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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 14 No. 4, p. 569-574
     
    Received: Jan 9, 1985
    Published: Oct, 1985


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doi:10.2134/jeq1985.00472425001400040019x

Comparative Toxicology of Laboratory Organisms for Assessing Hazardous Waste Sites1

  1. W. E. Miller,
  2. S. A. Peterson,
  3. J. C. Greene and
  4. C. A. Callahan2

Abstract

Abstract

Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat “Stephens,” (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.), radish, “Cherry Belle,” (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, “Kenland,” (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, “Spartan Valor,” (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC50 values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphnia tests.

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