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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 26 No. 4, p. 933-946
     
    Received: Sept 13, 1996
    Published: July, 1997


    * Corresponding author(s): h.j.winkels@riza.rws.minvenw.nl
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doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600040003x

Optimal Cost-Effective Sampling for Monitoring and Dredging of Contaminated Sediments

  1. H. J. Winkels * and
  2. A. Stein
  1. R ijkswaterstaat, Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment, P.O. Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad, the Netherlands;
    D epartment of Soil Science and Geology, Wageningen Agric. Univ., P.O. Box 37, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Abstract

We used spatial statistics to study variability within contaminated sediments of three zones in Lake Ketelmeer in the Netherlands. Attention focused on the copper (Cu) and benzo(A)pyrene (BAP) content of the contaminated layer, its thickness, and related clay and organic matter (OM) contents. Optimal sampling distances for monitoring aquatic pollutants and the thickness of the contaminated layer in the sediments were estimated taking spatial variability into account. These distances depend on water depth, sedimentation, erosion, shipping activities, and types of sediment. In 40% of the study area, the thickness of the contaminated layer can be surveyed at a grid spacing that is 18 times as wide as that needed in harbors, near shores, and shipping routes to achieve the same accuracy. A new optimizing and cost-effective method for accurate aquatic monitoring is suggested as a preliminary step to the removal of contaminants in the future.

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