection and provide the breeder with an objective rule for evaluating and selecting several traits. When the phenotypic and genotypic variances and covariances are known, these three indices are the best linear predictors. When these parameters are estimated, the three indices will be optimal only if the estimators of the index weights are unbiased and have minimal variance. There are many methods for determining the sampling properties of the SPSI but there is no method for determining the sampling properties of RPSI and PPG-PSI coefficients. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Shiaoman Chao, Elias Elias, David Benscher, Goro Ishikawa, Yung-Fen Huang, Mika Saito, Toshiki Nakamura, Steven Xu, Justin Faris and Mark Sorrells
      Genetic Mapping of Major-Effect Seed Dormancy Quantitative Trait Loci on Chromosome 2B using Recombinant Substitution Lines in Tetraploid Wheat

      Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) cultivars can benefit from having some level of seed dormancy to help reduce seed damage and lower grain quality caused by preharvest sprouting (PHS) occurring during wet harvesting conditions. Previously, a single chromosome substitution line carrying chromosome 2B of wild emmer [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccoides (Körn. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Eric J. Shaw, Yukio Kakuda and Istvan Rajcan
      Effect of Genotype, Environment, and Genotype × Environment Interaction on Tocopherol Accumulation in Soybean Seed

      Soybean seeds [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] are a major source of tocopherols that provide many human health benefits including decrease in lung cancer risk and osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the impact of genotype, environment, and genotype × environment on soybean seed tocopherols and (ii) to evaluate relationships between agronomic traits and tocopherols. Seventy-nine recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross OAC Bayfield × OAC Shire were grown in three field locations in southern Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Agronomic and seed quality data were collected in each location. (continued)

      Published: October 23, 2015

    • Yi Wang, Paul C. Bethke, Alvin J. Bussan, Martin T. Glynn, David G. Holm, Felix M. Navarro, Richard G. Novy, Jiwan P. Palta, Mark J. Pavek, Gregory A. Porter, Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Asunta L. Thompson, Paul J. Voglewede, Jonathan L. Whitworth, David I. Parish and Jeffrey B. Endelman
      Acrylamide-Forming Potential and Agronomic Properties of Elite US Potato Germplasm from the National Fry Processing Trial

      Processed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) products, such as chips and French fries, contribute to the dietary intake of acrylamide, a suspected human carcinogen. One of the most promising approaches for reducing its consumption is to develop and commercialize new potato varieties with low acrylamide-forming potential. To facilitate this effort, a National Fry Processing Trial (NFPT) was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in five states. More than 140 advanced breeding lines were evaluated for tuber agronomic traits and biochemical properties from harvest through 8 mo of storage. (continued)

      Published: October 23, 2015

    • De Xu, Xiupeng Mei, Tingting Yu, Wenjuan Yuan, Dongdong Gu, Xiaoli Liu and Yilin Cai
      Further Mapping and Epistasis Analysis of Two Quantitative Trait Loci of Kernel and Cob Anthocyanin Contents in Maize

      In our previous study, two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for kernel anthocyanin content in maize (Zea mays L.) were mapped on chromosome 6 and chromosome 10 by using two related F2:3 populations derived from crosses of ‘Mu6’ × ‘Super Dark Maize’ (SDM) and ‘Mo17’ × SDM. In this study, two sets of near isogenic lines, MuS-BC4F3 and MoS-BC4F3, were developed and used to further map the two QTLs and analyze the epsitasis between the two QTLs. GEN6 was further mapped in the interval S8-umc1105 on chromosome 6 for MuS-BC4F3 and S8 to mmc0523 on chromosome 6 for MoS-BC4F3. GEN10 was further mapped in the interval IDP8526 to S44 on chromosome 10 for MuS-BC4F3 and bnlg1028 to IDP8526 on chromosome 10 for MoS-BC4F3. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015

    • Neha Kothari, B. Todd Campbell, Jane K. Dever and Lori L. Hinze
      Combining Ability and Performance of Cotton Germplasm with Diverse Seed Oil Content

      Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production has traditionally been guided by fiber yield and quality, but recent interest has focused on using cottonseed as a food; therefore, cottonseed oil content is an important trait to understand. A line-by-tester analysis was used to determine combining abilities by crossing four lines (PD 7723, PD 94042, PD 3246, and PD 5377) and four testers (TX 21, TX 101, TX 182, and TX 244) with varying seed oil content selected from accessions in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection. Seed oil content was found to be a heritable trait (H2 = 0.52). The analysis showed that a large part of the phenotypic variation in oil content was associated with general combining ability, although significant specific combining ability occurred in several crosses. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • Kazuki Saito
      Plant Characteristics of High-Yielding Upland Rice Cultivars in West Africa

      In West Africa, upland rice (Oryza spp.) is typically grown in low-input production systems under low soil fertility conditions. Genetic improvement may offer a cost-effective approach to improving the productivity rather than approaches that rely solely on external nutrient inputs. In the 1990s, the upland rice breeding program of the West Africa Rice Development Association (now Africa Rice Center [AfricaRice]) developed New Rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars. However, recent studies suggest that there is scope for improving on the currently available NERICA cultivars. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015


    • Mon-Lin Chou, Jiin-Shuh Jean, Guo-Xin Sun, Chwen-Ming Yang, Zeng-Yei Hseu, Sheng-Feng Kuo, Hong-Yang Tseng and Yuai-Jen Yang
      Irrigation Practices on Rice Crop Production in Arsenic-Rich Paddy Soil

      Irrigation and water management are important cultivation practices, controlling rice crop production and regulating As concentration in both paddy fields and rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). This study investigated the impacts of various types of irrigation practices with As-contaminated groundwater on the extent of arsenic accumulation within rice plant parts during development and rice crop production at maturity. Three types of irrigation practices were applied to As-rich paddy fields: flooded irrigation, aerobic irrigation, and alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWDI). The arsenic accumulation in various plant parts was monitored at 40, 54, 68, 82, 96, and 110 d after transplanting in the first (with ‘Tainong 84’) and the second (with ‘Tainan 11’) cropping seasons of 2013. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • M.S. Anantha, Devraj Patel, Marinell Quintana, Padmini Swain, Jawaharlal L. Dwivedi, Rolando O. Torres, Satish B. Verulkar, Mukund Variar, Nimai P. Mandal, Arvind Kumar and Amelia Henry
      Trait Combinations That Improve Rice Yield under Drought: Sahbhagi Dhan and New Drought-Tolerant Varieties in South Asia

      Drought is one of the most severe constraints reducing rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in rainfed environments. ‘Sahbhagi Dhan’ (IR74371-70-1-1) is a drought-tolerant rice variety that was released in India in 2010—and subsequently in Nepal as ‘Sukha Dhan 3’ and in Bangladesh as ‘BRRI Dhan 56’—and has performed well in rainfed farmers’ fields. This study was conducted to understand the physiological drought response characteristics of Sahbhagi Dhan that contribute to its increased yield under drought. Physiological characterization of Sahbhagi Dhan and other newer breeding lines was conducted across multiple seasons at one site in the Philippines and at four sites in India. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Yanling Chen, Dali Wu, Xiaohuan Mu, Changxin Xiao, Fanjun Chen, Lixing Yuan and Guohua Mi
      Vertical Distribution of Photosynthetic Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Its Response to Nitrogen in Field-Grown Maize

      During the grain-filling period in maize (Zea mays L.), increasing photosynthesis per unit plant N, namely photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE) is a potential way to increase N-utilization efficiency (NUtE). This study aimed to understand whether the spatial distribution of PNUE within the canopy is optimized under low N conditions as a method of maximizing canopy productivity. Maize plants were grown in the field for 2 yr with three N levels (0, 180, 240 kg N ha−1). Changes in specific leaf N (SLN), net photosynthetic rate (PN), PNUE (calculated as PN/SLN), stomatal conductance (gs), green leaf area (GLA), and light interception of leaves at different positions were measured every 10 d after silking (DAS). (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Avat Shekoofa, Thomas R. Sinclair, Carlos D. Messina and Mark Cooper
      Variation Among Maize Hybrids in Response to High Vapor Pressure Deficit at High Temperatures

      Temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) are two important environmental factors influencing stomatal conductance and transpiration. A limited transpiration rate (TRlim) trait expressed under high VPD has been shown to offer an approach to increase crop yield in water-limited areas. The benefit of the TRlim trait is that it lowers the effective VPD under which plants lose water and so conserves soil water to support crop growth for use during drought periods later in the growing season. Previous studies at moderate temperatures (32°C and lower) identified 12 maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids that express the TRlim trait. (continued)

      Published: October 23, 2015


    • Patrick J. Starks, Michael A. Brown, Kenneth E. Turner and Bradley C. Venuto
      Canopy Visible and Near-infrared Reflectance Data to Estimate Alfalfa Nutritive Attributes Before Harvest

      Canopy reflectance (i.e., remotely sensed) data may allow rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total N, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF), as well as nutritive quality indicators such as relative feed value (RFV) and a forage energy/protein ratio of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Remotely sensed data were acquired over seven alfalfa cultivars in the 2005 to 2008 growing seasons (n = 580) to develop and test calibration equations to predict concentrations of total N, NDF, and ADF. About 31% of the canopy reflectance dataset and corresponding measured values of total N, NDF, and ADF were used in calibration equation development while the remaining samples (69%) were used to validate the calibration equations. The remote sensing based values of NDF, ADF, and crude protein (CP = total N × 6.25) were used to calculate RFV and the total digestible nutrients/crude protein (TDN/CP) ratio. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Patrick D. Keyser, Amanda J. Ashworth, Fred L. Allen and Gary E. Bates
      Dormant-Season Planting and Seed-Dormancy Impacts on Switchgrass Establishment and Yield

      Establishment failures linked to seed dormancy are a challenge to wide-scale use of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for biomass feedstock and forage production. One prospective strategy for breaking dormancy is dormant-season planting. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (i) three switchgrass dormant-season planting dates (1 December, 1 February, and 15 March) vs. a growing-season (1 May) control; (ii) two seeding rates (6.7 and 10.1 kg pure live seed [PLS] ha−1); and (iii) high- and low-dormancy seed lots. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Sara R. Hunt, Jennifer W. MacAdam and Thomas C. Griggs
      Seeding Rate, Oat Companion Crop, and Planting Season Effects on Irrigated Organic Birdsfoot Trefoil Stands in the Mountain West United States

      The nonbloating perennial legume birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) is well suited for ruminant production on pastures, supporting greater weight gain and milk production than other forages. This study evaluated establishment options available to organic producers on subsequent BFT stands. We applied all combinations of spring vs. autumn planting, broadcast seeding rates of 3, 7, 20, and 34 kg pure live seed (PLS) ha−1, and use of an annual oat (Avena sativa L.) companion crop during establishment. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • Shuyu Liu, Silvano Ocheya Assanga, Smit Dhakal, Xiangkun Gu, Chor-Tee Tan, Yan Yang, Jackie Rudd, Dirk Hays, Amir Ibrahim, Qingwu Xue, Shiaoman Chao, Ravindra Devkota, Cody Shachter, Trevis Huggins, Suheb Mohammed and Maria Pilar Fuentealba
      Validation of Chromosomal Locations of 90K Array Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in US Wheat

      Mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can help to develop high throughput molecular markers for important traits. The 90K Infinium iSelect SNP array was used to screen three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from three crosses, CO 960293-2/’TAM 111’ (CT), ‘TAM 112’/TAM 111 (TT), and ‘Halberd’/’Len’ (HL). The objective of this study was to compare and validate the chromosomal locations of mapped SNPs in wheat. A set of 152, 124, and 180 RILs were used in CT, TT, and HL. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Lulu Gou, Jiro Hattori, George Fedak, Margaret Balcerzak, Andrew Sharpe, Paul Visendi, David Edwards, Nicholas Tinker, Yu-Ming Wei, Guo-Yue Chen and Thérèse Ouellet
      Development and Validation of Thinopyrum elongatum –Expressed Molecular Markers Specific for the Long Arm of Chromosome 7E

      The ditelocentric addition line CS-7EL of the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Chinese Spring (CS) contains the long arm of the chromosome 7E from Thinopyrum elongatum (CS-7EL), which confers high resistance to Fusarium head blight. It is of great interest to breeders to integrate the resistance locus (loci) from Th. elongatum into commercial wheat varieties. The objectives of this study were to identify candidate genes expressed from the 7EL chromosome of CS-7EL, to develop 7EL-specific molecular markers, and to validate their usefulness for characterizing recombination between one of the group 7 chromosomes of wheat and Th. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • Wenliang Wei, Yanxin Zhang, Linhai Wang, Donghua Li, Yuan Gao and Xiurong Zhang
      Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Association Mapping of 10 Agronomic Traits in Sesame

      To improve efficiency in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding, it is important to understand the genetic basis and relatedness of advanced varieties developed during the past decades and to identify molecular markers associated with quantitative traits of agronomic importance. Seed yield and traits that contribute to yield are strongly influenced by traits related to plant height, but little is known about the genetic basis of height-related traits in sesame. A sesame association panel was phenotyped in multienvironment trials and fingerprinted with 44 markers to conduct genetic diversity analysis and association mapping of four height-related traits and six yield-related traits. Population structure analyses revealed two subgroups within the panel. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Yoseph Beyene, Kassa Semagn, Jose Crossa, Stephen Mugo, Gary N. Atlin, Amsal Tarekegne, Barbara Meisel, Pierre Sehabiague, Bindiganavile S. Vivek, Sylvester Oikeh, Gregorio Alvarado, Lewis Machida, Michael Olsen, Boddupalli M. Prasanna and Marianne Bänziger
      Improving Maize Grain Yield under Drought Stress and Non-stress Environments in Sub-Saharan Africa using Marker-Assisted Recurrent Selection

      In marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), a subset of molecular markers significantly associated with target traits of interest are used to predict the breeding value of individual plants, followed by rapid recombination and selfing. This study estimated genetic gains in grain yield (GY) using MARS in 10 biparental tropical maize (Zea may L.) populations. In each population, 148 to 184 F2:3 (defined as C0) progenies were derived, crossed with a single-cross tester, and evaluated under water-stressed (WS) and well-watered (WW) environments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The C0 populations were genotyped with 190 to 225 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

    • Matthew W. Blair and Sandra M. Lorigados
      Diversity of Common Bean Landraces, Breeding Lines, and Varieties from Cuba

      Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean Sea and has a long history of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation. The crop was introduced to the island along with immigration of Native American tribes both from the west and from the southeast of the Caribbean archipelago. This resulted in both the Andean and Mesoamerican genepools being present in Cuba since pre-Colombian times and opportunities for genepool intermixing in this secondary center of diversity. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found to be ideal for evaluating introgression in common bean because of their high polymorphism per locus. (continued)

      Published: November 6, 2015

    • Pattama Nitthaisong, Genki Ishigaki, Hidenori Tanaka and Ryo Akashi
      Chromosome Number, Genomic Variation, and Molecular Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Brachiaria Species

      The genus Brachiaria contains approximately 100 identified species, including economically important tropical grasses; however, there is not much accessible information about the genetics or genomes of the genus. In this study, we determined the chromosome number and genome size by cytological analysis and flow cytometry, respectively, and estimated the molecular variability using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers for 28 accessions representing 11 Brachiaria species. The chromosome number of 10 species agreed with previous reports, and the chromosome number for B. xantholeuca was evaluated (2n = 4x = 36) for the first time. (continued)

      Published: October 23, 2015

    • C. F. H. Longin, J. Ziegler, R. Schweiggert, P. Koehler, R. Carle and T. Würschum
      Comparative Study of Hulled (Einkorn, Emmer, and Spelt) and Naked Wheats (Durum and Bread Wheat): Agronomic Performance and Quality Traits

      Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.), emmer (T. dicoccum L.), and spelt (T. spelta L.) are old-world hulled wheat crops currently receiving renewed interest of consumers, bakers, millers, and farmers. Our objectives were to (i) compare einkorn, emmer, and spelt with bread (T. (continued)

      Published: October 23, 2015

    • Awais Rasheed, Xianchun Xia, Tariq Mahmood, Umar Masood Quraishi, Abdul Aziz, Hadi Bux, Zahid Mahmood, Javed Iqbal Mirza, Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi and Zhonghu He
      Comparison of Economically Important Loci in Landraces and Improved Wheat Cultivars from Pakistan

      We investigated alleles at 31 loci associated with adaptability, yield, and end-use quality in 107 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces (WLRs) and 121 improved historical wheat cultivars (HWCs) from Pakistan. The WLRs were categorized into two further subgroups: 36 pre-Green-Revolution landraces released as cultivars and 71 geographically spread landraces from all over Pakistan. Alleles Vrn-A1a, TaGW2-6A-A, TaCKX6-D1b, Pinb-D1b, Psy-A1b, and Wx-D1b were absent in WLRs, whereas ample diversity was observed at all other loci. In HWCs, only Wx-D1b and Glu-A3e were absent among the alleles tested, whereas the alleles Ppd-D1a (90%), Rht-B1b or Rht-D1b (83.4%), TaCwi-A1a (95%), TaGW2-6A-G (76%), TaCKX6-D1a (77.3%), Glu-A1b (66.1%), Glu-D1d (61.3%), Pina-D1b (88.2%), Pinb-D1a (90%), Psy-A1a (66.1%), Psy-B1b (81.8%), Psy-D1a (86.5%), Ppo-A1a (70%), TaZds-D1b (73.9%), TaLox-B1b (80.1%), and Wx-D1a (100%) predominated, indicating significant improvement in adaptability, yield potential, and end-use quality and unconscious selection for favored alleles. (continued)

      Published: October 19, 2015


    • Prabin Bajgain, Matthew N. Rouse and James A. Anderson
      Comparing Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip Genotyping for Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Wheat

      Array- or chip-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are widely used in genomic studies because of their abundance in a genome and lower cost per data point than older marker technologies. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a relatively newer approach of genotyping, suggests equal appeal because of its lesser cost per data point and the avoidance of ascertainment bias during genotyping. In this study, we compared the results from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, marker distribution on linkage maps, genome size, recombination sites covered by the markers, and cost per polymorphic marker, as well as the methodology and workflow between the Illumina Infinium 9000 SNP-chip genotyping with GBS. Results indicate that while GBS offers similar genome coverage at almost one-fourth the cost of SNP chip, the SNP-chip method is less demanding of computational skills and resources. (continued)

      Published: November 25, 2015


    • Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Nohemí Gámez-Meza and Luis Ángel Medina-Juárez
      Wild Pepper Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum : Taxonomy, Plant Morphology, Distribution, Genetic Diversity, Genome Sequencing, and Phytochemical Compounds

      The fruit of the chiltepin [Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser and Pickersgill] is considered an important genetic resource for pepper crop improvement. The chiltepin is distributed from Colombia, Central America, and Mexico to the southwestern United States. (continued)

      Published: November 25, 2015


    • Jakub Paderewski, Hugh G. Gauch, Wieslaw Mądry and Edward Gacek
      AMMI Analysis of Four-Way Genotype × Location × Management × Year Data from a Wheat Trial in Poland

      Grain yield data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) trials in Poland had a four-way factorial design of 24 genotypes by 20 locations by two managements by 3 yr. The experimental design had genotype–management strip plots with two replications for genotypes, with somewhat more genotypes than the 24 having no missing data. The research objectives were to extend additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis from two-way to higher-way datasets to reduce spurious complexity originating from noise, delineate wheat mega-environments in Poland, and make genotype recommendations within each mega-environment. Statistical analysis began with adjusting the yield estimates using the strip-plot experimental design and then combining the results in a genotype × location × management × year (GLMY) table. (continued)

      Published: September 25, 2015


    • Travis W. Shaddox, J. Bryan Unruh, Laurie E. Trenholm, Pauric McGroary and John L. Cisar
      Nitrogen Rate Required for Acceptable St. Augustinegrass and Associated Nitrate Leaching

      The recommended N rates for St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze.) vary in Florida. This research, conducted in Fort Lauderdale, Citra, and Jay, FL, (2006–2008), aimed to determine the minimum N rate necessary for acceptable St. Augustinegrass and to determine the influence of N and irrigation rate on NO3–N leaching. (continued)

      Published: November 23, 2015

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