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Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 56(1)



  • BIOMEDICAL, HEALTH BENEFICIAL & NUTRITIONALLY ENHANCED PLANTS

    • Anand Kanatti, Kedar Nath Rai, Kommineni Radhika and Mahalingam Govindaraj
      Tester Effect on Combining Ability and Its Relationship with Line Performance per se for Grain Iron and Zinc Densities in Pearl Millet

      Development of inbred lines with high general combining ability (GCA) is an important aspect of hybrid breeding research. Although broad-based open-pollinated populations (varieties and composites) are widely used to assess GCA of inbred lines and population progenies, identification of the most effective testers has remained a continuing challenge. Two broad-based and diverse populations of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] were crossed with 14 diverse inbred lines in each of two experiments to produce 56 topcross hybrids, which were evaluated along with their parental lines for grain Fe and Zn densities. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.08.0486
      Published: January 29, 2016



  • CROP BREEDING & GENETICS

    • Alison L. Thompson, Richard W. Smiley, Timothy C. Paulitz and Kim Garland-Campbell
      Identification of Resistance to Pratylenchus neglectus and Pratylenchus thornei in Iranian Landrace Accessions of Wheat

      The pathogenic nematodes Pratylenchus neglectus (Rensch, 1924) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941 and Pratylenchus thornei Sher and Allen, 1953 cause severe yield losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The objectives in this study were to assay a collection of Iranian landrace accessions collected from 12 provinces in Iran to identify novel sources of resistance to both species and to characterize agronomic traits critical for consideration in wheat breeding. Seventy-eight accessions were assayed for dual resistance to parasitic nematodes P. neglectus and P. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0438
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • Diego Jarquín, Sergio Pérez-Elizalde, Juan Burgueño and José Crossa
      A Hierarchical Bayesian Estimation Model for Multienvironment Plant Breeding Trials in Successive Years

      In agriculture and plant breeding, multienvironment trials over multiple years are conducted to evaluate and predict genotypic performance under different environmental conditions and to analyze, study, and interpret genotype × environment interaction (G × E). In this study, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian formulation of a linear–bilinear model, where the conditional conjugate prior for the bilinear (multiplicative) G × E term is the matrix von Mises–Fisher (mVMF) distribution (with environments and sites defined as synonymous). A hierarchical normal structure is assumed for linear effects of sites, and priors for precision parameters are assumed to follow gamma distributions. Bivariate highest posterior density (HPD) regions for the posterior multiplicative components of the interaction are shown within the usual biplots. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.08.0475
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • Amber Hoffstetter, Antonio Cabrera and Clay Sneller
      Identifying Quantitative Trait Loci for Economic Traits in an Elite Soft Red Winter Wheat Population

      Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), reduces genotyping costs and allows breeders to genotype large populations with thousands of markers. Genome-wide association studies with GBS markers can be used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important traits in elite populations of soft red winter wheat (SRWW; Triticum aestivum L.). Our objective was to identify potential QTL for grain yield (GY), Fusarium head blight resistance (FHB), flour yield (FY), and softness equivalence (SE) in a set of 470 elite SWRR wheat lines that were genotyped with 33,169 GBS markers and phenotyped in multiple environments. For all traits, we found lines that were phenotypically superior to the elite checks. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0332
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • Yong Suk Chung, Jiwan Palta, John Bamberg and Shelley Jansky
      Potential Molecular Markers Associated with Tuber Calcium Content in Wild Potato Germplasm

      High tuber Ca is associated with a reduced incidence of disease and physiological disorders in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). However, genetic variation for tuber Ca content in cultivated potato is low, limiting opportunities to study the genetic basis of this trait. We used wild germplasm to develop a population segregating for tuber Ca concentration. The high-Ca-accumulating potato wild relative S. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0370
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Bruno Portela Brasileiro, Thiago Otávio de Paula Mendes, Luiz Alexandre Peternelli, Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira, Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende and Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa
      Simulated Individual Best Linear Unbiased Prediction versus Mass Selection in Sugarcane Families

      The purpose of this study was to compare the method BLUPIS (best linear unbiased prediction individual simulated) with mass selection in terms of efficiency in identifying the best genotypes in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) families. Mass selection was performed by two breeders with 25 yr of experience. The BLUPIS procedure selected families with higher means for tons of cane per hectare (TCH) than the overall mean. The number of plants selected per family was calculated by , where indicates the genotypic value of the kth family; the genotypic value of the best family; and nj is equal to the number of plants selected in the best family, determined as nj = 45 in this study. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.03.0199
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Efrem Bechere, L. Zeng and R.G. Hardin
      Combining Ability of Ginning Rate and Net Ginning Energy Requirement in Upland Cotton

      Combining ability describes the breeding value of parental lines to produce hybrids. The objectives of this study were to estimate specific (SCA) and general combining ability (GCA) for ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in a set of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm. Ginning efficiency was based on measurements of ginning energy (watt hour [Wh] kg−1 lint) and ginning rate (g lint s−1). There is little information in the scientific literature on this topic. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0297
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Makoto Yamamori and Takeshi Yasui
      Combination of Null, Variant, and Mutant Wx Alleles in Common Wheat Leads to Amylose Variations Ranging from Waxy to Normal

      The apparent amylose contents due to five variant or mutant Wx alleles (Wx-A1c, -A1i, -D1f, -D1 g, and -D1h) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. The Wx gene encodes the granule-bound starch synthase that produces amylose in grain starch. One wheat line was used for each Wx genotype and the genetic backgrounds of the lines were not identical. The wheat lines were ranked, from lowest apparent amylose content to highest, as follows: waxy Bandowase (Wx-A1b, -B1b, -D1b, abbreviated as bbb), Tanikei A6599-4 (bbf), Wx-A1i (ibb), Wx-A1c (cbb), K107Afpp4 (bbg), Tanikei A6099 (bbh), Wx-A1a (abb), Wx-D1a (bba), and Bandowase (aaa, normal amylose level: approximately 30%). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0419
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Fernando Ledesma, Cindy Lopez, Diana Ortiz, Pengyin Chen, Kenneth L. Korth, Tetsuaki Ishibashi, Ailan Zeng, Moldir Orazaly and Liliana Florez-Palacios
      A Simple Greenhouse Method for Screening Salt Tolerance in Soybean

      Salinity is an important limiting factor for crop production. Over 800 million ha of land globally are salt-affected. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is moderately salt-tolerant; however, excessive salt reduces yield. Developing a quick, reliable, and inexpensive screening method is critical for soybean breeding programs. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0429
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Helga Amdahl, Trygve S. Aamlid, Åshild Ergon, Mallikarjuna R. Kovi, Petter Marum, Muath Alsheikh and Odd Arne Rognli
      Seed Yield of Norwegian and Swedish Tetraploid Red Clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) Populations

      While tetraploid plants of red clover are taller, have thicker stems, and have broader leaves that altogether result in a higher forage yield compared to diploids, they generally have substantially lower seed yields than diploid plants. Tetraploid red clover can be induced chemically by colchicine or nitrous oxide (N2O) and sexually by union of unreduced gametes. The average seed yield of tetraploid red clover in Norway is 60% of the diploid yield, while in Sweden it is 75%. One objective of this paper was to examine whether there is a difference in seed yield among chromosome doubled tetraploids and crossed tetraploids. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0441
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Marcos D. V. de Resende, Magno A. P. Ramalho, Pedro C. S. Carneiro, José E. S. Carneiro, Lorena G. Batista and Itamara B. Gois
      Selection Index with Parents, Populations, Progenies, and Generations Effects in Autogamous Plant Breeding

      Autogamous plant breeders obtain numerous populations annually, and in the progeny selection process, the merit of the population is not considered. Thus, it would be important to have a progeny selection index that includes not only the effects of progenies in the different generations but also the effects of populations in all the generations and the data from parents and the F1 and F2 generations simultaneously. The main objective of this paper was to develop a selection method that encompasses the entire structure of an autogamous plant breeding program including all the data as of the parents, the F1 and F2 generations, and also both the progeny and population effects in the F3 to F6 generations. To do so, a selection index (called selection index with parents, populations, progenies, and generations [SIPPPG]), which includes all these effects, was proposed. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0303
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • A.M. Nasseer, J.M. Martin, H.Y. Heo, N.K. Blake, J.D. Sherman, M. Pumphrey, K.D. Kephart, S.P. Lanning, Y. Naruoka and L.E. Talbert
      Impact of a Quantitative Trait Locus for Tiller Number on Plasticity of Agronomic Traits in Spring Wheat

      Variability of production environments challenges wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeders to develop genotypes with the potential to perform well under different levels of resource availability. An important trait that may provide plasticity to wheat is productive tiller number (PTN). This paper reports two studies. The first study tested the impact of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for PTN on yield and other traits in a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) grown over nine environments in the Pacific Northwest. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0325
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Brent S. Christenson, William T. Schapaugh, Nan An, Kevin P. Price, Vara Prasad and Allan K. Fritz
      Predicting Soybean Relative Maturity and Seed Yield Using Canopy Reflectance

      Optimized phenotyping, the observable characteristics attributed to the interaction between genotype and the environment, using canopy reflectance measurements may increase the efficiency of cultivar development. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess canopy reflectance as a tool for predicting soybean maturity and seed yield; (ii) identify specific development stages that contribute to maturity and yield estimation; and (iii) test the stability and utility of maturity and yield estimation models across environments. Canopy reflectance, maturity, and seed yield were measured on 20 maturity group (MG) 3 and 20 MG 4 soybean cultivars released from 1923 to 2010. Measurements were conducted on six irrigated and water-stressed environments in 2011 and 2012. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0237
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Muhammad Iqbal, Neshat Pazooki Moakhar, Klaus Strenzke, Teketel Haile, Curtis Pozniak, Pierre Hucl and Dean Spaner
      Genetic Improvement in Grain Yield and other Traits of Wheat Grown in Western Canada

      Breeding efforts have been important in addressing the challenges of wheat production in western Canada. We studied the effect of breeding on grain yield and other important traits of 100 wheat cultivars released in Canada from 1885 to 2012. The cultivars were grown in seven environments during 2011 to 2013. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity and kernel weight but negatively correlated with plant height, lodging, and grain protein content. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0348
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • Albrecht E. Melchinger, Willem S. Molenaar, Vilson Mirdita and Wolfgang Schipprack
      Colchicine Alternatives for Chromosome Doubling in Maize Haploids for Doubled-Haploid Production

      In vivo production of doubled-haploid (DH) lines in maize (Zea mays L.) routinely involves artificial chromosome doubling by colchicine treatment of seedlings. Because colchicine is a hazardous chemical, replacing it by less-toxic alternatives would be highly desirable. Our objectives were to (i) test the efficacy of various herbicides alone or in combination with other herbicides or phytohormones as chromosome doubling agents, (ii) evaluate the efficacy of application of these chemicals for different durations and methods of delivery to meristems, and (iii) compare colchicine treatment with the most promising alternative treatment under economic aspects. Several antimitotic herbicides with different modes of action and two phytohormones were tested in various combinations and concentrations in four experiments for survival rate (SR) of germinated seedlings, reproduction rate (RR) measured as the proportion of D0 plants with seed set, and overall success rate (OSR) measured as the proportion of D1 ears with seed set obtained from the germinated seedlings. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0383
      Published: January 8, 2016



  • CROP BREEDING AND GENETICS

    • Dai Ito, Reza Keshavarz Afshar, Chengci Chen, Perry Miller, Ken Kephart, Kent McVay, Peggy Lamb, John Miller, Brooke Bohannon and Martha Knox
      Multienvironmental Evaluation of Dry Pea and Lentil Cultivars in Montana using the AMMI Model

      Rapid development of the Montana pulse crop industry has created a strong demand for breeding efforts and cultivar recommendations. We evaluated adaptation and yield stability of diversely sourced dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes across Montana from 2009 to 2011. Mega-environments in Montana and superior genotypes were identified using additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) methodology. Grain yield of both crops varied among the locations and across years. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.01.0032
      Published: January 29, 2016



  • CROP ECOLOGY MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

    • Danielle M. Wilson, Theodore P. Gunther, Lisa A. Schulte, Kenneth J. Moore and Emily A. Heaton
      Variety Interacts with Space and Time to Influence Switchgrass Quality

      Efficient conversion of biomass crops to energy requires an understanding of plant quality, including cell wall and mineral composition. We compared key quality parameters of two leading switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) varieties, lowland ‘Kanlow’ and upland ‘Cave-in-Rock’, over two growing seasons and across five landscape positions. Through a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analysis, wherein two ordination axes together explained most of the variation in the data (r2 = 0.89), we found plant mineral composition (N and ash concentrations ) was influenced more by landscape position, while plant cell wall components were affected more by year of growth. Switchgrass at the floodplain position was “dirtier,” containing greater ash concentration (110 g kg−1) and N concentration (6.2 g kg−1) known to contaminate biochemical and thermochemical pathways. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0437
      Published: February 12, 2016



  • CROP ECOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

    • Matthew D. Thom, Carrie A. Eberle, Frank Forcella, Russ Gesch, Sharon Weyers and Jonathan G. Lundgren
      Nectar Production in Oilseeds: Food for Pollinators in an Agricultural Landscape

      Pollinating insects are in decline throughout the world, driven by a combination of factors including the loss of forage resources. The maize (Zea mays L.)– and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]–dominated agriculture of the Central and Midwestern United States produces a landscape relatively devoid of nectar and pollen resources. Introducing specialty oilseeds into current crop rotations could provide abundant floral resources for pollinating insects as well as a high-value crop for growers. We investigated the nectar sugar resources and insect visitation throughout flower anthesis of nine specialty oilseed crops in west-central Minnesota and eastern South Dakota during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0322
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • David A. Marburger, Bryson J. Haverkamp, Randall G. Laurenz, John M. Orlowski, Eric W. Wilson, Shaun N. Casteel, Chad D. Lee, Seth L. Naeve, Emerson D. Nafziger, Kraig L. Roozeboom, William J. Ross, Kurt D. Thelen and Shawn P. Conley
      Characterizing Genotype × Management Interactions on Soybean Seed Yield

      Increased soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] commodity prices in recent years have generated interest in high-input systems to increase yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of current, high-yielding cultivars under high- and low-input systems on soybean yield and yield components. Research trials were conducted at 19 locations spanning nine states from 2012 to 2014. At each location, six high-yielding cultivars were grown under three input systems: (i) standard practice (SP, current recommended practices), (ii) high-input treatment consisting of a seed treatment fungicide, insecticide, nematistat, inoculant, and lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO); soil-applied N fertilizer; foliar LCO, fertilizer, antioxidant, fungicide and insecticide (SOYA), and (iii) SOYA minus foliar fungicide (SOYA-FF). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.09.0576
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • Fuqiang Yang, Mingwei Du, Xiaoli Tian, A. Egrinya Eneji and Zhaohu Li
      Cotton Yield and Potassium Use Efficiency as Affected by Potassium Fertilizer Management with Stalks Returned to Field

      Widespread potassium (K) deficiencies in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) have been documented throughout cotton producing countries. Potassium fertilizer is needed for high production of cotton yield. This study was conducted to determine whether K fertilizer management can improve efficiency of K nutrition in cotton. The effects of K source, rate, and application timing on yield and K use efficiency of cotton were investigated under conditions of cotton-stalk recycling to the field in the North China Plain (NCP). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.03.0136
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Montserrat Salmerón, Edward E. Gbur, Fred M. Bourland, Normie W. Buehring, Larry Earnest, Felix B. Fritschi, Bobby R. Golden, Daniel Hathcoat, Josh Lofton, Angela Thompson McClure, Travis D. Miller, Clark Neely, Grover Shannon, Theophilus K. Udeigwe, David A. Verbree, Earl D. Vories, William J. Wiebold and Larry C. Purcell
      Yield Response to Planting Date Among Soybean Maturity Groups for Irrigated Production in the US Midsouth

      Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) yield. Environmental conditions in the US Midsouth allow for planting dates from late March through early July, and maturity groups (MGs) ranging from 3 to 6. However, the complexity of interactions among planting date, MG, and the environment makes the selection of an optimum MG cultivar difficult. A regional 3-yr study, conducted at eight locations with latitudes ranging from 30.6 to 38.9°N, planting dates ranging from late March to early July, and MGs 3 to 6, was used to examine the relationship between relative yield and planting day. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0466
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Yanzhe Wang, Xiying Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Liwei Shao, Suying Chen and Xiuwei Liu
      Soil Water Regime Affecting Correlation of Carbon Isotope Discrimination with Yield and Water-Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

      Improving crop water-use efficiency (WUE) is critical in securing food production under arid and semiarid regions, but a quick and accurate method for quantifying crop WUE is lacking. A field study on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was conducted under six irrigation regimes in two growing seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013) to determine the sampling time and the condition of soil moisture on the relationship of C isotope discrimination (Δ13C; measured by flag leaves, other leaves, and kernel) with grain yield and WUE at different levels (leaf level as WUEL, biomass level as WUEb and grain-yield level as WUEg). The results showed that the accumulated average soil water condition affected the leaf and kernel Δ13C. The kernel Δ13C and flag leaf Δ13C after heading were significantly related to the final biomass and grain production (P < 0.05), but their relationship to WUEg and WUEb was variable as a result of the effects of seasonal weather conditions on harvest index (HI) and soil evaporation. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2014.11.0793
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • José L. Rotundo, Jill E. Miller-Garvin and Seth L. Naeve
      Regional and Temporal Variation in Soybean Seed Protein and Oil across the United States

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition data are becoming critical for efficient marketing and trade of soybean and soybean products. Previous reports of variation in seed protein and oil across regions within the United States focused on variation associated with state and regional boundaries. We conducted an analysis of an 8-yr survey of seed protein and oil across US states and regions, including a geostatistical approach to better characterize the continuous variation in seed composition on a regional scale. The objectives were (i) to determine the relative importance of temporal and regional variation, (ii) to explore the extent of spatial variability across years, (iii) to evaluate the temporal stability across regions, and (iv) to explore the negative correlation between protein and oil across regions and years. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0394
      Published: January 15, 2016



  • CROP PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM

    • Karina E. D’Andrea, Carlina V. Piedra, Cecilia I. Mandolino, Ross Bender, Ana M. Cerri, Alfredo G. Cirilo and Maria E. Otegui
      Contribution of Reserves to Kernel Weight and Grain Yield Determination in Maize: Phenotypic and Genotypic Variation

      Maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight (KW) and grain yield depend on plant growth during active grain filling and reserves use. The objective of our study was to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic variation in these traits in a family of recombinant inbred lines (RIL). In two field experiments we measured plant grain yield (PGY) and its components (KW and kernel number per plant, KNP), biomass production per plant and per kernel during active grain filling, and apparent reserves use (ARU) per plant (ARUP, difference between PGY and plant biomass production during active grain filling) and per kernel (ARUK, difference between KW and plant biomass production per kernel during active grain filling). Heritability (h2) and phenotypic plasticity were computed for all traits. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0295
      Published: January 22, 2016



  • FORAGE & GRAZINGLANDS

    • M. Kimberly Mullenix, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Marcelo O. Wallau, Diane L. Rowland, Ann R. Blount, João M.B. Vendramini and Maria L. Silveira
      Sward Structure, Light Interception, and Rhizome-Root Responses of Rhizoma Peanut Cultivars and Germplasm to Grazing Management

      ‘Florigraze’ rhizoma peanut (RP; Arachis glabrata Benth.) is a persistent forage legume for the US Gulf Coast, but peanut stunt virus (Cucumovirus spp.) reduces herbage accumulation (HA). Less susceptible germplasms and cultivars of RP have been released, but their responses to grazing management are not known. The objective was to quantify aboveground and belowground sward responses to grazing management of RP entries differing in growth habit to explain HA and persistence. Treatments were all combinations of four RP entries (Florigraze, ‘UF Peace’, ‘UF Tito’, and germplasm Ecoturf), two grazing intensities (50 and 75% removal of pre-grazing canopy height), and two regrowth intervals (3 or 6 wk). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.08.0508
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • M. Kimberly Mullenix, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Marcelo O. Wallau, Ann R. Blount, João M.B. Vendramini and Maria L. Silveira
      Herbage Accumulation, Nutritive Value, and Persistence Responses of Rhizoma Peanut Cultivars and Germplasm to Grazing Management

      Forage legumes increase nutritive value and provide N to grass-based grazing systems. Few legumes have a long stand life in the southeastern US, but persistence is documented for rhizoma peanut (RP; Arachis glabrata Benth.). Several RP introductions have been released recently from the University of Florida, but their responses to grazing management have not been evaluated. The objective was to determine productivity, persistence, and nutritive value of three RP cultivars (‘Florigraze’, ‘UF Peace’, and ‘UF Tito’) and the germplasm Ecoturf grazed every 3 or 6 wk to remove 50 or 75% of pre-grazing canopy height. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.08.0507
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • Aleksa Božičković, Aleksandar Simić, Goran Grubić, Tomaž Žnidaršič, Nenad Djordjević and Bojan Stojanović
      Testing of a Modified Methodology for Determination of Mean Stage of Development in Alfalfa

      For all crop species, an accurate, quick, and simple method for determination of mean development stage of plants has a key role for scientific and practical use. The investigation was performed to validate a modified methodology for determination of mean stage of development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The modified methodology, mean stage by fresh weight (MSFW), assumes that mean stage by weight (MSW) could be determined by fresh, and not only by dry weight, as was required by the original methodology. A total of 198 alfalfa samples were collected in 2010 and 2011. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.03.0156
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • J. Josh Pittman, D. Brian Arnall, Sindy M. Interrante, Ning Wang, William R. Raun and Twain J. Butler
      Bermudagrass, Wheat, and Tall Fescue Crude Protein Forage Estimation using Mobile-Platform, Active-Spectral and Canopy-Height Data

      Forage nutritive value analysis is typically performed via laboratory methods. Developing a system that provides crude protein (CP) estimates more quickly would be valuable. For evaluating feasibility of this system, N rate experiments containing bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined. A hyperspectral passive spectrometer collecting spectral data at 340 to 1030 nm and a sensor system developed for use from a mobile platform were employed to collect data for prediction of CP. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0274
      Published: January 22, 2016



    • Valdson J. Silva, Carlos G.S. Pedreira, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Marcos S.S. Carvalho, Felipe Tonato and Débora C. Basto
      Growth Analysis of Irrigated ‘Tifton 85’ and Jiggs Bermudagrasses as Affected by Harvest Management

      Growth analysis of forage crops allows integration of photosynthesis, respiration, and allocation of photosynthate from estimates of physiological and morphological indices. These measurements help explain differences in growth potential between plants across seasons and in response to harvest management. The objective was to describe and explain patterns of growth of ‘Tifton 85’ (Cynodon spp.) and Jiggs [C. dactylon (L.) Pers.] bermudagrasses to three harvest frequencies (14, 28, and 42 d) during 2 yr. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0430
      Published: January 22, 2016



  • G X E SPECIAL SECTION

    • E.A. Lee, W. Deen, M.E. Hooyer, A. Chambers, G. Parkin, R. Gordon and A.K. Singh
      Involvement of Year-to-Year Variation in Thermal Time, Solar Radiation and Soil Available Moisture in Genotype-by-Environment Effects in Maize

      Year-to-year variability in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation is increasing due to global climate change. This enhanced variation will likely lead to more frequent and larger genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E) effects impacting genetic gains from selection. In this study G × E effects are examined in the absence of genetic variation for thermal time requirements (i.e., phenology), with an understanding of which physiological mechanisms are responsible for genotypic differences in grain yield, using a series of developmental windows, and in the context of fully characterized environments. Using a set of hybrid RILs of the classic Iodent × Stiff Stalk heterotic pattern, we demonstrate that the hybrid RILs are phenologically uniform and that grain yield differences are due primarily to genetic variation in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0231
      Published: February 12, 2016



  • PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    • T.L. Springer and J.J. Goldman
      Germination of Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. (Poaceae) Caryopses and Intact Spikelets

      Ravennagrass, Saccharum ravennae (L.) L. [synonym: Erianthus ravennae (Linn.) P. Beauv.], is a robust perennial bunchgrass grown as an ornamental in the US, but, where adapted, has become naturalized in riparian areas. Little is known about the seed size distribution and germination characteristics of ravennagrass caryopses or intact spikelets. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2014.11.0781
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Bang-hua Zhang, Er-jia Dong, Hu Zhang, Zhi-hua Shi, Xiao-ling Song, Sheng Qiang and Wei-min Dai
      Use of Hybrid Rice and the Proliferation of Weedy Rice: A Case in Jiangsu, China

      Jiangsu Province, located between northern China and southern China, is a typically mixed area of conventional and three-line hybrid rice without Oryza rufipogon Griff. and Oryza nivara S. D. Sharma & Shastry. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0210
      Published: January 22, 2016



  • SEED PHYSIOLOGY, PRODUCTION & TECHNOLOGY

    • Vanessa N. Soares, Sabry G. Elias, Gizele I. Gadotti, Adriel E. Garay and Francisco A. Villela
      Can the Tetrazolium Test be Used as an Alternative to the Germination Test in Determining Seed Viability of Grass Species?

      Currently, the standard germination test (SGT) is the official test for evaluating seed viability in seed testing laboratories around the world. The SGT takes 3 to 4 wk to complete for most grasses, including the dormancy breaking treatment period. The tetrazolium test (TZT), however, offers quick viability determination within 24 to 48 h, even for dormant seeds. This study was conducted to compare SGT and TZT results for tall fescue (TF), annual and perennial ryegrass (ARG and PRG), orchardgrass (OG), bentgrass (BG), Kentucky bluegrass (KBG), and fine fescues (FF). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0399
      Published: January 22, 2016



  • SEED PHYSIOLOGY, PRODUCTION, & TECHNOLOGY

    • Constanza P. Dominguez, Diego Batlla, María V. Rodríguez, Liliana B. Windauer, Magdalena Gerbaldo and Roberto L. Benech-Arnold
      Pericarp-Imposed Dormancy in Sunflower: Physiological Basis, Impact on Crop Emergence, and Removal at an Industrial Scale

      Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes often display pericarp-imposed dormancy, which is long-lasting and causes serious problems to crop production and the seed industry. For this study we assessed an extensively used sunflower inbred line that has this type of dormancy. Our goals were (i) to determine the effect of pericarp on germination and to evaluate its impact on crop field emergence, (ii) to provide insight into the physiological basis of pericarp-imposed dormancy by determining the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in the embryo and the embryo sensitivity to ABA during incubation at different temperatures, (iii) to assess the effect of oxidant agents and other compounds on dormancy termination, and (iv) to evaluate the feasibility of using oxidants to remove dormancy at an industrial scale. Incubation at high temperatures (i.e., 25 to 30°C) allowed the expression of dormancy, which was imposed by the pericarp and was accompanied by an increase in embryo sensitivity to ABA, but not in ABA concentration. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0335
      Published: January 15, 2016



  • SYMPOSIA

    • Mark Cooper, Frank Technow, Carlos Messina, Carla Gho and L. Radu Totir
      Use of Crop Growth Models with Whole-Genome Prediction: Application to a Maize Multienvironment Trial

      High throughput genotyping, phenotyping, and envirotyping applied within plant breeding multienvironment trials (METs) provide the data foundations for selection and tackling genotype × environment interactions (GEIs) through whole-genome prediction (WGP). Crop growth models (CGM) can be used to enable predictions for yield and other traits for different genotypes and environments within a MET if genetic variation for the influential traits and their responses to environmental variation can be incorporated into the CGM framework. Furthermore, such CGMs can be integrated with WGP to enable whole-genome prediction with crop growth models (CGM-WGP) through use of computational methods such as approximate Bayesian computation. We previously used simulated data sets to demonstrate proof of concept for application of the CGM-WGP methodology to plant breeding METs. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.08.0512
      Published: February 12, 2016



    • Marcos Malosetti, Daniela Bustos-Korts, Martin P. Boer and Fred A. van Eeuwijk
      Predicting Responses in Multiple Environments: Issues in Relation to Genotype × Environment Interactions

      Prediction of the phenotypes for a set of genotypes across multiple environments is a fundamental task in any plant breeding program. Genomic prediction (GP) can assist selection decisions by combining incomplete phenotypic information over multiple environments (MEs) with dense sets of markers. We compared a range of ME-GP models differing in the way environment-specific genetic effects were modeled. Information among environments was shared either implicitly via the response variable, or by the introduction of explicit environmental covariables. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.05.0311
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • Bettina Lado, Pablo González Barrios, Martín Quincke, Paula Silva and Lucía Gutiérrez
      Modeling Genotype × Environment Interaction for Genomic Selection with Unbalanced Data from a Wheat Breeding Program

      Genomic selection (GS) has successfully been used in plant breeding to improve selection efficiency and reduce breeding time and cost. However, there is not a clear strategy on how to incorporate genotype × environment interaction (GEI) to GS models. Increased prediction accuracy could be achieved using mixed models to exploit GEI by borrowing information from other environments. The objective of this work was to compare strategies to exploit GEI in GS using mixed models. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0207
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Jakub Paderewski, Hugh G. Gauch, Wieslaw Mądry and Edward Gacek
      AMMI Analysis of Four-Way Genotype × Location × Management × Year Data from a Wheat Trial in Poland

      Grain yield data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) trials in Poland had a four-way factorial design of 24 genotypes by 20 locations by two managements by 3 yr. The experimental design had genotype–management strip plots with two replications for genotypes, with somewhat more genotypes than the 24 having no missing data. The research objectives were to extend additive main effects and multiplicative interactions (AMMI) analysis from two-way to higher-way datasets to reduce spurious complexity originating from noise, delineate wheat mega-environments in Poland, and make genotype recommendations within each mega-environment. Statistical analysis began with adjusting the yield estimates using the strip-plot experimental design and then combining the results in a genotype × location × management × year (GLMY) table. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.03.0152
      Published: September 25, 2015



    • Weikai Yan
      Analysis and Handling of G × E in a Practical Breeding Program

      Genotype by environment interaction (GE) is a reality in plant breeding and crop production, and has to be dealt with. There are but two viable options to deal with GE: to utilize it or to avoid it, depending on whether it is repeatable. Repeatable GE can be selected for (utilized) whereas unrepeatable GE has to be selected against (avoided). To utilize GE involves identifying repeatable GE, dividing the target region into subregions or megaenvironments (ME) based on the repeatable GE pattern, and selecting within ME. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0336
      Published: December 3, 2015



    • José Crossa, Gustavo de los Campos, Marco Maccaferri, Roberto Tuberosa, J. Burgueño and Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez
      Extending the Marker × Environment Interaction Model for Genomic-Enabled Prediction and Genome-Wide Association Analysis in Durum Wheat

      The marker × environment interaction (M×E) genomic model can be used to generate predictions for untested individuals and identify genomic regions in which effects are stable across environments and others that show environmental specificity. The objectives of this study were (i) to extend the M×E model using priors that produce shrinkage and variable selection such as Bayesian ridge regression (BRR) and BayesB (BB), respectively, and (ii) to evaluate the genomic prediction accuracy of M×E, single-environment, and across-environment models using a multiparental durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. spp. duram) population characterized for grain yield (GY), grain volume weight (GVW), 1000-kernel weight (GWT), and heading date (HD) in four environments. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0260
      Published: December 3, 2015



  • TURFGRASS SCIENCE

    • J.J. Benelli, B.J. Horvath, J.T. Brosnan and D.A. Kopsell
      Plant Health Characteristics of Creeping Bentgrass Affected by Strobilurin Fungicide Applications and Turfgrass Diseases

      Previous research has indicated that strobilurin fungicide applications may mitigate the effects of summer heat stress on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Two multi-year experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate plant health characteristics following strobilurin fungicide applications to creeping bentgrass putting greens. In Exp. 1, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin, or trifloxystrobin were integrated within a conventional summer fungicide program. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0450
      Published: February 5, 2016



    • Hidenori Tanaka, Risa Tokunaga, Melody Muguerza, Yasuo Kitazaki, Masatsugu Hashiguchi, Shusei Sato, Satoshi Tabata and Ryo Akashi
      Genetic Structure and Speciation of Zoysiagrass Ecotypes Collected in Japan

      Zoysia japonica Steudel, Z. matrella (L.) Merrill, and Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) M. Hotta and Kuroki [syn. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0249
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Glen R. Obear, Phillip Barak and Douglas J. Soldat
      Soil Inorganic Carbon Accumulation in Sand Putting Green Soils II: Acid–Base Relationships as affected by Water Chemistry and Nitrogen Source

      There is a widely held belief in the turfgrass industry that bicarbonate from irrigation water can accumulate and cause physical problems in the soil despite a lack of evidence for this claim. The objective of this study was to quantify accumulation of carbonate (soil inorganic C [SIC]) from irrigation water in a simulated root zone of a sand putting green fertilized with two different N sources (ammonium sulfate or potassium nitrate). To track SIC additions from irrigation water, sand columns were irrigated with low salinity, carbonate-enriched water containing 13C-labeled bicarbonate and compared with a control irrigated with deionized water. After 20 mo, which was equivalent to about 3.5 yr of typical irrigation on a golf course, soil pH, SIC, and δ13C were measured by depth. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0342
      Published: January 29, 2016



    • Douglas L. Heckart, Trent M. Tate, Wayne A. Parrott and Paul L. Raymer
      In Vitro Selection of Sethoxydim-Resistant Creeping Bentgrass

      Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a fine-textured, cold-hardy turfgrass used by the golf industry in the transition zone and farther north. Grassy weeds are a recurrent problem for seed producers and golf course managers. Herbicide-resistant creeping bentgrass would provide the seed producer and golf course manager with an additional tool to control grassy weeds. In the present study, in vitro selection was used to obtain mutants of creeping bentgrass via somaclonal variation that were resistant to the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor, sethoxydim {2-[1-(ethoxyimino] butyl)-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one}. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.04.0208
      Published: January 15, 2016



    • Karl Guillard, Richard J. M. Fitzpatrick and Holly Burdett
      Can Frequent Measurement of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index and Soil Nitrate Guide Nitrogen Fertilization of Kentucky Bluegrass Sod?

      Objective approaches to guide N fertilization of turfgrass sod crops are lacking. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), frequently-measured soil NO3–N concentrations, and peak-shear force of predominately Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod, and to evaluate if those relationships could help guide N fertilization. Ramp calibration strips (RCS) with varying N rates were established within production sod fields in Rhode Island across three consecutive years. At 2-wk intervals during each growing season, soil NO3–N concentrations and NDVI readings were recorded and correlated. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.06.0347
      Published: January 15, 2016



    • Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, Richard H. White, James C. Thomas and Charles H. Fontanier
      Deficit Irrigation and Simulated Traffic on ‘Tifway’ Bermudagrass Summer Performance and Autumn Recovery

      Golf course water use continues to be highly scrutinized. Information is limited regarding minimal levels of reference evapotranspiration (ETo)-based irrigation needed to maintain adequate summer fairway performance and autumn recovery. The objectives of this 2-yr study were to (i) characterize ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.03.0197
      Published: January 8, 2016



    • Travis W. Shaddox, J. Bryan Unruh and Laurie E. Trenholm
      Nitrate Leaching from Soluble Nitrogen Applied to ‘Floratam’ St. Augustinegrass and Common Centipedegrass during Dormancy

      Fertilizer bans in Florida prevent turf managers from applying nitrogen (N) fertilizers during periods of active turf growth and may encourage fertilization in fall and winter. Nutrient applications during fall or winter may pose an increased risk to nitrate N (NO3–N) leaching. A 3-yr field lysimeter study was conducted in Jay, FL, to determine the effect of N rates on NO3–N leaching from ‘Floratam’ St. Augustinegrass (SA) [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze] and common centipedegrass (CE) [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] during turfgrass dormancy. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.02.0104
      Published: January 8, 2016



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