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Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 56(6)



  • CROP BREEDING & GENETICS

    • Weikai Yan, Denis Pageau, Richard Martin, Allan Cummiskey and Barbara Blackwell
      Is Deoxynivalenol Contamination a Serious Problem for Oat in Eastern Canada?

      To assess the severity of deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in oat (Avena sativa L.) grain from infection of Fusarium head blight in eastern Canada, DON were determined for 3243 oat grain samples, involving 160 oat genotypes tested in 87 year–location combinations in Quebec and Atlantic Canada (Maritimes) oat registration and recommendation trials from 2008 to 2015. Analysis of the data led to the following findings. First, there are repeatable genetic differences in DON contamination. Relatively resistant cultivars (e.g., ‘CDC Dancer’) and susceptible cultivars (e.g., ‘AC Rigodon’) were identified. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0263
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Virginia R. Sykes, Fred L. Allen, Alexandria C. DeSantis, Arnold M. Saxton, Hem S. Bhandari, Dennis R. West, Eifion W. Hughes, Matthew E. Bobbitt and Victoria G. Benelli
      Efficiency of Spaced-Plant Selection in Improving Sward Biomass and Ethanol Yield in Switchgrass

      Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is an important emerging biofuel crop. In breeding nurseries, plants are typically widely spaced; however, production is in densely planted swards. This disconnect may hinder cultivar improvement. This study measured the efficiency of low-density, spaced-plant selection on improving biomass and ethanol yield in a high-density, simulated sward. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0596
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • James A. Heilig, James S. Beaver, Evan M. Wright, Qijian Song and James D. Kelly
      QTL Analysis of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in a Black Bean Population

      Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic N fixation (SNF) but is considered a poor N fixer. Diversity for SNF within dry bean germplasm is recognized, and regions of the genome associated with SNF traits have recently been identified. In the current study a mapping population of 122 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from the cross of two black bean cultivars (‘Puebla 152’ and ‘Zorro’) contrasting in SNF traits, was grown in the field in East Lansing, MI, and Isabela, Puerto Rico, and in the greenhouse under N-free conditions to evaluate for yield, nodule development, biomass growth, agronomic traits, and N fixation. The RIL population was also genotyped with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed through the BeanCAP to construct a genetic map spanning 972 cM and containing 430 SNPs. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0348
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Benhilda Masuka, Cosmos Magorokosho, Mike Olsen, Gary N. Atlin, Marianne Bänziger, Kevin V. Pixley, Bindiganavile S. Vivek, Maryke Labuschagne, Rumbidzai Matemba-Mutasa, Juan Burgenõ, John Macrobert, B. M. Prasanna, Bish Das, Dan Makumbi, Amsal Tarekegne, Jose Crossa, Mainassara Zaman-Allah, Angeline van Biljon and Jill E. Cairns
      Gains in Maize Genetic Improvement in Eastern and Southern Africa: II. CIMMYT Open-Pollinated Variety Breeding Pipeline

      Open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) still represent a significant proportion of the maize (Zea mays L.) seed system in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) has been breeding improved maize varieties for the stress-prone environments experienced by most smallholder farmers in eastern and southern Africa for over 30 yr. Hybrid breeding is now the major focus of the CIMMYT breeding pipeline. However, OPVs are generated within the hybrid pipeline. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0408
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Mónica V. Cornacchione and Donald L. Suarez
      Evaluation of Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) Populations’ Response to Salinity Stress

      Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a moderately salt-tolerant crop with high economic return and is therefore more suitable for production with lower quality water than most high-value crops. This study was conducted to examine the effect of water composition types (Cl or SO42−) of irrigation water and five salinity levels (electrical conductivity of irrigation water [ECiw] = 0.85, 8, 13, 18.3, and 24.5 dS m−1) on biomass production, salt tolerance, and ion concentration of 15 alfalfa populations. The plants were grown in a greenhouse in 60 sand tanks for 347 d under salt treatment. There was no significant effect of water composition type on shoot and root biomass production. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0371
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Fatemeh Saeidnia, Mohammad M. Majidi, Aghafakhr Mirlohi and Saba Soltan
      Physiological and Tolerance Indices Useful for Drought Tolerance Selection in Smooth Bromegrass

      In smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss), few efforts have been made to develop rapid and reliable physiological indices for selection of persistent and drought-tolerant genotypes. In addition, the association of these indices with seasonal growth activity, such as summer dormancy and autumn recovery, has not been studied. In this research, 36 genotypes of smooth bromegrass were clonally propagated and evaluated under water stress and nonstress conditions during 2013 to 2014. Water stress greatly influenced physiological functions and persistence, which affect plant growth and biomass production. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0636
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Nancy Wahl, Seth C. Murray, Thomas Isakeit, Matthew Krakowsky, Gary L. Windham, W. Paul Williams, Baozhu Guo, Xinzhi Ni, Joseph Knoll, Wenwei Xu, Brian Scully, Kerry Mayfield and Javier Betran
      Identification of Resistance to Aflatoxin Accumulation and Yield Potential in Maize Hybrids in the Southeast Regional Aflatoxin Trials (SERAT)

      Aflatoxins pose a serious health hazard to humans and livestock, requiring significant economic cost in identifying and disposing of contaminated grain. Since 2003, a multi-environmental trial of public breeding maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids across multiple programs in the southeastern United States has evaluated accumulation of aflatoxin following inoculation with the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The Southeast Regional Aflatoxin Trial (SERAT) was formed to identify public germplasm with the most consistent resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and to evaluate their essential agronomic traits in different environments. Yield and related agronomic traits were evaluated in 13 locations; aflatoxin levels were evaluated in four. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0519
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Justin L. McKinney and Barry L. Tillman
      Spotted Wilt in Peanut as Impacted by Genotype Resistance, Planting Date, and Plant Population

      Spotted wilt disease of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has impacted peanut production for growers in the southeastern United States since the mid-1990s. No single intervention can manage the disease sufficiently, but when used together, planting date, plant population, and cultivar selection can minimize risk of losses. The effects of planting date, plant population, and cultivar on spotted wilt were assessed in a field experiment over three consecutive years (2010–2012) near Marianna, FL. Evaluation included three visual measures of disease symptoms (rating scale 1–10, disease intensity rating 0–30, and testa symptomology), two measures of stand counts (emerged plants and tap root counts), and immunological assessment of the presence of TSWV in root crowns, pod yield, and grade. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0368
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Stine Petersen, Jeanette H. Lyerly, Anne L. McKendry, M. Sariful Islam, Gina Brown-Guedira, Christina Cowger, Yanhong Dong and J. Paul Murphy
      Validation of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in US Winter Wheat

      Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telemorph: Gibberella zeae Schw. (Petch)], can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. Two US soft red winter wheat cultivars, Bess and NC-Neuse, have moderate resistance to FHB. The objective of this study was to validate genomic regions associated with FHB resistance identified in previous studies involving NC-Neuse and the cultivar Truman, a full-sib of Bess. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2015.07.0415
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Zibei Lin, Junping Wang, Noel O.I. Cogan, Luke W. Pembleton, Pieter Badenhorst, John W. Forster, German C. Spangenberg, Ben J. Hayes and Hans D. Daetwyler
      Optimizing Resource Allocation in a Genomic Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass to Balance Genetic Gain, Cost, and Inbreeding

      Genomic selection (GS) has been recognized as offering numerous potential benefits for ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding. While the theoretical benefits of GS in ryegrass breeding are clear, the best way to apply GS in practical breeding programs remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate genomic breeding options that best balance genetic gain, breeding costs, and the level of inbreeding using stochastic simulation. Nine GS scenarios were tested, including different numbers of selection candidates (10,000, 5000, and 2000 F1 seedlings) and three reference population sizes for GS composed of plots representing a sward-based trial (500, 200, and 100 plots). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0577
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Alireza Akhavan, Stephen E. Strelkov, Swaroop V. Kher, Homa Askarian, James R. Tucker, William G. Legge, Andy Tekauz and T. Kelly Turkington
      Resistance to Pyrenophora teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata in Canadian Barley Genotypes

      The fungi Pyrenophora teres Drechs. f. teres Smedeg. (Ptt) and Pyrenophora teres Drechs. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0385
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Leomar Guilherme Woyann, Giovani Benin, Lindolfo Storck, Diego Maciel Trevizan, Cátia Meneguzzi, Volmir Sergio Marchioro, Matheus Tonatto and Alana Madureira
      Estimation of Missing Values Affects Important Aspects of GGE Biplot Analysis

      Multi-environment trials often yield unbalanced datasets, thus necessitating the estimation of missing values. It is unknown whether this estimation affects the graphic characteristics of genotype plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) biplots. Therefore, our objectives were to investigate the effects of different percentages of missing values on the number of significant principal components (PCs) and on mega environments, “winner” (highest-performing) genotypes, and the amount of variation explained by the PCs. Two complete sets of two-way data from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were used. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0100
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Kenneth P. Vogel, Michael D. Casler and Bruce S. Dien
      Switchgrass Biomass Composition Traits and their Effects on its Digestion by Ruminants and Bioconversion to Ethanol

      Six generations of divergent breeding in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for forage in vitro digestibility (IVDMD) resulted in significant changes in 20 biomass composition traits. Stepwise multiregression was used to determine which of the 20 composition traits had the largest significant effects on forage IVDMD and potential ethanol yield (ETOH) in a biorefinery. Switchgrass biomass samples from a field nursery containing the divergent switchgrass populations and families were harvested after flowering, dried, ground, and analyzed for composition traits by near-infrared reflectance analyses using previously developed near-infrared reflectance calibrations. After nonsignificant variables were eliminated, the resulting multiple regression models were highly significant (P < 0.001) and accounted for 95 and 96%, respectively, of the total variation for both IVDMD and ETOH. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0625
      Published: November 10, 2016



    • Kana Tsuboi, Tariq Shehzad, Junichi Yoneda, Shimpei Uraguchi, Yusuke Ito, Lin Shinsei, Shoji Morita, Hiroki Rai, Nobuhiro Nagasawa, Keiko Asari, Hiroko Suzuki, Rumiko Itoh, Tomoko Saito, Katsura Suzuki, Izumi Takano, Hidekazu Takahashi, Kenji Sakurai, Akio Watanabe, Hiromori Akagi, Tsuyoshi Tokunaga, Masashi Itoh, Hiroyuki Hattori, Toru Fujiwara, Kazutoshi Okuno, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi and Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa
      Genetic Analysis of Cadmium Accumulation in Shoots of Sorghum Landraces

      Contamination of agricultural fields with heavy metals, such as Cd, is a serious issue for safe food production worldwide. Previous reports indicate that sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is useful for phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils. To investigate the diversity for Cd accumulation in sorghum germplasm and to select useful cultivars for phytoextraction, we conducted experiments using 106 sorghum landraces and the cultivar BTx623, grown in hydroponic cultures and under field conditions. The Cd concentrations in plant shoots of different landraces showed no correlation between hydroponic and field-grown plants (r = −0.16). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.01.0069
      Published: November 10, 2016



    • Curtis Schaefer, Bob Nichols, Guy Collins, Jared Whitaker, Craig Bednarz, Chris Main and Glen Ritchie
      Cotton Maturity Determination through Vertical Mapping

      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0168
      Published: November 1, 2016



    • Samuel Trachsel, Juan Burgueno, Edgar A. Suarez, Felix M. San Vicente, Ciro S. Rodriguez and Thanda Dhliwayo
      Interrelations among Early Vigor, Flowering Time, Physiological Maturity, and Grain Yield in Tropical Maize ( Zea mays L.) under Multiple Abiotic Stresses

      We studied the interrelation among time to anthesis, physiological maturity, and grain yield in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) facing terminal drought and nitrogen deficiency. Sixty-one hybrids were grown under optimum, nitrogen-deficient (LN), and drought-stressed (DS) conditions. Grain yield was negatively correlated with time to anthesis under DS (r = −0.4*) and positively correlated with the grain-filling period (optimum: r = 0.54**; LN: r = 0.61***; DS: r = 0.69***) across treatments. These results suggest that coselecting for grain yield, early anthesis, and a long grain-filling period within a maturity group could help increase grain yield. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0562
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Benhilda Masuka, Gary N. Atlin, Mike Olsen, Cosmos Magorokosho, Maryke Labuschagne, Jose Crossa, Marianne Bänziger, Kevin V. Pixley, Bindiganavile S. Vivek, Angela von Biljon, John Macrobert, Gregorio Alvarado, B.M. Prasanna, Dan Makumbi, Amsal Tarekegne, Bish Das, Mainassara Zaman-Allah and Jill E. Cairns
      Gains in Maize Genetic Improvement in Eastern and Southern Africa: I. CIMMYT Hybrid Breeding Pipeline

      Monitoring of genetic gain in crop genetic improvement programs is necessary to measure the efficiency of the program. Periodic measurement of genetic gain also allows the efficiency of new technologies incorporated into a program to be quantified. Genetic gain within the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) breeding program for eastern and southern Africa were estimated using time series of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids. A total of 67 of the best-performing hybrids from regional trials from 2000 to 2010 were selected to form an era panel and evaluated in 32 trials in eight locations across six countries in eastern and southern Africa. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0343
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • N. Ace Pugh, Joseph M. Awika and William L. Rooney
      Heritability of Popping Characteristics in Sorghum Grain

      Popped sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has become popular among niche food consumers. To provide product for this market, producers are usually popping grain from hybrids that were not developed for popping. With selection, the popping quality of sorghum could likely be improved substantially, but the relative effects of genotype, environment, and the heritability of popping-related traits remain unknown. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0250
      Published: October 17, 2016



    • Steffen Hadasch, Johannes Forkman and Hans-Peter Piepho
      Cross-Validation in AMMI and GGE Models: A Comparison of Methods

      In plant breeding, the interaction of genotypes and environments is of major interest for breeders to develop genotypes that are well adapted to target environments. To investigate this interaction, multi-environmental trials, which are typically laid out as randomized complete block designs (RCBD) or as resolvable incomplete block designs (rIBD) within each environment, are conducted. The analysis of multi-environmental trials may be done by the AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) or by the GGE (genotype and genotype × environment interaction) model. The objectives in the application of these models are (i) to determine the true number of multiplicative terms underlying the data, which is needed to obtain reliable biplots and (ii) to estimate the true genotype–environment means as precisely as possible. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0613
      Published: October 17, 2016



    • Agustina Amelong, Fernando Hernández, A. Daniel Novoa and Lucas Borrás
      Maize Stand Density Yield Response of Parental Inbred Lines and Derived Hybrids

      Maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield has a parabolic response to stand density changes, creating an optimum stand density that maximizes yield. Argentinean commercial hybrids differ in their optimum stand density when grown at similar environments, generating the need to test precommercial hybrids for adequate product management recommendations. For breeding purposes, any information from parental inbred lines that is indicative of derived hybrid performance is highly desirable. However, correlations between parental inbred line and derived hybrid performance for maize yield response to stand density are unknown. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0083
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Smit Dhakal, Chor-Tee Tan, Li Paezold, Maria P. Fuentealba, Jackie C. Rudd, Brock C. Blaser, Qingwu Xue, Charlie M. Rush, Ravindra N. Devkota and Shuyu Liu
      Wheat Curl Mite Resistance in Hard Winter Wheat in the US Great Plains

      Viral diseases transmitted by wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) have been a persistent concern to farmers and researchers for at least six decades. Yield losses caused by mite–virus complexes up to 100% at the field level have been reported in several states of the Great Plains. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of resistance of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm lines and cultivars to WCM. Four sets of wheat lines from 2014 trials were screened, including 40 lines from the Northern Regional Performance Nursery, 40 lines from the Southern Regional Performance Nursery, 40 Texas elite wheat lines, and 52 cultivars and elite breeding lines. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0121
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Dongdong Gu, Xiupeng Mei, Tingting Yu, Nana Sun, De Xu, Chaoxian Liu and Yilin Cai
      QTL Identification for Brace-Root Traits of Maize in Different Generations and Environments

      Elucidating the correlations among maize (Zea mays L.) brace-root traits and identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the traits are important for genetic improvement of brace-root traits. Two maize inbred lines, Yi17 (well-developed root system) and Yi16 (poorly developed root system), an F2 population derived from their cross containing 276 individuals, and an F2:3 population containing 241 families were used to analyze the correlations among brace-root traits and determine the QTL for brace-root traits at Xiema and Hechuan in 2014 and 2015. All brace-root traits were highly significantly correlated with each other. In particular, brace-root diameter was highly correlated with brace-root fresh weight (r = 0.730), brace-root dry weight (r = 0.729), root fresh weight (r = 0.734), and root dry weight (r = 0.754). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.01.0031
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Helga Amdahl, Trygve S. Aamlid, Petter Marum, Åshild Ergon, Muath Alsheikh and Odd Arne Rognli
      Seed Yield Components in Single Plants of Diverse Scandinavian Tetraploid Red Clover Populations ( Trifolium pratense L.)

      Satisfactory seed yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivars is crucial for the availability of seeds on the market. Many breeders and researchers have used seed yield components to measure, compare, and explain differences in seed yield between diploid and tetraploid red clover cultivars and populations; however, the relative importance of each component varies between studies. In 2011 and 2012, single-plant trials with several tetraploid and one diploid red clover cultivar were established at the Norwegian plant breeding station at Bjørke. The goal was to study the impact of different seed-yield components on the seed yield of tetraploid plants. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0321
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Mohammad Mobashwer Alam, Erik J. van Oosterom, Alan W. Cruickshank, David R. Jordan and Graeme L. Hammer
      Predicting Tillering of Diverse Sorghum Germplasm across Environments

      Prediction of fertile tiller number (FTN) is important for predicting crop leaf area development and provides an avenue to identify genotypes with specific adaptation to variable environments. However, previous tillering prediction models in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were limited to only a few genotypes. This study aimed to develop an approach to predict FTN for a large number of genotypes grown in multiple environments. A set of 756 genotypes from 17 diverse families of a backcross-derived, sorghum nested association mapping population were evaluated in test cross combinations with a single female tester. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0262
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Kari L. Hugie, C. Wayne Smith, Kolbyn S. Joy and Donald C. Jones
      Divergent Selection for Fiber Length and Bundle Strength and Correlated Responses in Cotton

      Cotton (Gossypium spp.) breeders must develop cultivars to meet the demand for longer, stronger, and more uniform fibers. In the current study, two cycles of divergent selection for fiber upper-half mean length (UHML) and bundle strength (Str) were conducted within five diverse parental combinations selected based on their potential for the genetic improvement of fiber quality. Realized heritability estimates for UHML and Str were calculated for each cycle, and correlated responses among fiber properties and lint percent were measured as they responded to selection for UHML and Str. The results suggest that early-generation selection for UHML and Str is an effective strategy for the genetic improvement of fiber quality at College Station, TX. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0264
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Heathcliffe Riday, David W. Johnson, Tracy A. Engh and Mark E. Darling
      Measuring the Inefficiency of Allowing Self-Pollinated Alfalfa Progeny into Breeding Nurseries

      Although alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered an outcrossing species, the self-pollination incidence during insect pollination can be substantial, with an observed 30% average selfing rate. Despite this, alfalfa breeders utilizing space-plant evaluation nurseries make no attempt to discriminate self-pollination-derived progeny (selfs) from outcross progeny. Due to alfalfa’s substantial inbreeding depression, the selfed individuals have much lower breeder utility. This study examines an alfalfa space-plant breeding nursery in which selfed and outcross progeny had been identified using DNA markers for the following phenotypic traits: plant vigor, fall height, fall dormancy, first and second winter survival, plant lodging, and profusion of flowering. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0397
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Linghe Zeng, Jixiang Wu and Efrem Bechere
      Comparative Genetic Analysis of Lint Yield and Fiber Quality among Single, Three-way, and Double Crosses in Upland Cotton

      Appropriate crossing systems for genetic improvement of quantitative traits are critical in cotton breeding. Determination of genetic variance for lint yield and fiber quality in three different crossing schemes (single cross [SC], three-way cross [TWC], and double cross [DC]) of upland cotton (Gossypium histutum L.) will help breeders decide which crossing scheme to use in hybrid production and pure-line development. This study was designed to compare agronomic performance and fiber quality among SCs, TWCs, and DCs and determine genetic variance for evaluated traits in the three crossing systems. A balanced set of 10 F2 hybrid populations from each crossing system was planted with their five parents in 2013, 2014, and 2015. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0499
      Published: October 12, 2016



  • CROP ECOLOGY, MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

    • Joel Reyes-Cabrera, Ramon G. Leon, John. E. Erickson, Maria L. Silveira, Diane L. Rowland and Kelly T. Morgan
      Biochar Changes Shoot Growth and Root Distribution of Soybean during Early Vegetative Stages

      A better understanding of changes in root growth and distribution when soil is treated with biochar is needed. The aim of this study was to assess root distribution responses when biochar is added to the soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of topdressing or incorporating four biochar rates on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] root distribution during early vegetative stages grown in lysimeters (depth: 35 cm). On average, topdressing either 10 or 25 Mg biochar ha−1 increased root length density (RLD) 39% and root surface area (RSA) 36% in the 0- to 0.05-m soil layer compared with the control. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.01.0075
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • N. Jiménez, D. Mares, K. Mrva, C. Lizana, S. Contreras and A.R. Schwember
      Susceptibility to Preharvest Sprouting of Chilean and Australian Elite Cultivars of Common Wheat

      One of the main factors that negatively affect common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality is preharvest sprouting (PHS). In some regions of Chile and Australia, PHS can result in economic losses from lower yields and flour quality as a consequence of grains exposed to rain prior to harvest. Twenty-three Chilean common wheat cultivars were characterized in two locations (central and southern Chile) using the falling number (FN) method, standard germination test, and visual sprouting for PHS screening in two experimental seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015). Similarly, 20 Australian wheat cultivars were compared in six seasons using germination index (GI) at harvest ripeness. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0138
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Shengxiang Xu, Yongcun Zhao, Xuezheng Shi and Meiyan Wang
      Rapid Determination of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Contents of Field Crops in China Using Visible and Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

      Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (vis–NIR) may offer a rapid, low-cost, and reproducible alternative to traditional analytical techniques used to characterize total carbon (Ct), total nitrogen (Nt), and total phosphorus (Pt) concentrations in field crops. However, it remains unclear whether a single global predictive model can be effectively applied to all samples derived from heterogeneous crop species. Based on a wide range of crop samples (n = 624), predictive models were developed and compared for all combined datasets (global calibrations) and for separated datasets (local calibrations) using partial least square regression. The predictive abilities of vis–NIR models were evaluated using R2P, root means square error (RMSE)P, ratio of standard deviation to RMSE (RDP)P, and ratio of performances to interquartile distance (RPIQ)P in the validation datasets. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0194
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Judy A. Tolk and Robert C. Schwartz
      Do More Seeds per Panicle Improve Grain Sorghum Yield?

      Seed number, rather than seed mass, is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum mutant line with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil–Plant–Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA–ARS, Bushland, TX, in 2014 and 2015 to provide field validation of the tri-seed line’s ability to increase yield. The SPER facility had a rain shelter to control the soil-water balance. The parent inbred line BTx623 and the tri-seed line MSD-P5, which originated as a mutant of BTx623, were grown in weighing lysimeters with undisturbed soil profiles of four agriculturally productive soils (Pullman clay loam, Ulysses silt loam, Amarillo sandy loam, and Vingo fine sand) of the US Great Plains. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0245
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • CROP EQUALITY, MANAGEMENT & QUALITY

    • Hussain Sharifi, Robert J. Hijmans, James E. Hill and Bruce A. Linquist
      Using Stage-Dependent Temperature Parameters to Improve Phenological Model Prediction Accuracy in Rice Models

      Crop phenology models that use constant temperature parameters across developmental stages may be less accurate and have temperature-dependent systematic prediction error (bias). Using the DD10 model, we evaluated default and optimized (DD_Opt) temperature parameters using data from seven California rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown in six locations over 3 yr (2012–2014). Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of using stage-dependent temperature parameters on model performance using two- and three-stage optimization approaches. Optimized temperature parameters, or DD_Opt (RMSE: 2.3–5.4 d), performed better than DD10 (RMSE: 2.9–7.3 d). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.01.0072
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • CROP PHYSIOLOGY & METABOLISM

    • Andreas J. Karamanos, Garyfalia Economou, Kyriaki Sotirakoglou, Dionyssia Lyra and Andreas Papastavrou
      Assessing Greek Bread Wheat Landraces for their Drought Resistance Strategies

      The physiological mechanisms activated by 10 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces of Greek origin when facing drought were examined under field conditions during two cultivation seasons in Greece. Ten landraces of bread wheat were cultivated under four different degrees of water stress, induced by means of increasing distances from a drip irrigation line under rainout shelters. A number of morphological and physiological traits associated with water absorption (root surface density, water potential decline between the wettest and driest treatments, and osmotic adjustment) and water loss (stomatal sensitivity and leaf senescence) were monitored on seasonal and diurnal basis. Considerable differences among the landraces were detected for most of the examined traits (root surface density, degree of osmotic adjustment, stomatal sensitivity, and drought-dependent leaf senescence). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0524
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Florencia Poeta, Ana C. Ochogavía, Hugo R. Permingeat and José L. Rotundo
      Storage-Associated Genes and Reserves Accumulation in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Physiological Strategies for Attaining High Seed Protein Concentration

      High seed protein concentration (HP) in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is attained by increases in protein content in large seed genotypes (HP large seed) or by reductions in oil and carbohydrates contents in small seed genotypes (HP small seed). We hypothesized that these alternative strategies impact seed development, component accumulation, and gene expression differently. We compared a standard protein commercial genotype with two HP genotypes having contrasting seed size. The HP large seed genotype exhibited the fastest rate and longest period of seed growth and reserves accumulation compared with the HP small genotype. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0611
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Yves Y. Emendack, Chad M. Hayes, Ratan Chopra, Jake Sanchez, Gloria Burow, Zhanguo Xin and John J. Burke
      Early Seedling Growth Characteristics Relates to the Staygreen Trait and Dhurrin Levels in Sorghum

      Dhurrin content in leaves of the mature sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre- and postflowering drought tolerance, with high dhurrin contents expressed in postflowering drought-tolerant lines. Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum has been linked to the staygreen trait and associated with increased grain yield during postanthesis stress. Seasonal variability in postflowering drought occurrences makes selection for the staygreen trait unpredictable and the efficiency and reliability of screening for the trait using only conventional breeding low. Differences in dhurrin content between high and low dhurrin levels lines is only markedly favored to the high dhurrin level lines in the upper leaves of matured field-grown plants. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0284
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Bhupinder Singh, K. Raja Reddy, Edilberto D. Redoña and Timothy Walker
      Developing a Screening Tool for Osmotic Stress Tolerance Classification of Rice Cultivars Based on In Vitro Seed Germination

      Dry direct seeding is the common practice for growing rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the US Mid-South. Dry soil conditions during sowing may cause delayed and nonuniform seed germination that can be further aggravated by the low temperature conditions. Understanding the response of rice cultivars to drought stress during seed germination would be useful in optimizing direct seeding practices. An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the impact of osmotic stress using polyethylene glycol on seed germination traits of 15 rice cultivars commonly grown in the US Mid-South production system. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0196
      Published: October 12, 2016



    • Xiaowu Pan, Yongchao Li, Haiwen Zhang, Sanxiong Liu, Huafeng Deng and Xiaoxiang Li
      Screening and Comparative Analysis of Drought Tolerance of Rice Varieties at the Reproductive Stage

      Seasonal drought is a major constraint for rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in rainfed lowland rice ecosystems. Water deficiency that occurs during reproduction always results in severe yield loss in these areas. Therefore, drought-tolerant rice varieties are needed to avoid food security problems. The objectives of this study were (i) to find the relationship between drought and yield-related traits for field conditions, (ii) to screen rice varieties that have high yield under drought stress, and (iii) to identify the variety-specific mechanism of drought tolerance by investigating the gene expression and physiological characteristics of rice anther. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0268
      Published: October 12, 2016



  • EUROPEAN TURFGRASS SOCIETY CONFERENCE

    • David S. McCall, Erik H. Ervin, Camden D. Shelton, Nathaniel Reams and Shawn D. Askew
      Influence of Ferrous Sulfate and Its Elemental Components on Dollar Spot Suppression

      Dollar spot (caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F.T. Bennett) is a common disease of Agrostis stolonifera L. and is especially devastating on putting greens. Sequential fungicide applications are often required throughout the growing season for adequate control. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0383
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries and Khalied A. Ahmed
      Irrigation and Soil Surfactants Affect Abamectin Distribution in Soil

      Nematodes are microscopic, soil-dwelling organisms that adversely affect many turfgrass systems, including golf course putting greens. Abamectin controls many nematode species in golf course putting greens; however, high sorption to accumulated organic matter near the soil surface in established turfgrass systems may limit its distribution in soil, thereby limiting its efficacy. Field research was conducted on ‘A1/A4’ creeping bentgrass and ‘Champion’ ultradwarf bermudagrass putting greens to evaluate abamectin distribution in soil following treatment regimens including abamectin application (37 g a.i. ha–1) alone, or tank-mixed with soil surfactant (Revolution) in tandem with various irrigation timings to promote downward distribution. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0320
      Published: November 1, 2016



    • Sara Calvache, Tatsiana Espevig, Tina E. Andersen, Erik J. Joner, Agnar Kvalbein, Trond Pettersen and Trygve S. Aamlid
      Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Mowing Height, and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Effects on Red Fescue and Mixed Fescue–Bentgrass Putting Greens

      Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0240
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Trygve S. Aamlid, Tatsiana Espevig and Arne Tronsmo
      Microbiological Products for Control of Microdochium nivale on Golf Greens

      Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett is an important turfgrass pathogen on golf courses. Our objective was to evaluate Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman & Abbott and/or Streptomyces species for biological control of M. nivale on golf greens. The microbial agents were tested relative to fungicides and an untreated control in vitro and in five field trials from 2011 to 2014. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0301
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Chenxi Zhang, Garland D. Pinnix, Zheng Zhang, Grady L. Miller and Thomas W. Rufty
      Evaluation of Key Methodology for Digital Image Analysis of Turfgrass Color Using Open-Source Software

      Digital image analysis is a frequently used research technique to provide an objective measure of turfgrass color, in addition to the traditional visual rating. A commonly used method relies on commercial software package SigmaScan Pro to quantify mean hue angle, saturation, and brightness values from turf images, and to calculate a dark green color index as the measure of color. To enable turf image analysis to function on an open-source platform, a method was developed within ImageJ to batch process turf images for color parameters. This Java-based ImageJ plugin quantifies hue angle, saturation, and brightness values and calculates a dark green color index. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0285
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • FORAGE & GRAZINGLANDS

    • Brittany E. Harlow, Michael D. Flythe, Isabelle A. Kagan and Glen E. Aiken
      Biochanin A (an Isoflavone Produced by Red Clover) Promotes Weight Gain of Steers Grazed in Mixed Grass Pastures and Fed Dried-Distillers’ Grains

      Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An ex vivo experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dried distiller’s grains (DDG) and BCA (30 μg mL−1) on HAB in bovine rumen fluid. Following a 24-h incubation, HAB and ammonia concentrations in the media increased with addition of DDG. However, DDG fermentations with BCA had 100-fold fewer HAB and 37% less ammonia than DDG-only fermentations. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0590
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Kesi Liu, Lynn E. Sollenberger, Maria L. Silveira, Joao M.B. Vendramini and Yoana C. Newman
      Nutrient Pools in Bermudagrass Swards Fertilized at Different Nitrogen Levels

      Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects grassland herbage accumulation and nutritive value, but its effect on the distribution of nutrients among soil and plant nutrient pools is less understood. This 2-yr study determined the effect of N fertilization levels of rotationally stocked ‘Tifton 85’ bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) pastures on nutrient concentration and content in soil (top 20 cm), live root-rhizome mass, live herbage mass, and aboveground plant litter pools. Treatments were 50, 150, and 250 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Greater N fertilization increased N concentration in all plant nutrient pools and potassium (K) concentration in live herbage and plant litter, but plant-pool phosphorus (P) concentrations changed little across N levels. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0722
      Published: December 8, 2016



  • GENOMICS, MOLECULAR GENETICS & BIOTECHNOLOGY

    • Jun Zou, Kassa Semagn, Muhammad Iqbal, Amidou N’Diaye, Hua Chen, Muhammad Asif, Alireza Navabi, Enid Perez-Lara, Curtis Pozniak, Rong-Cai Yang, Harpinder Randhawa and Dean Spaner
      Mapping QTLs Controlling Agronomic Traits in the ‘Attila’ × ‘CDC Go’ Spring Wheat Population under Organic Management using 90K SNP Array

      Our group previously reported five quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with plant height, test weight, thousand-kernel weight, and grain protein content in a recombinant inbred line population derived from spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, evaluated across three environments (2008–2010) under organic management and genotyped with 579 diversity arrays technology and Rht-B1 markers. No QTL was identified for flowering time, maturity, grain yield, and number of tillers across all three environments. In the present study, we reanalyzed the same phenotypic data with a subset of 1200 informative single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers out of the 90K SNP array and three gene-specific markers (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1, and Rht-B1) to investigate if high marker density improves QTL detection. Here, five moderate- and eleven minor-effect QTLs were detected across all three organic environments using the new genotypic data, including 13 QTLs that were not previously detected. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0459
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Scott A. Nolte, Bryan G. Young, Luke T. Tolley, David J. Gibson, Julie M. Young and David A. Lightfoot
      Glufosinate Absorption, Translocation, and Metabolic Fingerprint Effects in gdhA-Transformed Tobacco

      Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing a modified Escherichia coli gdhA gene encoding NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was resistant to the herbicide glufosinate. Differential plant sensitivity to glufosinate may result from changes in foliar absorption, translocation, plant metabolism, or metabolism around the blocked pathway(s). The objectives here were to determine if foliar absorption, translocation, or metabolism of glufosinate or metabolism around the blocked pathway(s) contribute to the resistance to glufosinate in gdhA-transformed tobacco and to characterize changes in the metabolic profile in response to glufosinate as a result of transformation with gdhA. Foliar uptake and translocation of glufosinate was largely independent of the gdhA transgene or its expression. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0333
      Published: November 10, 2016



    • Chor-Tee Tan, Silvano Assanga, Guorong Zhang, Jackie C. Rudd, Scott D. Haley, Qingwu Xue, Amir Ibrahim, Guihua Bai, Xinzhong Zhang, Patrick Byrne, Maria P. Fuentealba and Shuyu Liu
      Development and Validation of KASP Markers for Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene Wsm2

      Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can cause significant yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of North America. A recently identified WSMV resistance gene, Wsm2, was mapped to chromosome 3BS in germplasm line ‘CO960293–2’. Effective genetic markers tightly linked to the gene will enhance the selection of WSMV-resistant lines through marker-assisted selection. We have mapped Wsm2 using a high-density map developed from the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array with recombinant inbred lines from the cross between CO960293–2 and susceptible cultivar ‘TAM 111’. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0234
      Published: November 1, 2016



  • INTERNATIONAL TURFGRASS SOCIETY CONFERENCE

    • John C. Inguagiato, John E. Kaminski and Timothy T. Lulis
      Effect of Phosphite Rate and Source on Cyanobacteria Colonization of Putting Green Turf

      Cyanobacteria compete with putting green turf, resulting in algal surface crusts that can reduce turf density and quality. The objectives of this study were to assess preventive control of surface cyanobacteria colonization of putting green turf with various phosphite salt sources and formulations. An optimal rate of phosphorous acid to suppress cyanobacteria while minimizing phytotoxicity was also examined. Two field studies were conducted concurrently on an ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting green in Storrs, CT, during 2010 and 2011. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0469
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner
      Effects of Blue Light and Phenotype on Anthocyanin Accumulation in Accessions and Cultivars of Rough Bluegrass

      Anthocyanins are increasingly being used as natural alternatives in medicinal, food, and industrial products. However, production of anthocyanin extract is often inefficient due to agronomic limitations. On the other hand, the use of turfgrasses for anthocyanin production has been suggested to increase yield twofold. Rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.) cultivar ‘Havana’ has been shown to increase anthocyanin content by 117-fold under high light treatment, exhibiting concentrations similar to current anthocyanin sources, and could be an alternative source of anthocyanin. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0438
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Nikolaos Ntoulas and Panayiotis A. Nektarios
      Paspalum vaginatum NDVI when Grown on Shallow Green Roof Systems and under Moisture Deficit Conditions

      Management of conventional crops must adapt to the particularities of urban greening techniques, such as green roofing. The aim of the study was to determine seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz ‘Platinum TE’) response when grown in shallow green roof substrates and under moisture deficit conditions during two summer periods. Treatments included: (i) six different green roof substrates formulated from locally available materials by mixing combinations of sandy loam soil, pumice, perlite, clinoptilolite zeolite, peat, and compost; (ii) two substrate depths (7.5 or 15 cm); and (iii) two irrigation regimes (60 or 100% crop evapotranspiration). Measurements included the determination of substrate moisture content (SMC) and turfgrass normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0381
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • Qing Mao and David R. Huff
      Characterizing Small RNA Profiles in Allotetraploid Poa annua L. and its Diploid Parents

      A role for small RNAs has been implicated for polyploid evolution. This study was designed to examine the small RNA profiles of Poa annua L. and its diploid parental species. Four profiles, Poa infirma Kunth., Poa supina Schrad., perennial-type Poa annua, and annual-type Poa annua, were analyzed using three biological replicates representing each profile, resulting in a total of 12 libraries, totaling 20,920,659 small (18–30 nucleotide) RNA sequences. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0462
      Published: December 2, 2016



    • J. Poro, J. S. Ebdon, M. DaCosta and P. W. Brown
      Effects of Mowing Height of Cut and Nitrogen on FAO-56 PM Crop Coefficients for Recreational Turf in the Cool-Humid Region

      Irrigating recreational turf requires ET (evapotranspiration) replacement for water conservation and to sustain optimal leaf growth and turf function under traffic stress. Lysimeter measured actual ET (ETa) can be estimated using a reference crop ET (ETo) from meteorological data adjusted using a crop coefficient (Kc, ETa/ETo) to correct for cultural affects on ETa. Previous studies have not fully investigated the effects of turf culture on Kc. The objective of this research was to develop reliable Kc when ETo is computed using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation, with Kc adjusted according to the effects on ETa of two mowing heights of cut (HOC), two N rates, and three species. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0363
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Lisa A. Beirn, James W. Hempfling, Charles J. Schmid, James A. Murphy, Bruce B. Clarke and Jo Anne Crouch
      Differences among Soil-Inhabiting Microbial Communities in Poa annua Turf throughout the Growing Season

      There is increasing interest in understanding plant-associated microbial communities and their impact on plant health. However, research has been limited to major agronomic systems and little is known about the resident microorganisms in economically important specialty crops, such as turfgrass. In this study, we generated a community-wide inventory of the archaea and bacteria that inhabit the soil of Poa annua L. putting green turf at five time points over a 1-yr period. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.06.0463
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Francisco J. Flores, Stephen M. Marek, Gabriela Orquera and Nathan R. Walker
      Molecular Identification and Multilocus Phylogeny of Ophiosphaerella Species Associated with Spring Dead Spot of Bermudagrass

      Spring dead spot (SDS) is a devastating disease of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], a widely used turfgrass in the transition zone of the United States. The fungi causing SDS have been identified as belonging to three species of the genus Ophiosphaerella based on cultural characters and the morphology of seldom encountered pseudothecial stages. The three species [O. herpotricha (Fr.) Walker, O. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0437
      Published: November 28, 2016



    • Chunzhen Zhang, Shui-zhang Fei, Peng Liu, Tieming Ji, Jiqing Peng, Ursula Frei and David J. Hannapel
      Transcriptome Changes in Response to Cold Acclimation in Perennial Ryegrass as Revealed by a Cross-Species Microarray Analysis

      Freezing tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) can be dramatically increased by a period of cold acclimation. To understand the mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in L. perenne, a cross-species microarray study was conducted by using total RNA from cold-acclimated and nonacclimated L. perenne to hybridize with Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChips from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0252
      Published: November 1, 2016



    • Shane Griffith, Nicholas Bero, John Stier, Glen Obear, Sabrina Ruis and Douglas Soldat
      Biosolids as an Alternative Fertilizer for Kentucky Bluegrass Sod Production in Wisconsin

      Land application of biosolids holds the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for synthetic fertilizer applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic impacts of using biosolids to produce Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sod on a silt loam soil in Wisconsin. Anaerobically digested biosolids cake and biosolids cake mixed with sand and sawdust in a 2:1:1 ratio by volume (MetroMixTM) were produced by and obtained from the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District. Each material was applied at three rates based on their estimated supply of plant-available nitrogen (PAN). (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0367
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • David Jespersen and Bingru Huang
      Effects of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Daconil Action (Acibenzolar- S -Methyl and Chlorothalonil) on Heat and Drought Tolerance of Creeping Bentgrass

      The plant growth regulator trinexapac-ethyl (TE) is known for its effects of suppressing shoot vertical growth. Some fungicides are claimed to promote the physiological health of plants in the absence of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether acibenzolar-S-methyl (one of the active ingredients in Daconil Action), TE alone, or the combination of the two may be most effective in promoting creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) tolerance to heat and drought stress under field conditions. Daconil Action and TE were foliar applied alone or in combination to creeping bentgrass managed under fairway conditions at Rutgers University in 2014 and 2015. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0377
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Clint M. Mattox, Alec R. Kowalewski, Brian W. McDonald, John G. Lambrinos, Brian L. Daviscourt and Jay W. Pscheidt
      Nitrogen and Iron Sulfate Affect Microdochium Patch Severity and Turf Quality on Annual Bluegrass Putting Greens

      Microdochium patch is an important turfgrass disease in cool-humid regions and is caused by the pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett. Control of the pathogen is necessary to provide acceptable putting-green-quality turf, and fungicide applications are the predominant method of control. Increasing pesticide restrictions have generated interest in alternative management techniques of Microdochium patch. This research evaluated the effects of three nitrogen and five iron sulfate rates on Microdochium patch development on a trafficked, sand-based, annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting green in Corvallis, OR for over 2 yr in the absence of fungicides. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.02.0123
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Jialin Yu, Patrick E. McCullough and Mark A. Czarnota
      Selectivity and Fate of Monosodium Methylarsenate in Bermudagrass, Centipedegrass, and Seashore Paspalum

      Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.) can be weedy species with other turfgrasses. Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) selectively controls these grasses in polyculture with tolerant species such as bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], but the mechanisms of selectivity are not well understood. The objectives of this research were to investigate the efficacy and behavior of MSMA in bermudagrass, centipedegrass, and seashore paspalum. In greenhouse experiments, the hierarchical rank of injury ranges for species from high to low was centipedegrass > seashore paspalum > bermudagrass. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0291
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    • Cheng-qi Li, Li Song, Ya-juan Zhu, Yong-jie Zhai and Qing-lian Wang
      Genetic Diversity Assessment of Upland Cotton Variety Resources in China Based on Phenotype Traits and Molecular Markers

      Evaluating germplasm resources comprehensively and accurately is of great significance to their efficient utilization. To comprehensively characterize the genetic relationships among upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, the genetic diversity of 172 upland cotton varieties in China was assessed using 18 phenotype traits and 154 polymorphic simple sequence repeat molecular markers. According to the variation analysis of phenotype traits, the variation coefficient, which reflects the level of phenotypic genetic diversity, varied widely among traits. The analysis of marker polymorphism showed that the average allele number, gene diversity index, and polymorphism information content were 2.62, 0.3985 and 0.3343, respectively, indicating a relatively low level of genetic diversity. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0200
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Hari D. Upadhyaya, Sangam L. Dwivedi, Mani Vetriventhan, L. Krishnamurthy and Shailesh Kumar Singh
      Post-Flowering Drought Tolerance Using Managed Stress Trials, Adjustment to Flowering, and Mini Core Collection in Sorghum

      Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop in the semiarid tropics often suffers from post-flowering drought stress, which causes substantial losses in grain yield and stover quality. This research was aimed at studying the yield response of sorghum mini core accessions to post-flowering drought stress to identify drought-tolerant sources for sorghum improvement. Mini core accessions were grouped based on days to 50% flowering (extra early, early, medium, late, and extra late) and evaluated in two post-rainy seasons under managed drought stress and optimally irrigated conditions. Drought tolerance index (DTI), as a standard residual after removing the known contributory effects of flowering time and grain yield under optimum irrigation (yield potential) from the grain yield under drought, was used to segregate the genotypic responses to drought stress. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0280
      Published: December 8, 2016



    • Warda Saoudi, Mounawer Badri, Mhemmed Gandour, Abderrazak Smaoui, Chedly Abdelly and Wael Taamalli
      Assessment of Genetic Variability among Tunisian Populations of Hordeum marinum Using Morpho-Agronomic Traits

      Sea barely (Hordeum marinum Huds.) is known as a salinity-tolerant annual grass species. Its use in the rehabilitation of degraded arid and semiarid rangelands or in crop plant improvement programs is of great interest. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic variation within and among 150 single-seed descent families representing 10 Tunisian populations of H. marinum using eight quantitative traits. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.03.0205
      Published: November 28, 2016



  • PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES—NOTE

    • Christina S. Jreisat and Howard M. Laten
      Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Regions Identify Possible Misidentification or Mislabeling among Trifolium (Clover) Specimens from Germplasm Collections

      Accurate identification and labeling of plant germplasm is essential for creating new hybrids with enhanced agronomic characteristics and for basic genetic and evolutionary studies. Expert collectors and seed banks do their best to attain high levels of accuracy and reliability, but errors are inevitable. During the course of a study of clover (Trifolium) transposable elements, we obtained DNA sequence results that led us to question the species designation of some accessions. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.07.0626
      Published: October 26, 2016



    • Surya Kant, Emily Thoday-Kennedy, Sameer Joshi, Jignesh Vakani, Jess Hughes, Lancelot Maphosa, Andy Sadler, Meri Menidis, Anthony Slater and German Spangenberg
      Automated Rainout Shelter’s Design for Well-Defined Water Stress Field Phenotyping of Crop Plants

      Field phenotyping to identify water stress-tolerant crop genotypes is challenging due to uncertainty in the timing of rainfall. Rainout shelters offer a way of establishing controlled water stress environments by excluding untimely rain events. Here, we present a detailed description of custom-designed rainout shelters. These shelters are fully automated and portable. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.08.0677
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • PULSE SYMPOSIUM

    • Xingbo Wu, Nana Li, Junjie Hao, Jinguo Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang and Matthew W. Blair
      Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) Collections

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and a core collection from the National Genebank of China (NGC). The Chinese and global collections had 295 and 305 accessions, respectively. A total of 259 alleles were detected in the full 600 accessions, with a mean of 8.7 alleles per locus. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.04.0271
      Published: October 26, 2016



  • TURFGRASS SCIENCE

    • Phillip L. Vines, Thomas W. Allen, Janice DuBien, Barry R. Stewart and Maria Tomaso-Peterson
      Ultradwarf Bermudagrass Performance as Influenced by Cultivar Selection and Cultural Management Practice

      Ultradwarf bermudagrass (UDB) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] cultivars are prolific thatch producers, a trait linked to decreased playability and plant health. A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate impacts of cultural management practice and cultivar selection on plant health and playability of ‘Champion’ and ‘MiniVerde’ UDB cultivars. (continued)


      doi:10.2135/cropsci2016.05.0312
      Published: October 26, 2016



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