Rainfall Frequency and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Runoff from Soil Amended with Poultry Litter
- Andrew N. Sharpley *
Repeated land application of manure has enriched runoff N and P in some areas. Here, more restrictive manure management guidelines may be adopted. The main factors affecting N and P runoff from land receiving manure include the rate, method, and timing of application. Of these factors, least information is available on timing; thus, the effect of rainfall frequency and timing (7–35 d at 2.54 cm h−1) after poultry litter application (incorporated into surface 5 cm of soil at 10 Mg ha−1; i.e., 380 kg N and 160 kg P ha−1) on N and P concentrations in runoff was investigated for 10 Oklahoma soils. Runoff N and P concentrations decreased with 10 successive rains, starting 7 d after litter application. Although the decrease in N concentration was independent of soil type, decreases in dissolved (DP) and bioavailable P (BAP) were related to percent saturation of soil P sorption sites (r2 of 0.97 and 0.62, respectively). Increasing the time between litter application and rainfall from 1 to 35 d reduced total N from 7.54 to 2.34, ammonium-N (NH4-N) 5.53 to 0.11, DP 0.74 to 0.45, and BAP 0.99 to 0.65 mg L−1, by leaching and volatilization of N and sorption of P. Nitrate-N (NO3-N) concentrations were unaffected by rainfall frequency and timing. Runoff N and P may be reduced by avoiding litter applications during periods of high rainfall probabilities, with these reductions greater for high than low P sorbing soils.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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