About Us | Help Videos | Contact Us | Subscriptions

Members of ASA, CSSA, and SSSA: Due to system upgrades, your subscriptions in the digital library will be unavailable from May 15th to May 22nd. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause, and thank you for your patience. If you have any questions, please call our membership department at 608-273-8080.


Institutional Subscribers: Institutional subscription access will not be interrupted for existing subscribers who have access via IP authentication, though new subscriptions or changes will not be available during the upgrade period. For questions, please email us at: queries@dl.sciencesocieties.org or call Danielle Lynch: 608-268-4976.



This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 13 No. 2, p. 175-183
    Received: May 4, 1983

Request Permissions


Fractionation, Characterization, and Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge and Sludge-Amended Soils: A Review1

  1. D. L. Lake,
  2. P. W. W. Kirk and
  3. J. N. Lester2



The speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability of metals for plant uptake and the potential for contamination of groundwater following the application of municipal sewage sludge to agricultural land. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in the solid phase of sludges and sludge-amended soils include chemical extractions, elutriation, and filtration, while chromatographic techniques and computer calculations are frequently applied to the solution phase. Such studies have shown metals to be predominantly associated with the solid phase; soluble and exchangeable species generally represent < 10% of total metals. Speciation in sludge-amended soils initially reflects that of the sludge itself, although changes with time have been observed. It is apparent, however, that more refined interpretation of analytical data obtained by current speciation techniques is required to further characterize heavy metals. In addition, certain techniques used to speciate metals in other matrices may have applications for sludges and sludge-amended soils.

  Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.

Copyright © .