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Crop Science : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs, which includes the complete archive.

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Lorenz, A.J., T.J. Gustafson, J.G. Coors, and N. de Leon. 2009. Breeding Maize for a Bioeconomy: A Literature Survey Examining Harvest Index and Stover Yield and Their Relationship to Grain Yield. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2009.02.0086

Current issue: Crop Sci. 57(5)


    • Phillip E. McClean, Samira Mafi Moghaddam, Ana-Flor Lopéz-Millán, Mark A. Brick, James D. Kelly, Phillip N. Miklas, Juan Osorno, Timothy G. Porch, Carlos A. Urrea, Ali Soltani and Michael A. Grusak
      Phenotypic Diversity for Seed Mineral Concentration in North American Dry Bean Germplasm of Middle American Ancestry

      Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source in the human diet of peoples in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an ongoing objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral concentration of five macroelements and eight microelements in a large panel (n = 277) of modern race Durango and race Mesoamerica genotypes to determine if variability existed that could be exploited for targeted seed biofortification. Varieties that derive from these races are found in many diets throughout the world. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2017


    • Humberto A. Gajardo, Rocio Quian and Braulio Soto-Cerda
      Agronomic and Quality Assessment of Linseed Advanced Breeding Lines Varying in Seed Mucilage Content and Their Use for Food and Feed

      Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is well known for containing functional compounds with health-related benefits. Assessed were the agronomic and seed-quality traits of 13 linseed advanced breeding lines (ABLs) varying in seed mucilage content (SMC) that could be better suited to Chilean environments and food and feed market needs. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant genotype and environment effects for most of the traits assessed. Seed mucilage content ranged from 0.89 to 5.45%, and various ABLs exhibited similar yield and yield-related traits to the controls, but some outperformed them for harvest index, plant height, and days to 5% flowering. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Lillian F. Brzostowski and Brian W. Diers
      Pyramiding of Alleles from Multiple Sources Increases the Resistance of Soybean to Highly Virulent Soybean Cyst Nematode Isolates

      Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is estimated to be the pathogen that causes the greatest economic loss to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the United States. Genetic resistance is an effective way to manage SCN. Resistance sources have been identified, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance from these sources have been mapped. However, there is a need to diversify SCN resistance genes in cultivars, as most grown in the northern United States have resistance tracing only to the source PI 88788. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Xiaojun Dai, Gongping Kang, Zixin Wang, Ji Luan, Zhen Wang, Manzhong Liang and Liangbi Chen
      Cytoplasmic Effects on the Agronomic and Physiological Traits of Dual-Purpose Genic Male Sterile Substitution Lines of Rice

      The two-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) system is an effective way for breeding and developing super rice. However, few studies have been conducted on the cytoplasmic effects. In this study, the sterile ZhunS substitution lines were acquired by using ZhunS as the nucleus donor, and rice cultivars from indica, temperate japonica, and tropical japonica subgroups and wild species were used as cytoplasmic donors. The agronomic and physiological traits were analyzed. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Odilon P. Morais Júnior, Flávio Breseghello, João Batista Duarte, Orlando P. Morais, Paulo H. N. Rangel and Alexandre S. G. Coelho
      Effectiveness of Recurrent Selection in Irrigated Rice Breeding

      Plant breeding for quantitative traits is a complicated task; thus, the recurrent selection method has been used in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding program at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa). Our general objective was to assess the effectiveness of this method in achieving genetic progress, maintaining genetic variability, and increasing the potential for selection of superior lines. A genetically broad-based population of irrigated rice, CNA12S, submitted to three selection cycles was used in this study. The dataset comprised 10 yield trials, in which 667 S1:3 progenies and six check cultivars were assessed for grain yield, plant height, and days to flowering. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Neal R. Carpenter, Carl A. Griffey, Subas Malla, Marla Barnett, David Marshall, Myron O. Fountain, J. Paul Murphy, Eugene Milus, Jerry Johnson, James Buck, Shiaoman Chao, Gina L. Brown-Guedira and Emily Wright
      Identification of Quantitative Resistance to Puccinia striiformis and Puccina triticinia in the Soft Red Winter Wheat Cultivar ‘Jamestown’

      Disease resistance is critical in soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks and stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • Filipe Inacio Matias, Giovanni Galli, Italo Stefanine Correia Granato and Roberto Fritsche-Neto
      Genomic Prediction of Autogamous and Allogamous Plants by SNPs and Haplotypes

      The implementation of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genomic selection has demonstrated great predictive potential in plants. However, its application is sometimes limited to the biallelism of the marker. In this context, the use of haplotype blocks as multiallelic markers might improve genomic prediction. This study was performed to compare the predictive ability of Bayesian genomic prediction models using haplotypes (confidence interval and four-gamete), individual SNPs, and sets of SNPs selected according to haplotype construction. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • M. Oyekunle, A. Haruna, B. Badu-Apraku, I. S. Usman, H. Mani, S. G. Ado, G. Olaoye, K. Obeng-Antwi, R. O. Abdulmalik and H. O. Ahmed
      Assessment of Early-Maturing Maize Hybrids and Testing Sites Using GGE Biplot Analysis

      Identification of outstanding maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for target environments is complicated by genotype × environment interactions. Thirty-two early-maturity maize hybrids were evaluated at eight locations in Nigeria and six locations in Ghana for 2 yr to (i) identify high-yielding, stable hybrids across locations and/or hybrids specifically adapted to different locations, and (ii) identify ideal test sites for selection of superior hybrids in the two countries. Genotype, country, year, location (country), and their interactive effects were significant (P < 0·01) for grain yield, days to anthesis and silking, anthesis-silking interval, plant and ear aspects, and ears per plant. Mean grain yield of the hybrids ranged from 3177 kg ha−1 for EWH-5 to 4596 kg ha−1 for EWH-29. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • Russell A. Ward, Ki-Seung Kim and Brian W. Diers
      Yield Drag Associated with the Soybean Aphid Resistance Gene Rag2 from PI 200538

      The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an exotic pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that was first identified in North America during 2000. The pest can be controlled by the resistance genes Rag1 and Rag2, which have been introgressed into Midwestern-adapted soybean lines. In previous studies, the Rag2 resistance allele was shown to be associated with a seed yield reduction. The objective of our study was to confirm the reduction associated with Rag2 and determine its cause. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • Ji Hong Kim, Dong Nyuk Bae, Soo-Kwon Park, Namhee Jeong, Kwanghee Lee, Hoyoung Kang, Sung-Taeg Kang, Jung-Kyung Moon, Euiho Park and Soon-Chun Jeong
      Molecular Genetic Analysis of a Novel Recessive White Flower Gene in Wild Soybean

      Cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] flowers are either white or purple, whereas nearly all wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accessions have purple flowers. As a result, the soybean flower color phenotype has attracted the attention of plant breeders, biochemists, and population geneticists. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2017

    • Lillian F. Brzostowski and Brian W. Diers
      Agronomic Evaluation of a High Protein Allele from PI407788A on Chromosome 15 across Two Soybean Backgrounds

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] protein is a prominent plant-based protein source worldwide due to its high quality and relatively low cost. A major barrier to the development of high protein cultivars is the negative relationship between seed protein and seed yield. A large effect protein quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been mapped to the same location on chromosome (chr) 15 in several studies and given the designation, cqSeed protein-001. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the high protein allele from PI407788A at the chr 15 locus on seed composition and agronomic traits. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017

    • José Luis Torres Flores, Beatriz Mendoza García, B. M. Prasanna, Gregorio Alvarado, Félix M. San Vicente and José Crossa
      Grain Yield and Stability of White Early Maize Hybrids in the Highland Valleys of Mexico

      There is great interest in Mexico in reducing imports of grain and becoming self-sufficient in cereal production. Identifying high-yielding and stable maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids from different research institutions could contribute to increasing maize production in the highlands of Mexico. In this study, 16 early white maize hybrids were evaluated at 37 highland sites in several Mexican states with the objective of identifying high-yielding and stable hybrids, as well as high-yielding sites. Using the site regression model, it was possible to identify some outstanding hybrids (CHLHW09035, CHLHW02517, and HIBRIDO 2010) with acceptable grain yield production that were also stable across most of the 37 sites. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017

    • Andrew Schmitz and Manhong Zhu
      The Economics of Yield Maintenance: An Example from Florida Sugarcane

      The seminal work by Edmé et al. (2005) was reviewed to examine both the dynamics of sugarcane yield changes and the impact of new sugarcane varieties in Florida. That study used linear trend regression analysis on the 1968 to 2000 period and found significant yield and sugar content improvements due to new genetics. Using the same statistical technique, this study indicates that neither of these was significant after 2000. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Tao Liu, Wen Chen, Xiaochun Zhong, Yan Zi, Chen Chen, Wei Wu, Chengming Sun, Xinkai Zhu and Wenshan Guo
      Image-Analysis-Based Evaluation of Wheat Growth Status

      Nondestructive acquisition agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth status and appropriate evaluation are important to wheat management. This study was performed to construct a model for the estimation of wheat dry weight (DW), leaf area index (LAI), tiller number (TN), and nitrogen accumulation (NC) using image analysis techniques. Wheat groups were constructed under different levels of planting density and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. Images were taken during the early tillering stage using a digital camera. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Jessica A. Torrion and Robert N. Stougaard
      Impacts and Limits of Irrigation Water Management on Wheat Yield and Quality

      Greater understanding of the impacts of irrigation timing in hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) promotes better irrigation management, which optimizes the positive and minimizes the negative impacts on yield and quality. An experiment was conducted in 2014 to 2015 at Creston, MT. Eight cultivars (subplots) were randomly assigned to six water regimes (main plots). Aside from a rainfed check, irrigation treatments were: (i) replenishment of seasonal crop evapotranspiratory water loss via 32 mm per irrigation event (100ET); (ii) only 21 mm replenishment (66ET) per event to simulate season-long deficit; and three treatments in which 100ET replacement was terminated prior to grain fill completion by scheduling final irrigation at respective stages of: (iii) med-milk (100ET.MM), (iv) early milk (100ET.EM), (v) and anthesis (100ET.FL). (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017


    • Walter E. Riedell and Shannon L. Osborne
      Monolith Root Sampling Elucidates Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding Injury in Maize

      New experimental techniques are needed to investigate spatial relationships of subterranean herbivorous insects. This study was conducted to determine if monolith soil–root sampling techniques could quantify maize (Zea mays L.) root system spatial characteristics after western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larval feeding. A 2-yr field study evaluated larval injury to maize root systems under controlled western corn rootworm larval infestation. Root damage and dry weight were measured in a 20-cm-diam. (continued)

      Published: September 7, 2017

    • D. J. Timlin, T. C. M. Naidu, D. H. Fleisher and V. R. Reddy
      Quantitative Effects of Phosphorus on Maize Canopy Photosynthesis and Biomass

      The objective of this study was to quantify the response of maize (Zea mays L.) canopy photosynthesis, development and biomass to P under controlled conditions. Maize was grown in Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Research (SPAR) chambers in Beltsville, MD, with four levels of P (0 [L], 0.01 [Ml], 0.05 [M2], and 0.2 [H] mmol P L−1) and three levels of N (2, 5, and 12 mmol L−1). Five destructive harvests for biomass were taken. There was no significant N effect, so only the P effects were analyzed, and chambers were pooled over P treatments. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Bernardo M. M. N. Borges, Maria L. Silveira, Saulo S. Cardoso, Ederlon F. V. Moline, Andre M. Coutinho Neto, Fabio T. Lucas, Takashi Muraoka and Edson L. M. Coutinho
      Growth, Herbage Accumulation, and Nutritive Value of ‘Tifton 85’ Bermudagrass as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Strategies

      Nitrogen fertilization affects ‘Tifton 85’ bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) herbage accumulation (HA) and nutritive value; however, forage response may be affected by N fertilizer source, application levels, and environmental conditions. This 2-yr study evaluated the effect of different N fertilization strategies on Tifton 85 bermudagrass responses in a tropical soil from southeast Brazil. Treatments were two N sources (ammonium nitrate [AN] and urea) applied at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg N ha−1 harvest−1. Fertilizer sources were enriched with 15N to quantify the recovery of fertilizer-derived N. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017

    • Marta M. Kohmann, Lynn E. Sollenberger, João M.B. Vendramini, Maria L. Silveira and Leonardo S. B. Moreno
      Harvest Stubble Height and K Fertilization Affect Performance of Jiggs and ‘Tifton 85’ Bermudagrasses

      Use of Jiggs bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] for hay has increased in warm climates like southern Florida, but effects of defoliation and K fertilizer management on Jiggs adaptation to environments with frequent winter freezes are not known. During 2 yr, K fertilization (0, 17, and 34 kg K ha−1 harvest−1) and cutting stubble height (SH, 8 and 16 cm every 28 d) effects on herbage accumulation (HA), ground cover, K removal, and tissue and soil K were evaluated for Jiggs and ‘Tifton 85’ (Cynodon spp.) bermudagrasses. All treatments received 240 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Herbage accumulation was greater for 8- than 16-cm SH (8050 and 7330 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively) and increased linearly from 7040 to 8120 kg ha−1 yr−1 with increasing K fertilization. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Gyu Tae Park, Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Seokhyung Lee, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Soon-Ki Park, Hak Soo Seo, Gyuhwa Chung and Jong Tae Song
      Color Variation in a Novel Glycine soja Mutant W4-S1 with Pinkish-White Flowers Is Controlled by a Single Recessive Allele at the W4 Locus

      Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) plays a crucial role in anthocyanin biosynthesis. In cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], the W3 and W4 loci encode DFR1 and DFR2, respectively, and are epistatic to each other. In this study, we discovered a new flower color variant of Glycine soja (L.) Merr., CW13133, which has pinkish-white flowers, and investigated the genetic and molecular basis of the variation in flower color. We found that the W4 locus encoding DFR2 was responsible for the variation in flower color. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Avjinder S. Kaler, Arun P. Dhanapal, Jeffery D. Ray, C. Andy King, Felix B. Fritschi and Larry C. Purcell
      Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Carbon Isotope and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Diverse Soybean Genotypes

      Water deficit stress is a major factor limiting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield. High water use efficiency (WUE) offers a means to potentially ameliorate drought impact, but increased WUE is often associated with a reduction in transpiration (T) and an accompanied reduction in photosynthesis. This interdependence of T and photosynthesis is a major constraint in selection for high WUE by breeding programs. Measurement of genetic variability in WUE and T through carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O), respectively, could be important in identifying genotypes with high WUE that also have relatively high T, and thus higher rates of biomass production. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Abdullah Kahraman, Anamika Pandey, M. Kamran Khan, Donna Lindsay, Susan Moenga, Lisa Vance, Emily Bergmann, Noelia Carrasquilla-Garcia, Min-Gyoung Shin, Peter L. Chang, Eric J. B. von Wettberg, Bunyamin Tar’an, Douglas R. Cook and R. Varma Penmetsa
      Distinct Subgroups of Cicer echinospermum Are Associated with Hybrid Sterility and Breakdown in Interspecific Crosses with Cultivated Chickpea

      Crop wild relatives are a reservoir of phenotypic variation not present in the germplasm of cultivated species and thus have great potential for crop improvement. However, issues of genetic compatibility often interfere with effective utilization of crop wild relative taxa. Among chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop wild relatives, Cicer echinospermum P.H. Davis is the sole species in the secondary genepool, being partially compatible with the primary genepool that is composed of the cultigen and its progenitor wild species Cicer reticulatum Ladizinksy. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Sha Liu, Xiaoming Zheng, Liqin Yu, Li Feng, Junrui Wang, Tingting Gong, Xinxia Liang, Lan Qi, Long Su, Yingbin Ding, Rui Xu, Weihua Qiao, Yunlian Cheng, Lifang Zhang and Qingwen Yang
      Comparison of the Genetic Structure betweenIn Situ and Ex Situ Populations of DongxiangWild Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.)

      In situ and ex situ conservation are two main wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) protection strategies. Few studies have compared the genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild rice between ex situ and in situ populations. Thus in this study, 278 individuals collected from three in situ and nine ex situ populations of Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) were genotyped using 32 microsatellite loci to compare their population genetic structure and genetic diversity. Model-based grouping, neighbor-joining tree, and principal coordinate analyses showed that there were significant differences in the population structure between in situ and ex situ populations. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Kevin C. Glenn, Ben Alsop, Erin Bell, Mike Goley, Jonathan Jenkinson, Bing Liu, Cheryl Martin, Wayne Parrott, Chris Souder, Oscar Sparks, William Urquhart, Jason M. Ward and John L. Vicini
      Bringing New Plant Varieties to Market: Plant Breeding and Selection Practices Advance Beneficial Characteristics while Minimizing Unintended Changes

      Commercial-scale plant breeding is a complex process in which new crop varieties are continuously being developed to improve yield and agronomic performance over current varieties. A wide array of naturally occurring genetic changes are sources of new characteristics available to plant breeders. During conventional plant breeding, genetic material is exchanged that has the potential to beneficially or adversely affect plant characteristics. For this reason, commercial-scale breeders have implemented extensive plant selection practices to identify the top-performing candidates with the desired characteristics while minimizing the advancement of unintended changes. (continued)

      Published: September 1, 2017

    • Desalegn D. Serba, Ramasamy Perumal, Tesfaye T. Tesso and Doohong Min
      Status of Global Pearl Millet Breeding Programs and the Way Forward

      Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a warm-season, C4 annual cereal primarily grown in Africa and India for food and fodder. It is also grown in the United States, mainly as a forage crop on a limited area. It is the sixth most important cereal crop in the world. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Sebastián Arisnabarreta and Fernando Solari
      Hybrid Maize Seed Production Yield Associations with Inbred Line Performance in Multienvironment Trials

      Hybrid maize (Zea maize L.) seed is produced in Argentina from southern Buenos Aires (39°52′ S) to Salta (25°25′ S) provinces. Genotype × environment (GE) interaction in hybrid seed production is barely known, and no agronomic or business decisions are based on GE interactions. The general objective of this paper was to increase the understanding of the GE interaction of female and male attributes associated with hybrid maize seed production. Parent attributes were measured in parent testing trials, and hybrid seed yield data were collected from seed production plots. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

    • Constanza S. Carrera and Julio L. Dardanelli
      Water Deficit Modulates the Relationship between Temperature and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Seed Oil

      Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], a major source of vegetable oil worldwide, contains unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) beneficial for human health, leading to the use of soybean oil in nutraceuticals. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of water deficit on relationships of soybean seed UFA with temperature and with solar radiation. The UFA profile was determined in harvested seeds of commercial cultivars grown in 76 environments in Argentina (29–38° S latitude). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a differential response of oleic (Ol), linoleic (Li), and linolenic (Ln) acids and Ol/(Li + Ln) ratio to temperature during seed fill (TmR5R7) under different conditions of field water availability. (continued)

      Published: August 23, 2017


    • Pattamavadee Kunwanlee, Hidenori Tanaka, Masatsugu Hashiguchi, Takahiro Gondo, Melody Muguerza, Takayasu Inoue and Ryo Akashi
      The Highly Heterozygous Homoploid Turfgrass Zoysia matrella Displays Desirable Traits in the S 1 Progeny

      Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr. is a homoploid turfgrass that possesses intermediate traits between Z. japonica Steudel and Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) M. (continued)

      Published: September 14, 2017

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