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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

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Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 57(2)


    • Tanize dos Santos Acunha, Rosane Lopes Crizel, Icaro Borges Tavares, Rosa Lia Barbieri, Claudio Martin Pereira de Pereira, Cesar Valmor Rombaldi and Fabio Clasen Chaves
      Bioactive Compound Variability in a Brazilian Capsicum Pepper Collection

      This report aims to characterize the bioactive content of pepper (Capsicum L., Solanaceae) accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection. Peppers are currently a major vegetable crop worldwide, with 31 Tg produced in 2013, according to FAO. Seventy-two accessions of Capsicum annuum L., C. baccatum L., C. (continued)

      Published: March 2, 2017


    • Alexandra Duhnen, Amandine Gras, Simon Teyssèdre, Michel Romestant, Bruno Claustres, Jean Daydé and Brigitte Mangin
      Genomic Selection for Yield and Seed Protein Content in Soybean: A Study of Breeding Program Data and Assessment of Prediction Accuracy

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a major crop with high seed protein content. Genomic selection is expected to be a valuable tool in improving the efficiency of breeding programs, especially for complex traits such as yield. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of genomic selection for yield and seed protein content in a soybean breeding population. Having a structured population, we compared genomic prediction accuracy obtained using models calibrated across or within two subpopulations: early lines and late lines. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Keiddy Urrea, John Rupe, Pengyin Chen and Craig S. Rothrock
      Characterization of Seed Rot Resistance to Pythium aphanidermatum in Soybean

      The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Moench.] cultivar ‘Archer’ has a single gene for resistance to hypocotyl infection by Pythium aphanidermatum (Rpa1) but it is not known if this source of resistance limits pre-emergence damping-off caused by this pathogen. Resistance in Archer to pre-emergence damping-off caused by P. aphanidermatum was characterized in 84 F2:6 soybean lines derived from a cross of ‘Archer’ (the resistant parent) and ‘Hutcheson’ (the susceptible parent). The lines and parents were evaluated for percent germination at 7 days and percent stand at 14 days via a seed plate assay and an infested vermiculite assay, respectively. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Jeffrey D. Boehm, M. Itria Ibba, Alecia M. Kiszonas and Craig F. Morris
      End-Use Quality of CIMMYT-Derived Soft-Kernel Durum Wheat Germplasm: II. Dough Strength and Pan Bread Quality

      Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because of its weaker gluten strength, combined with a larger flour particle size and higher level of starch damage after milling. Recently, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture, Soft Svevo, was developed by the Ph1b-mediated homoeologous transfer of the Puroindoline genes at the Hardness (Ha) locus from the D genome of T. aestivum L. The objective of this research was to evaluate the dough strength and pan bread-making potential of soft-kernel durum germplasm developed from crossing Soft Svevo to selected entries of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 44th International Durum Yield Nursery. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Haley M. Sater, Shannon R. M. Pinson, Karen A. K. Moldenhauer, Terry J. Siebenmorgen, Richard E. Mason, Virginia A. Boyett and Jeremy D. Edwards
      Fine Mapping of qFIS1-2 , a Major QTL for Kernel Fissure Resistance in Rice

      Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring causes breakage during milling and thereby decreases the value of rice. This study employed molecular gene-tagging methods to fine map a fissure resistance (FR) locus in ‘Cybonnet’, a semidwarf tropical japonica cultivar, as well as to transfer this trait to rice genotypes of non-semidwarf stature that are better adapted to some rice production systems. Three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FR were previously reported, with the FR locus linked with the semidwarf sd-1 locus on chromosome 1 having the strongest effect. For fine mapping, F2 progeny were produced from a cross between US breeding line RU1201108, having non-semidwarf height (Sd-1/Sd-1) and poor milling quality, and Cybonnet (sd-1/sd-1), having semidwarf height and containing multiple FR loci. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Zahra Roudbari, Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad and Hossein Shahsavand-Hassani
      Field Screening of Primary and Secondary Tritipyrum Genotypes using Selection Indices based on BLUP under Saline and Normal Conditions

      This is the first report of secondary tritipyrum recombinant inbred lines derived from Iranian wheat cultivars (Triticum durum Desf./Triticum aestivum L. × Thinopyrum bessarabicum Savul. & Rayss). An experiment was performed under normal (1 dS m−1) and saline (12 dS m−1) conditions during the 2013 to 2015 growing seasons in Kerman, Iran (29.48° N, 57.64° E) to evaluate the potential of tritipyrum, a new salt-tolerant cereal. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • R. Machado Rezende, V. Teixeira Andrade, S. Maria Lima Salgado, J. Costa de Rezende, J. de Oliveira Menezes and Gladyston R. Carvalho
      Genetic Gain in the Resistance of Arabica Coffee Progenies to Root-Knot Nematode

      The nematode Meloidogyne exigua infests Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants, leading to severe growth reduction in young trees and decreased bean yield. We investigated the responses of coffee plants to this nematode and estimated the genetic gain in progenies derived from the cross between the cultivar Catuaí and the Timor hybrid. We evaluated 85 F4:5 progenies; the cultivars Mundo Novo IAC 379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99 were used as susceptible controls, and Paraíso MG H 419-1 and IPR 100 were used as resistant controls. Progeny responses were evaluated using the gall index (GI), reproduction factor (RF), reproduction factor reduction (RFR), and number of eggs and juveniles (J2) per gram of roots (NEJGR). (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Jeffrey D. Boehm, M. Itria Ibba, Alecia M. Kiszonas and Craig F. Morris
      End-Use Quality of CIMMYT-Derived Soft-Kernel Durum Wheat Germplasm: I. Grain, Milling, and Soft Wheat Quality

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Jessica K. Moore, Harish K. Manmathan, Victoria A. Anderson, Jesse A. Poland, Craig F. Morris and Scott D. Haley
      Improving Genomic Prediction for Pre-Harvest Sprouting Tolerance in Wheat by Weighting Large-Effect Quantitative Trait Loci

      Preharvest sprouting (PHS) is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that occurs when grains in a mature spike germinate before harvest, resulting in reduced yield, quality, and grain sale price. Improving PHS tolerance is a challenge to wheat breeders because it is quantitatively inherited and tedious to score. Genomic selection (GS) is particularly useful for predicting phenotypes that are costly and time consuming to assess. In our study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing were used to identify significant marker trait associations and develop predictive models for PHS tolerance. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Johnie N. Jenkins, Jack C. McCarty, B. Todd Campbell, R. W. Hayes, Jixiang Wu, Sukumar Saha and D. M. Stelly
      Genetic Effects of Chromosomes 1, 4, and 18 from Three Tetraploid Gossypium Species in Topcrosses with Five Elite Cultivars

      Chromosome substitution lines (CSLs) have been developed for selected chromosomes from two tetraploid species of Gossypium and are effective ways to target introgression of alleles from exotic tetraploid species into Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) Genetic effects of chromosomes 1, 4, and 18 from Upland cotton (TM-1), Pima cotton (G. barbadense L.), and Hawaiian cotton (G. tomentosum Nutt. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Shaoming Huang, Krishna K. Gali, Bunyamin Tar’an, Thomas D. Warkentin and Rosalind A. Bueckert
      Pea Phenology: Crop Potential in a Warming Environment

      One hundred and seven recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from the cross of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars CDC Centennial × CDC Sage with the objectives of evaluating phenology and yield components, and to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for these traits. Experiments were conducted in 2013 using normal seeding date at Saskatoon and Rosthern in Saskatchewan, and in 2014 using both normal and late seeding. The late seeding date was used to expose the plots to a more heat stressful environment, analogous to that experienced in warmer regions of the North American prairies. Days to flowering termination (DTFT) was positively correlated with final seed yield under both normal and late seeding conditions. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Pierre Ouvrard, M. Quinet and A.-L. Jacquemart
      Breeding System and Pollination Biology of Belgian Oilseed Rape Cultivars ( Brassica napus )

      Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. ssp napus) is considered to be an insect-pollinated species, but the degree of insect-dependent pollination differs among cultivars and the contribution of wind pollination remains a matter of debate. In addition, the breeding system has not been assessed for several new cultivars and spontaneous self-pollination has rarely been addressed. This study aimed to clarify the current situation in Belgium by analyzing the breeding system and pollination biology of the most cropped Belgian cultivars. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Odilon Peixoto de Morais, José Almeida Pereira, Patrícia Guimarães Santos Melo, Paulo Henrique Ramos Guimarães and Orlando Peixoto de Morais
      Gene Action and Combining Ability for Certain Agronomic Traits in Red Rice Lines and Commercial Cultivars

      Cultivated red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important special type of rice in Brazil and makes an excellent food, mainly because of its nutritional value. Genetic variability, useful for rice breeding programs, exists among red rice accessions. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to determine the nature of gene action and magnitude of genetic components conditioning grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), and days to flowering (DTF); and (ii) to determine the combining ability for these traits in nine red rice lines (female parents) and four commercial cultivars (male parents). Thirteen parents, an F2 generation of 18 crosses, and a check cultivar were evaluated at two locations (Goianira and Teresina, Brazil) using a randomized complete block design with four replications. (continued)

      Published: April 6, 2017

    • Enid Perez-Lara, Kassa Semagn, Van Anh Tran, Izabela Ciechanowska, Hua Chen, Muhammad Iqbal, Amidou N’Diaye, Curtis Pozniak, Stephen E. Strelkov, Pierre J. Hucl, Robert J. Graf, Harpinder Randhawa and D. Spaner
      Population Structure and Genomewide Association Analysis of Resistance to Disease and Insensitivity to Ptr Toxins in Canadian Spring Wheat Using 90K SNP Array

      Leaf rust, yellow (stripe) rust, common bunt, and tan spot are economically significant diseases affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in Canada. In this study, we investigated the genetic relationship and population structure of 81 Canadian western spring wheat cultivars released primarily between 1963 and 2011 and identified genomic regions associated with resistance to the above four diseases and insensitivity to three Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) toxins (Ptr ToxA, Ptr ToxB and Ptr ToxC). The cultivars were evaluated for field reaction to the four diseases and for reaction to the three Ptr toxins in a greenhouse and were genotyped with a subset of 19,919 of the wheat 90K single-nucleotide polymorphic array and 11 gene-specific markers. There were large genetic differences among pairwise comparisons of cultivars, except six pairs that showed <0.05 genetic distance. (continued)

      Published: April 6, 2017

    • Keith Rincker, Troy Cary and Brian W. Diers
      Impact of Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance on Soybean Yield

      Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] causes extensive yield loss, and host resistance has been an effective strategy to minimize this loss. However, shifts in SCN population virulence compatibility have resulted from the extensive use of PI 88788 as a source of resistance in the northern United States. The Northern Regional Soybean Cyst Nematode Tests offer a vast amount of yield testing, combined with resistance screening of entries and the characterization of the SCN infection of test fields. The objectives of this study were to use regional test results (i) to quantify the impact of resistance as the initial field SCN egg counts increase, (ii) to explore effects of maturity group (MG) on resistance, and (iii) to gain insights into how the ability of SCN to infect germplasm with resistance from PI 88788 affects yield. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Gregor Gorjanc, Jean-Francois Dumasy, Serap Gonen, R. Chris Gaynor, Roberto Antolin and John M. Hickey
      Potential of Low-Coverage Genotyping-by-Sequencing and Imputation for Cost-Effective Genomic Selection in Biparental Segregating Populations

      Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is an alternative genotyping method to single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays that has received considerable attention in the plant breeding community. In this study we use simulation to quantify the potential of low-coverage GBS and imputation for cost-effective genomic selection in biparental segregating populations. The simulations comprised a range of scenarios where SNP array or GBS data were used to train the genomic selection model, to predict breeding values, or both. The GBS data were generated with sequencing coverages (x) from 4x to 0.01x. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Jason L. DeBruin, Jeffrey R. Schussler, Hua Mo and Mark Cooper
      Grain Yield and Nitrogen Accumulation in Maize Hybrids Released during 1934 to 2013 in the US Midwest

      Nitrogen (N) application in maize (Zea mays L.) reached a maximum of 145 kg N ha−1 in the US Midwest in 1975. Grain yield has continued to increase at a rate of 111 kg ha−1 yr−1, implying an improvement in N efficiency. Our objective was to measure the rate of genetic gain and the traits that contributed to the observed N efficiency for a set of DuPont Pioneer hybrids released between the era decades (ERA) of 1934 to 2013. These hybrids represent the most widely sold hybrids (by volume) in each ERA. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Heathcliffe Riday
      Seed-Parent Fecundity Distributions in Bee-Pollinated Forage Legume Polycrosses

      Modeling expected fecundity distributions in bee-pollinated forage legume polycrosses allows more accurate assessment of true inbreeding levels expected in breeding polycrosses. Presented is an empirically derived model for expected seed-parent fecundity distributions for a given polycross size (N). In this study, N standardized seed-parent fecundity frequencies {[Pfi − (1/N)]/(1/N)} were modeled on 169 polycrosses in four species—alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum Bieb.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)—using Weibull distributions (scale parameter k, shape parameter λ). On the basis of all polycrosses, it was determined that k could be predicted from λ using a fifth-order polynomial. (continued)

      Published: March 16, 2017

    • Serge Edmé, Robert Mitchell and Gautam Sarath
      Genetic Parameters and Prediction of Breeding Values in Switchgrass Bred for Bioenergy

      Estimating genetic parameters is an essential step in breeding by recurrent selection to maximize genetic gains over time. This study evaluated the effects of selection on genetic variation across two successive cycles (C1 and C2) of a ‘Summer’x‘Kanlow’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) population. Two progeny tests were planted in 2007 and 2011 near Mead, NE and respectively analyzed for 2 and 4 yr. Each test was a randomized complete block design, with four replicates of 34 halfsib families in single-row plots of 10 seedlings in C1 and with three replicates of 111 halfsib families in single-row plots of five seedlings in C2. (continued)

      Published: March 16, 2017

    • Dimitrios N. Vlachostergios and Demetrios G. Roupakias
      Screening under Low Plant Density Reinforces the Identification of Lentil Plants with Resistance to Fusarium Wilt

      Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) varieties resistant to Fusarium wilt (Fw) is a key issue in sustainable production systems. The effect of the plant density (PD) on screening lentil plants for resistance to Fw was studied for 4 yr. Single plants originating from 20 lentil varieties along with their seed composite were grown in a replicated-21 honeycomb design under three PDs in a wilt-sick plot. Plant densities were 3.2 plants m−2 (PDI), 12.8 plants m−2 (PDII), and 25.6 plants m−2 (PDIII). (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Shiori Yabe, Hiroyoshi Iwata and Jean-Luc Jannink
      A Simple Package to Script and Simulate Breeding Schemes: The Breeding Scheme Language

      It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target-trait genetic architecture and breeding-resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may be useful to help choose a better (or the best) breeding scheme, it is difficult for breeders to take the first step in conducting breeding simulation because of the complexity of building a simulation platform or even using existing simulation tools. We present here a simple and flexible simulation platform, the breeding scheme language (BSL). (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Benard Yada, Agnes Alajo, Gorrettie N. Ssemakula, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Gina Brown-Guedira and G. Craig Yencho
      Selection of Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Associated with Inheritance of Sweetpotato Virus Disease Resistance in Sweetpotato

      Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD), a complex of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Crinivirus) and Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyvirus) causes high yield losses in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The development of resistant cultivars to SPVD has been limited by the complex sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. var. batatas] genetics and high levels of mutations in the causal viruses. (continued)

      Published: March 2, 2017

    • Robert A. Graybosch
      Similarities among Test Sites Based on the Performance of Advanced Breeding Lines in the Great Plains Hard Winter Wheat Region

      USDA-ARS coordinated regional wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding trials examine agronomic performance and adaptation over a wider geographic range than single breeding programs can achieve. The trials provide an evaluation of experimental breeding lines in alternate test sites that are environmentally similar or dissimilar to the program of origin. Data from USDA-ARS Hard Winter Wheat Regional Nurseries grown in 1987 to 2014 were used to identify similarities among Great Plains test sites. Mean correlations of entry grain yields across locations and years were used in principal factor analyses to cluster them into production zones. (continued)

      Published: March 2, 2017


    • Somashekhar Punnuri, Karen Harris-Shultz, Joseph Knoll, Xinzhi Ni and Hongliang Wang
      The Genes Bm2 and Blmc that Affect Epicuticular Wax Deposition in Sorghum are Allelic

      Epicuticular waxes (EW) coat the aerial surfaces of the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plant and have a role in the plant’s resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, such as drought, ultraviolet light, insects, and fungal pathogens. Mutants of the Bloomless2 (Bm2) locus, such as bm2-3, lack visible EW and have inhibited synthesis of the cuticle. The sorghum mutant bloom-cuticle (blmc) also lacks visible EW and has inhibited synthesis of the cuticle, as well as many other effects. In this study, an allelism test was performed, which revealed that blmc is an allele of the Bm2 locus and is hereby designated as bm2-7. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017


    • Luis Cláudio de Faria, Patrícia Guimarães Santos Melo, Helton Santos Pereira and Leonardo Cunha Melo
      Genetic Gain in Common Bean with Black Grain by Indirect Estimation Methods

      The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic gain for yield of black-grained common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed by the Embrapa breeding program of Brazil. Genetic gain estimates were generated from 403 field tests conducted in all regions of Brazil in three growing seasons over 16 yr, from 1993 to 2008. Genetic gains were estimated by two indirect methods and were compared with those found through a direct estimation method. The first methodology used the mixed model approach to calculate the best unbiased linear estimate of cycle means, as fixed effects, and the best unbiased predictor of the genotype effect within cycles, as random effects. (continued)

      Published: March 30, 2017


    • Raghuveer Sripathi, Patrick Conaghan, Dermot Grogan and Michael D. Casler
      Spatial Variability Effects on Precision and Power of Forage Yield Estimation

      Spatial analyses of yield trials allow adjustment of cultivar means for spatial variation, improving the statistical precision of yield estimation. While the relative efficiency of spatial analysis has been frequently reported in several yield trials, its application to long-term Lolium spp. forage yield trials has not been characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend analysis, nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA), and correlated error (CE) models for their ability to account for spatial variability in 138 Lolium spp. (continued)

      Published: April 6, 2017


    • Wenchao Zhao, Mingwei Du, Dongyong Xu, Huaiyu Lu, Xiaoli Tian and Zhaohu Li
      Interactions of Single Mepiquat Chloride Application at Different Growth Stages with Climate, Cultivar, and Plant Population for Cotton Yield

      Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield responses to the plant growth regulator mepiquat chloride (1,1-dimethyl piperidinium chloride, MC) are associated with climate, cultivar, and plant population. However, the interactions of these factors with MC for yield are inconsistent or unexpected. We hypothesize that climate (mainly precipitation), cultivar, and plant density only interact with MC applied at specific growth stages to affect yield. Experiments were thus conducted in two contrasting years (2013–2014). (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Spyridon Mourtzinis, David Marburger, John Gaska, Thierno Diallo, Joe Lauer and Shawn Conley
      Corn and Soybean Yield Response to Tillage, Rotation, and Nematicide Seed Treatment

      Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations are common production systems across the midwestern United States. However, the interactive effect of crop rotation, tillage, and nematicide seed treatments on the yield of both crops in the rotation system is not well understood. Field trials were conducted in a long-term crop rotation experiment during 2013 to 2015 to measure yield response of both corn and soybean to three factors: (i) tillage system (no-till [NT] and conventional), (ii) crop rotation frequency (14 sequences involving corn and soybean), and (iii) three nematicide seed treatments (a control, abamectin/Pasteuria nishizawae, and Bacillus firmus). Rotations that involved consecutive years of soybean exhibited the greatest nematode populations in the soil, whereas, consecutive years of corn resulted in lower nematode populations. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Baoyuan Zhou, Xuefang Sun, Zaisong Ding, Wei Ma and Ming Zhao
      Multisplit Nitrogen Application via Drip Irrigation Improves Maize Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

      Conventional fertilization with most N applied before or during early maize (Zea mays L.) growth stages can negatively affect production if soil N is insufficient after silking. Here, drip irrigation with a split application of N (drip fertigation) was evaluated to determine whether the effect on yield and N use efficiency (NUE) differs with cropping practice. Compared with conventional fertilization, drip fertigation increased yield by 13 and 14% at a low planting density under a low N rate (L) and by 15% at a high planting density under a high N rate (H) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Yield increases under drip fertigation were attributed to 18 and 17% increases in postsilking dry matter (DM) accumulation under L, and 12 and 10% increases in presilking DM accumulation, and 17 and 16% increases in postsilking DM accumulation under H in 2012 and 2013, respectively. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017


    • Jesse Traub, James D. Kelly and Wayne Loescher
      Early Metabolic and Photosynthetic Responses to Drought Stress in Common and Tepary Bean

      Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important food crop, especially in East Africa and Central and South America. Subsistence farmer yields in these areas are limited by the many common bean cultivars that are drought sensitive. Consequently, a major goal of breeding programs is to improve drought tolerance. Our objective was to identify and compare physiological components of drought stress among common bean genotypes varying in stress tolerance. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Keru Chen, James J. Camberato and Tony J. Vyn
      Maize Grain Yield and Kernel Component Relationships to Morphophysiological Traits in Commercial Hybrids Separated by Four Decades

      Hybrid era and management practices like nitrogen (N) rate and plant density influence canopy traits and their correlations with grain yield, kernel number, and kernel weight in maize (Zea mays L.). A four site-year study was conducted employing two N rates (55 and 220 kg N ha−1) with three plant densities between 54,000 and 104,000 plants ha−1 for two newer hybrids (2005) and two older hybrids (1967 and 1975). Hybrids varied in anthesis–silking interval, specific leaf nitrogen (SLN), specific leaf area, and leaf greenness (soil plant analysis development [SPAD] readings), but not in leaf area index (LAI) at silking. Consistently higher kernel weight in newer hybrids (15% in 2012, 23% in 2013) across management treatments was related to their higher SLN at silking and green leaf number retention during grain filling. (continued)

      Published: March 30, 2017

    • V.S. John Sunoj, Impa M. Somayanda, Anuj Chiluwal, Ramasamy Perumal, P.V. Vara Prasad and S.V. Krishna Jagadish
      Resilience of Pollen and Post-Flowering Response in Diverse Sorghum Genotypes Exposed to Heat Stress under Field Conditions

      The predicted increase in global temperatures will increase the probability of exposing sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] to heat stress during critical reproductive developmental stages, such as flowering and post-flowering periods. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to quantify the impact of heat stress on pollen germination and other post-flowering physiological processes affecting grain yield. Pollen collected from 24 diverse sorghum genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were tested for their tolerance to heat stress. Using the same set of genotypes, field-based heat tents were used to impose heat stress from booting stage to maturity. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017


    • Marilyn L. Warburton, Saeed Rauf, Laura Marek, Mubashar Hussain, Oluwaseun Ogunola and José de Jesus Sanchez Gonzalez
      The Use of Crop Wild Relatives in Maize and Sunflower Breeding

      Conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) has always been predicated on the promise of new and useful traits, and thus modern genetics and genomics tools must help fulfill the promise and continue to secure the conservation of these resources. However, the vast genetic potential present in CWR is often difficult to tap, as identification of superior alleles can be hampered by the effects of the environment on expression of these alleles and masked in different genetic backgrounds; transfer of superior alleles into breeding pools to create new crop varieties can be slow and expensive. Some crop species have been more amenable to introgression of traits from wild relatives than others. In some cases, these species may be less diverged from their wild ancestors, which become a good source of mono- to oligogenic traits, many of which are more qualitative in nature, and sometimes of quantitative traits. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Colin Curwen-McAdams and Stephen S. Jones
      Breeding Perennial Grain Crops Based on Wheat

      Wild relatives offer a diversity of traits potentially useful in crop improvement. Identification of major genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, in conjunction with targeted introgression, has introduced some of these traits into cultivated varieties. The difficulty of transferring complex traits, and associated linkage drag, has limited the ability of breeding programs to fully use important genetic variation. Wheat (Triticum L.) is an example of an important crop with large secondary and tertiary genepools of species capable of producing viable offspring by cross pollination. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Liana M. Nice, Brian J. Steffenson, Thomas K. Blake, Richard D. Horsley, Kevin P. Smith and Gary J. Muehlbauer
      Mapping Agronomic Traits in a Wild Barley Advanced Backcross–Nested Association Mapping Population

      Crop improvement relies on the ability to utilize novel genetic variation. Six-rowed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) developed in the US Midwest has an especially narrow genetic base. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Paul C. Bethke, Dennis A. Halterman and Shelley Jansky
      Are We Getting Better at Using Wild Potato Species in Light of New Tools?

      Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), mankind’s third most consumed food crop, originated as an interspecific hybrid in the Andean highlands. More than 100 species closely related to potato exist throughout Central and South America. Potato was introduced to Europe, Asia, and North America in the 16th and 17th centuries, but most cultivars were destroyed by late blight epidemics in the mid-19th century. Late blight resistance genes from the wild relative Solanum demissum Lindl. (continued)

      Published: March 30, 2017

    • Shivali Sharma, Manish K. Pandey, Hari K. Sudini, Hari D. Upadhyaya and Rajeev K. Varshney
      Harnessing Genetic Diversity of Wild Arachis Species for Genetic Enhancement of Cultivated Peanut

      Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important self-pollinating tetraploid (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40) legume grown for the high-quality edible oil and easily digestible protein in its seeds. Enormous genetic variability is present in the genus Arachis containing 79 wild species and cultivated peanut. Wild species offer significant variability, particularly for biotic and abiotic stresses, and can be used to develop cultivars with enhanced levels of resistance to key stresses. However, utilization of these species requires use of ploidy manipulations, bridge crosses, and embryo or ovule rescue. (continued)

      Published: March 30, 2017

    • Hannes Dempewolf, Gregory Baute, Justin Anderson, Benjamin Kilian, Chelsea Smith and Luigi Guarino
      Past and Future Use of Wild Relatives in Crop Breeding

      Wild species related to agricultural crops (crop wild relatives, or CWR) can increase the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems around the world. They represent a large pool of genetic diversity from which to draw new allelic variation required in breeding programs. Crop wild relatives have been extremely valuable in adapting crop varieties to changing disease pressures, farming practices, market demands, and climatic conditions. Unfortunately, CWR are a threatened resource and measures need to be taken to protect them, both in the wild and in genebanks. (continued)

      Published: March 2, 2017

    • Gerald J. Seiler, Lili L. Qi and Laura F. Marek
      Utilization of Sunflower Crop Wild Relatives for Cultivated Sunflower Improvement

      Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the United States. The current USDA–ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2519 accessions comprising 53 species—39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank collections, however, researchers need more detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within the collection. The wild species are adapted to a wide range of habitats and possess considerable variability for most biotic and abiotic traits. (continued)

      Published: February 9, 2017

    • Wei Zhang, Yaping Cao, Mingyi Zhang, Xianwen Zhu, Shuangfeng Ren, Yuming Long, Yadav Gyawali, Shiaoman Chao, Steven Xu and Xiwen Cai
      Meiotic Homoeologous Recombination-Based Alien Gene Introgression in the Genomics Era of Wheat

      Wheat (Triticum spp.) has a narrow genetic basis due to its allopolyploid origin. However, wheat has numerous wild relatives usable for expanding genetic variability of its genome through meiotic homoeologous recombination. Traditionally, laborious cytological analyses have been employed to detect homoeologous recombination. This has limited the progress of alien gene introgression in wheat improvement. (continued)

      Published: January 31, 2017


    • W. Brandon Smith, Jamie L. Foster, Kimberly C. McCuistion, Luis O. Tedeschi and Francis M. Rouquette
      In situ Degradation Patterns of ‘Tifton 85’ Bermudagrass with Dried Distillers’ Grains Supplementation

      Season of forage growth and supplementation have the potential to affect digestion and animal performance. The objectives were to evaluate the ruminal digestion kinetics of ‘Tifton 85’ bermudagrass (T85) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. nlemfuënsis Vanderyst] as affected by seasonality and rate of supplemental dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS). (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • M. Anowarul Islam, A.K. Obour, D.C. Rule, M. Bandara and S.N. Acharya
      Forage and Seed Production Potential, Nutritive Value, and Fatty Acid Profile of Fenugreek

      Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a valuable specialty crop used both as an herb and as a spice. Fenugreek also has potential to be used as an animal feed. This study evaluated 13 entries of fenugreek in two locations in Wyoming (Laramie and Lingle) for forage accumulation, seed yield, nutritive value, and fatty acid profile. The study at Laramie was conducted under irrigated conditions, while that at Lingle was conducted on both irrigated and rain-fed conditions. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Augustine K. Obour, Keith Harmoney and Johnathon D. Holman
      Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Effects on Switchgrass Herbage Mass, Nutritive Value and Nutrient Removal

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) can provide summer forage when forage production from cool-season grasses is limited. This experiment was conducted over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) to determine nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rate and time of harvest effect on switchgrass herbage mass, nutritive value, and nutrient removal. Treatments consisted of a split-plot arrangement of five N rates (0, 45, 80, 135, and 180 kg ha−1) applied annually as main plots and harvest time (harvested in July for forage or October for biomass) as subplots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Nitrogen rate × time of harvest interaction had no effect on herbage mass or nutritive value. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Twain J. Butler, Ahmet E. Celen, Stephen L. Webb, Djordje B. Krstic and Sindy M. Interrante
      Germination in Cool-Season Forage Grasses under a Range of Temperatures

      Temperature plays a primary role in seed germination, and germination under a wide range of temperatures can promote early seedling emergence and stand establishment. The objective of this growth chamber experiment was to determine the effects of temperature (5–35°C) on the germination of eight species using 6 annual and 14 perennial cool-season grass lots. The greatest germination of annual and perennial cool-season grasses occurred at 20 and 15°C, respectively. Germination of oat (Avena sativa L.) was typically greatest at 10 to 20°C, whereas rye (Secale cereale L.) germination was generally greatest at 5 to 20°C and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) germination was greatest at 10 to 30°C. (continued)

      Published: March 16, 2017

    • Steven Cox, Michael D. Peel, J. Earl Creech, Blair L. Waldron, Jong-Su Eun, Dale R. Zobell, Rhonda L. Miller and Don L. Snyder
      Forage Production of Grass–Legume Binary Mixtures on Intermountain Western USA Irrigated Pastures

      Well-managed irrigated pasture production can be optimized without nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The objective was to determine mixture and planting ratios of tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus riparius Rehm.) (MB), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) (OG), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) (TIM), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (PRG) with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (ALF), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) (BFTF), or cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.) (CMV) that maximize productivity. Planting ratios were 0:100 (grass:legume), 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and three 100:0 grass monocultures fertilized at 0, 67, and 134 kg N ha−1. Seasonal production of TF–ALF was 12.69 Mg ha−1, equal to TF fertilized at 134 kg N ha−1. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Robert Kallenbach, Craig Roberts, John Lory and Stacey Hamilton
      Nitrogen Fertilization Rates Influence Stockpiled Tall Fescue Forage through Winter

      Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbyish.] can be autumn stockpiled to extend the grazing season. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) optimum mid-August N fertilization rate for stockpiled yield with or without red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), (ii) if mid-August N applications affect the persistence of red clover in a mixed sward, (iii) how N fertilization rates affect total ergot alkaloids (TEA) in November, and (iv) if N fertilization rates and harvest months affect nutritive value through winter. At the University of Missouri Forage Systems Research Center near Linneus, MO, five N fertilization rates were applied in mid-August and forage was harvested the following November through March. Dry matter yield, crude protein (CP), and in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) were determined for each sampling date. (continued)

      Published: March 2, 2017


    • Jifeng Zhu, Jing Wu, Lanfen Wang, Matthew W. Blair and Shumin Wang
      Novel Alleles for Black and Gray Seed Color Genes in Common Bean

      Seed coat color is one of the most important characteristics of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). To understand the genetic basis of this trait a cross was made of two small seeded Mesoamerican bean plants from China, the varieties Longyundou 4 (Long 4) with black seed and Longyundou 5 (Long 5) with white seed. Using phenotypic classification, the genetic analysis showed that the inheritance of black, gray, and white seed color could be explained primarily by two independent genes in an additive-dominant, two gene epistasis model with a significant (χ2 = 1.65, p = 0.44) fit to the 12:3:1 segregation ratio. We also analyzed seed color as a quantitative trait to see whether significant loci aligned with any known seed color genes. (continued)

      Published: March 16, 2017


    • Charles J. Schmid, Bruce B. Clarke and James A. Murphy
      Anthracnose Severity and Annual Bluegrass Quality as Influenced by Nitrogen Source

      Anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum cereale Manns sensu lato Crouch, Clarke & Hillman) of annual bluegrass [ABG, Poa annua L. f. reptans (Hausskn.) T. Koyama] turf is a destructive fungal disease that has been shown to be more severe under nitrogen (N) deficiencies. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Stephanie Rossi, Patrick Burgess, David Jespersen and Bingru Huang
      Heat-Induced Leaf Senescence Associated with Chlorophyll Metabolism in Bentgrass Lines Differing in Heat Tolerance

      Leaf senescence is characterized by decreased chlorophyll content in leaves. The objectives of this study were to determine whether heat-induced chlorophyll decline is due to inhibited chlorophyll synthesis or accelerated chlorophyll degradation and to determine whether genetic variations in heat tolerance of bentgrass (Agrostis spp.) species were associated with differential chlorophyll-enzymatic responses to heat stress. Five turfgrass lines, including two transgenic creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.) lines overexpressing isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) or heat shock promoter (HSP18.2) for controlling cytokinin synthesis, two thermal bentgrass (A. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Thomas J. Serensits, Andrew S. McNitt and James T. Brosnan
      Kentucky Bluegrass Divot Resistance as Affected by Cultivar, Trinexapac-ethyl, and Soil Cultivation

      Athletic fields constructed with a high percentage of sand rely on the presence of above- and belowground turfgrass biomass to provide surface stability to athletes. As turfgrass plants are worn away during field use, their stabilizing effect is lost, increasing the potential for divoting. Excessive divoting results in poor footing and may increase the potential for athlete injury. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of two trinexapac-ethyl (TE) treatment regimes and one cultivation procedure on the divot resistance, tiller density, belowground biomass, and turfgrass ground cover of nine Kentucky bluegrass (KBG) (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars under varying levels of simulated traffic. (continued)

      Published: April 20, 2017

    • Norma C. Flor, Philip F. Harmon, Kevin Kenworthy, Richard N. Raid, Russell Nagata and Lawrence E. Datnoff
      Screening St. Augustinegrass Genotypes for Brown Patch and Large Patch Disease Resistance

      Two diseases of St. Augustinegrass (SAG) [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.). Ktze.] are caused by different anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani. Brown patch (BP) is a foliar disease of little economic importance, and large patch (LP) causes leaf sheath rot and death of affected turfgrass shoots and stolons. (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Timothy D. Colmer and Louise Barton
      A Review of Warm-Season Turfgrass Evapotranspiration, Responses to Deficit Irrigation, and Drought Resistance

      Knowledge of turfgrass evapotranspiration (ETc) and drought resistance can enable water conservation by guiding turfgrass selection for various climates and irrigation scheduling. Turfgrass ETc, crop coefficients (Kc = ETc/ET0, where ET0 is reference evapotranspiration), responses to deficit irrigation, and drought resistance, are reviewed for warm-season species (perennial, sod-forming, C4 grasses). In well-watered conditions, ETc was 2.44 to 10.53 mm d−1 (nine species in six climates during late spring to early autumn) and Kc was 0.34 to 1.27 (seven species in seven climates). Under deficit irrigation, ETc was 2.14 to 5.71 mm d−1 and Kc was 0.52 to 0.94 (seven species in four climates). (continued)

      Published: March 27, 2017

    • Grant L. Thompson and Jenny Kao-Kniffin
      Applying Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function Theory to Turfgrass Management

      In the United States, there is a growing need for turfgrass management practices that protect community and environmental health. The proportion of the developed landscape in the United States covered by turfgrass is significant and, at present, covers at least 1.9% of the total land area and comprises 60% in parts of the country. As urbanization progresses, there is a critical need to re-examine turf management practices that reduce reliance on pesticide and fertilizer inputs while contributing additional beneficial ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss the functional role of turfgrass in urban ecosystems. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Josh A. Honig, Ehud Zelzion, Nicole E. Wagner, Christine Kubik, Vincenzo Averello, Jennifer Vaiciunas, Debashish Bhattacharya, Stacy A. Bonos and William A. Meyer
      Microsatellite Identification in Perennial Ryegrass using Next-Generation Sequencing

      Microsatellite markers are potentially valuable molecular genetic markers for conservation ecology, paternity testing, pedigree reconstruction, population genetics, and linkage mapping. Traditional methods for the development of microsatellite markers can be time-consuming, laborious, and expensive. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a more recent and promising approach to microsatellite marker development. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important turfgrass species with a limited set of publicly available microsatellite markers. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Michael Goatley, Kevin Hensler and Shawn Askew
      Cool-Season Turfgrass Germination and Morphological Development Comparisons at Adjusted Osmotic Potentials

      One of the major factors limiting seed germination and seedling development in a low-input, low-maintenance environment is soil moisture availability, yet little is known about the germination response of cool-season turfgrasses to differing osmotic potentials. Controlled-environment studies were conducted to identify germination characteristics of cool-season turfgrass species experiencing water-restricted conditions. At osmotic potentials between 0.0 and −1.6 MPa, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) germinated more and had greater radicle lengths than tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort], hard fescue (Festuca brevipila Tracey), strong creeping red fescue (F. rubra ssp. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Yuanwen Guo, Yanqi Wu, Justin Q. Moss, Jeffrey A. Anderson and Lan Zhu
      Genetic Variability for Adaptive, Morphological, and Reproductive Traits in Selected Cold-Hardy Germplasm of Common Bermudagrass

      Common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] has been widely used as a major warm-season turf and forage grass in the southern United States and in other regions with similar climates around the world. However, it will suffer severe winterkill when grown beyond its region of adaptation. Cold-hardy bermudagrass germplasm have been developed, but its genetic variation for important turfgrass traits remains unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify genetic variability and determine relationships among adaptive, morphological, and reproductive traits in selected cold-hardy common bermudagrass germplasm, including 48 clonal plants from ‘Riviera’ and 50 clonal plants from ‘Yukon’. (continued)

      Published: February 23, 2017

    • Elisha Allan-Perkins, Katie Campbell-Nelson, James T. Popko, Hyunkyu Sang and Geunhwa Jung
      Investigating Selection of Demethylation Inhibitor Fungicide-Insensitive Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Isolates by Boscalid, Flurprimidol, and Paclobutrazol

      Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett, is the most economically important disease of golf course turfgrass in the northern United States. Fungicide resistance, especially to demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides, is common for S. homoeocarpa. (continued)

      Published: February 16, 2017

    • Kelly A. Moore, M. Carolina Zuleta, Aaron J. Patton, Brian M. Schwartz, Goretti Aranaz and Susana R. Milla-Lewis
      SSR Allelic Diversity Shifts in Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) Cultivars Released from 1910 to 2016

      Selection during varietal improvement has been shown to reduce genetic diversity in several different crop species. A reduction in genetic diversity can be detrimental to future breeding efforts and increase susceptibility to biotic stresses. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in levels of allelic diversity at the gene and population levels in 40 zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp. Willd.) cultivars released between 1910 and 2016 using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. (continued)

      Published: February 9, 2017

    • Jing Zhang, Kevin Kenworthy, J. Bryan Unruh, Bishow Poudel, John E. Erickson, Diane Rowland and Jason Kruse
      Physiological Responses to Soil Drying by Warm-Season Turfgrass Species

      A study describing the overall physiological responses to drought and exploring the underlying mechanisms in multiple turfgrass species and genotypes is needed to make improvements in breeding for turfgrass species that are tolerant to water-limiting conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the differential canopy and physiological responses of 14 genotypes of warm-season turfgrasses during a controlled water withdrawal experiment in a greenhouse. Fourteen genotypes from St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntz], Japanese lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), manillagrass [Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.], and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] were planted in acrylic tubes. (continued)

      Published: February 9, 2017

    • D. S. McCall, X. Zhang, D. G. Sullivan, S. D. Askew and E. H. Ervin
      Enhanced Soil Moisture Assessment using Narrowband Reflectance Vegetation Indices in Creeping Bentgrass

      Turfgrasses are measured aesthetically and by their ability to withstand stressors. Historically, researchers quantified acceptability by visual quality, but inconsistencies necessitate the use of vegetation indices (VIs) as an objective measurement. Indiscernible relationships have been established between turfgrass canopy normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and important variables such as soil moisture and leaf chlorophyll content. Alternative and variable–specific indices have been established in cropping systems. (continued)

      Published: February 2, 2017

    • Susana R. Milla-Lewis, Katharine M. Youngs, Consuelo Arrellano and Yasmin J. Cardoza
      Tolerance in St. Augustinegrass Germplasm against Blissus insularis Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

      StAugustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is a widely used lawn grass in the southern United States due to its stoloniferous growth habit and shade tolerance. However, St. Augustinegrass is prone to thatch accumulation, which is conducive to pest problems, with the southern chinch bug (Blissus insularis Barber, SCB) being the most economically important one. Previous work to identify additional sources of SCB resistance reported genotypes with comparatively high numbers of recovered insects but low damage ratings. (continued)

      Published: January 31, 2017

    • Ambika Chandra, Susana Milla-Lewis and Qingyi Yu
      An Overview of Molecular Advances in Zoysiagrass

      Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp. Willd.) is a perennial warm-season grass adapted to the tropical and southern temperate regions of the world. Species of Zoysia and their interspecific hybrids are recognized for their low cultural requirements and tolerance to a wide array of biotic and abiotic stresses, and are widely used as turfgrass on golf courses, athletic fields, home lawns, and other recreational sites. Plant breeders predominantly use conventional breeding methods involving hybridization and phenotypic selection to make genetic improvements in zoysiagrass. (continued)

      Published: January 31, 2017

    • Michael C. Cox, Sandeep S. Rana, John R. Brewer and Shawn D. Askew
      Goosegrass and Bermudagrass Response to Rates and Tank Mixtures of Topramezone and Triclopyr

      Postemergence herbicide options for mature goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] control in bermudagrass (Cynodon spp. Rich.) turf are lacking. Greenhouse and field trials were conducted to determine the lowest rate at which topramezone, with or without triclopyr, controls goosegrass while maintaining acceptable bermudagrass quality. Greenhouse dose–response studies determined herbicide rates for field trials. (continued)

      Published: January 31, 2017

    • Xunzhong Zhang, Erik H. Ervin, Wenli Wu, Naina Sharma and Alyssa Hamill
      Auxin and Trinexapac-Ethyl Impact on Root Viability and Hormone Metabolism in Creeping Bentgrass under Water Deficit

      Plant growth regulators have been used to improve turfgrass quality and drought tolerance. This study was designed to investigate if foliar application of auxin (indole-3-butyric acid [IBA] at 2 μM) and trinexapac-ethyl (TE, 45 g ha−1), alone or in a combination, improves creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) root growth and hormone metabolism under water-deficit conditions. The plants were subjected to well-watered or water-deficit stress (40–50% evapotranspiration replacement) conditions for up to 42 d in growth chambers. Water deficit reduced turf quality and net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) content, and root viability. (continued)

      Published: January 5, 2017

    • John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski and Timothy T. Lulis
      Effect of Phosphite Rate and Source on Cyanobacteria Colonization of Putting Green Turf

      Cyanobacteria compete with putting green turf, resulting in algal surface crusts that can reduce turf density and quality. The objectives of this study were to assess preventive control of surface cyanobacteria colonization of putting green turf with various phosphite salt sources and formulations. An optimal rate of phosphorous acid to suppress cyanobacteria while minimizing phytotoxicity was also examined. Two field studies were conducted concurrently on an ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting green in Storrs, CT, during 2010 and 2011. (continued)

      Published: December 8, 2016

    • Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner
      Effects of Blue Light and Phenotype on Anthocyanin Accumulation in Accessions and Cultivars of Rough Bluegrass

      Anthocyanins are increasingly being used as natural alternatives in medicinal, food, and industrial products. However, production of anthocyanin extract is often inefficient due to agronomic limitations. On the other hand, the use of turfgrasses for anthocyanin production has been suggested to increase yield twofold. Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) cultivar ‘Havana’ has been shown to increase anthocyanin content by 117-fold under high light treatment, exhibiting concentrations similar to current anthocyanin sources, and could be an alternative source of anthocyanin. (continued)

      Published: December 2, 2016

    • Nikolaos Ntoulas and Panayiotis A. Nektarios
      Paspalum vaginatum NDVI when Grown on Shallow Green Roof Systems and under Moisture Deficit Conditions

      Management of conventional crops must adapt to the particularities of urban greening techniques, such as green roofing. The aim of the study was to determine seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz ‘Platinum TE’) response when grown in shallow green roof substrates and under moisture deficit conditions during two summer periods. Treatments included: (i) six different green roof substrates formulated from locally available materials by mixing combinations of sandy loam soil, pumice, perlite, clinoptilolite zeolite, peat, and compost; (ii) two substrate depths (7.5 or 15 cm); and (iii) two irrigation regimes (60 or 100% crop evapotranspiration). Measurements included the determination of substrate moisture content (SMC) and turfgrass normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). (continued)

      Published: December 2, 2016

    • Qing Mao and David R. Huff
      Characterizing Small RNA Profiles in Allotetraploid Poa annua L. and its Diploid Parents

      A role for small RNAs has been implicated for polyploid evolution. This study was designed to examine the small RNA profiles of Poa annua L. and its diploid parental species. Four profiles, Poa infirma Kunth., Poa supina Schrad., perennial-type Poa annua, and annual-type Poa annua, were analyzed using three biological replicates representing each profile, resulting in a total of 12 libraries, totaling 20,920,659 small (18–30 nucleotide) RNA sequences. (continued)

      Published: December 2, 2016

    • J. Poro, J. S. Ebdon, M. DaCosta and P. W. Brown
      Effects of Mowing Height of Cut and Nitrogen on FAO-56 PM Crop Coefficients for Recreational Turf in the Cool-Humid Region

      Irrigating recreational turf requires ET (evapotranspiration) replacement for water conservation and to sustain optimal leaf growth and turf function under traffic stress. Lysimeter measured actual ET (ETa) can be estimated using a reference crop ET (ETo) from meteorological data adjusted using a crop coefficient (Kc, ETa/ETo) to correct for cultural affects on ETa. Previous studies have not fully investigated the effects of turf culture on Kc. The objective of this research was to develop reliable Kc when ETo is computed using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation, with Kc adjusted according to the effects on ETa of two mowing heights of cut (HOC), two N rates, and three species. (continued)

      Published: November 28, 2016

    • Lisa A. Beirn, James W. Hempfling, Charles J. Schmid, James A. Murphy, Bruce B. Clarke and Jo Anne Crouch
      Differences among Soil-Inhabiting Microbial Communities in Poa annua Turf throughout the Growing Season

      There is increasing interest in understanding plant-associated microbial communities and their impact on plant health. However, research has been limited to major agronomic systems and little is known about the resident microorganisms in economically important specialty crops, such as turfgrass. In this study, we generated a community-wide inventory of the archaea and bacteria that inhabit the soil of Poa annua L. putting green turf at five time points over a 1-yr period. (continued)

      Published: November 28, 2016

    • Francisco J. Flores, Stephen M. Marek, Gabriela Orquera and Nathan R. Walker
      Molecular Identification and Multilocus Phylogeny of Ophiosphaerella Species Associated with Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass

      Spring dead spot (SDS) is a devastating disease of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], a widely used turfgrass in the transition zone of the United States. The fungi causing SDS have been identified as belonging to three species of the genus Ophiosphaerella based on cultural characters and the morphology of seldom encountered pseudothecial stages. The three species [O. herpotricha (Fr.) Walker, O. (continued)

      Published: November 28, 2016

    • Chunzhen Zhang, Shui-zhang Fei, Peng Liu, Tieming Ji, Jiqing Peng, Ursula Frei and David J. Hannapel
      Transcriptome Changes in Response to Cold Acclimation in Perennial Ryegrass as Revealed by a Cross-Species Microarray Analysis

      Freezing tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) can be dramatically increased by a period of cold acclimation. To understand the mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in L. perenne, a cross-species microarray study was conducted by using total RNA from cold-acclimated and nonacclimated L. perenne to hybridize with Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChips from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). (continued)

      Published: November 1, 2016

    • Shane Griffith, Nicholas Bero, John Stier, Glen Obear, Sabrina Ruis and Douglas Soldat
      Biosolids as an Alternative Fertilizer for Kentucky Bluegrass Sod Production in Wisconsin

      Land application of biosolids holds the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for synthetic fertilizer applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic impacts of using biosolids to produce Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod on a silt loam soil in Wisconsin. Anaerobically digested biosolids cake and biosolids cake mixed with sand and sawdust in a 2:1:1 ratio by volume (MetroMixTM) were produced by and obtained from the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District. Each material was applied at three rates based on their estimated supply of plant-available nitrogen (PAN). (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • David Jespersen and Bingru Huang
      Effects of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Daconil Action (Acibenzolar- S -Methyl and Chlorothalonil) on Heat and Drought Tolerance of Creeping Bentgrass

      The plant growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is known for its effects of suppressing shoot vertical growth. Some fungicides are claimed to promote the physiological health of plants in the absence of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether acibenzolar-S-methyl (one of the active ingredients in Daconil Action), TE alone, or the combination of the two may be most effective in promoting creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) tolerance to heat and drought stress under field conditions. Daconil Action and TE were foliar applied alone or in combination to creeping bentgrass managed under fairway conditions at Rutgers University in 2014 and 2015. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Clint M. Mattox, Alec R. Kowalewski, Brian W. McDonald, John G. Lambrinos, Brian L. Daviscourt and Jay W. Pscheidt
      Nitrogen and Iron Sulfate Affect Microdochium Patch Severity and Turf Quality on Annual Bluegrass Putting Greens

      Microdochium patch is an important turfgrass disease in cool-humid regions and is caused by the pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett. Control of the pathogen is necessary to provide acceptable putting-green-quality turf, and fungicide applications are the predominant method of control. Increasing pesticide restrictions have generated interest in alternative management techniques of Microdochium patch. This research evaluated the effects of three nitrogen and five iron sulfate rates on Microdochium patch development on a trafficked, sand-based, annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting green in Corvallis, OR for over 2 yr in the absence of fungicides. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016

    • Jialin Yu, Patrick E. McCullough and Mark A. Czarnota
      Selectivity and Fate of Monosodium Methylarsenate in Bermudagrass, Centipedegrass, and Seashore Paspalum

      Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) can be weedy species with other turfgrasses. Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) selectively controls these grasses in polyculture with tolerant species such as bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], but the mechanisms of selectivity are not well understood. The objectives of this research were to investigate the efficacy and behavior of MSMA in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and seashore paspalum. In greenhouse experiments, the hierarchical rank of injury ranges for species from high to low was centipedegrass > seashore paspalum > bermudagrass. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Tatsiana Espevig, May Bente Brurberg, Marina Usoltseva, Åslög Dahl, Agnar Kvalbein, Karin Normann and Jo Anne Crouch
      First Report of Dollar Spot Disease, Caused by Sclerotinia Homoeocarpa, of Agrostis Stolonifera in Sweden

      Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most turfgrass species, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden. A fungus was isolated from symptomatic turf and identified as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on the basis of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, morphology, and culture characteristics. The ITS sequence was identical to isolates of S. (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017


    • Runfeng Wang, Manu P. Gangola, Sarita Jaiswal, Monica Båga, Pooran M. Gaur and Ravindra N. Chibbar
      Variation in Seed-Quality Traits of Chickpea and Their Correlation to Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides Concentrations

      Genetic resources with desired seed composition are needed to improve nutritional quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. A germplasm collection of 171 chickpea genotypes (desi and kabuli types) was characterized for selected seed quality traits (thousand-seed weight [TSW], starch, protein, and amylose) in one greenhouse and two field trials. Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes (115.7 to 537.4 g and 36.2 to 49.0%) had higher TSW and starch concentrations than desi types (114.6 to 332.4 g and 32.4 to 42.9%), respectively. Desi type chickpea genotypes (16.7 to 27.5%) showed a higher range for protein concentration than kabuli types (17.1 to 24.8%). (continued)

      Published: April 13, 2017

    • Mériam Ben Romdhane, Leila Riahi, Ayet Selmi, Rahma Jardak, Aida Bouajila, Abdelwahed Ghorbel and Nejia Zoghlami
      Low Genetic Differentiation and Evidence of Gene Flow among Barley Landrace Populations in Tunisia

      Tunisian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces, representing the oldest cultivated accessions, are growing in scattered populations across drought- and salt-stressed environments and constitute a precious reservoir of potentially useful traits for breeding programs. The objective of this study was to elucidate genetic diversity and population structure of barley landraces across the landscape of Tunisia. Populations from 11 geographic zones were genotyped using 21 nuclear microsatellites. A high level of genetic polymorphism with 170 detected alleles was recorded among the studied genotypes. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

    • Dharminder Bhatia, Shailesh Joshi, Aparna Das, Yogesh Vikal, Gurpreet Kaur Sahi, Kumari Neelam, Karminderbir Kaur and Kuldeep Singh
      Introgression of Yield Component Traits in Rice ( Oryza sativa ssp. indica ) through Interspecific Hybridization

      Considering the potentials of wild rice (Oryza spp.), as well as the need to enhance the yield potential of rice and to increase rice production to meet increasing demands, 1780 backcross inbred lines (BILs) were generated by crossing 70 accessions of six “AA” genome species: Oryza glaberrima Steud., Oryza barthii A. Chev., Oryza nivara Sharma & Shastry, Oryza rufipogon Griff., Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr., and Oryza glumaepatula Steud. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017


    • Xingbo Wu, Nana Li, Junjie Hao, Jinguo Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang and Matthew W. Blair
      Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) Collections

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and a core collection from the National Genebank of China (NGC). The Chinese and global collections had 295 and 305 accessions, respectively. A total of 259 alleles were detected in the full 600 accessions, with a mean of 8.7 alleles per locus. (continued)

      Published: October 26, 2016


    • Lynn D. Veenstra, Jean-Luc Jannink and Mark E. Sorrells
      Wheat Fructans: A Potential Breeding Target for Nutritionally Improved, Climate-Resilient Varieties

      Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a widely consumed staple crop and essential component of a healthy whole-grain diet. One component of wheat, fructans, is known to serve physiological roles in the plant and confer health benefits to humans. Fructans serve as reserve carbohydrates and osmotic regulators against stresses (i.e., drought, cold temperatures, and salinity) that affect grain yield in the wheat plant. For humans, fructans are prebiotics that promote growth of healthy gut bacteria, aid in immune support, reduce colon cancer incidence, and support bone health. (continued)

      Published: March 9, 2017

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