About Us | Help Videos | Contact Us | Subscriptions
 

Abstract

 

This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 25 No. 3, p. 594-600
     
    Received: July 13, 1995
    Published: May, 1996


    * Corresponding author(s):
 View
 Download
 Alerts
 Permissions
 Share

doi:10.2134/jeq1996.00472425002500030027x

Vapor-Phase and Particulate-Associated Pesticides and PCB Concentrations in Eastern North Dakota Air Samples

  1. Steven B. Hawthorne *,
  2. David J. Miller,
  3. Peter K. K. Louie,
  4. Raymond D. Butler and
  5. Gale G. Mayer
  1. Energy and Environmental Research Center, Campus Box 9018, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202.

Abstract

Abstract

Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 µm) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m3). The most prevalent species found in the PUF extracts were endosulfan I and II (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin 3-oxide, exo- and endo-isomers, respectively) at <1 to 2200 pg/m3 and <1 to 500 pg/m3, respectively, trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline) at 3 to 700 pg/m3, and 4,4′-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-(chlorophenyl)ethylene) at 6 to 200 pg/m3. The most prevalent pesticides in filter extracts included carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) at <0.5 to 470 pg/m3, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-l,3,5-triazine) at <0.4 to 46 pg/m3, 2,4-D ((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid) at <0.4 to 1800 pg/m3, and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile) at <13 to 7800 pg/m3. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m3 in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters.

  Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.

Copyright © .