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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 27 No. 3, p. 551-556
     
    Received: Sept 18, 1996


    * Corresponding author(s): cogger@wsu.edu
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doi:10.2134/jeq1998.00472425002700030011x

Transport and Persistence of Pesticides in Alluvial Soils: II. Carbofuran

  1. C. G. Cogger *,
  2. J. D. Stark,
  3. P. R. Bristow,
  4. L. W. Getzin and
  5. M. Montgomery
  1. Dep. Agricultural Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331.

Abstract

Abstract

Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate), a soil-applied insecticide, is a potential leaching risk when applied to permeable soils overlying shallow, unconfined aquifers. We conducted this project to evaluate the long-term movement, persistence, and leaching risk of carbofuran applied to perennial small fruit crops grown on alluvial soils with shallow (<3 m deep) groundwater. Carbofuran was applied to strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) in paired plots at two sites in western Washington. Strawberry received carbofuran at 2.2 kg ha−1 in a 30-cm wide band each August, and raspberry received 3.1 kg ha−1 in a 90-cm band each November. We applied carbofuran yearly from 1986 to 1989, and sampled soil (to 180 cm) and shallow groundwater monthly until April 1991, and at one site again in March 1994. Carbofuran was initially mobile, and significantly more carbofuran moved below 60 cm in raspberry than in strawberry. Differences in carbofuran leaching between sites corresponded to differences in soil-binding constants. The disappearance half-life of carbofuran decreased from 110–221 d in 1986–1987 to 69–100 d in 1989–1990, evidence of enhanced degradation. Enhanced degradation appeared to affect freshly added carbofuran, but not residual carbofuran that had become more tightly bound to the soil over time. Carbofuran was found in shallow groundwater beneath both crops and sites the first winter. The leaching risk declined after the first winter, which is probably a result of enhanced degradation and nonequilibrium binding.

WSU Crop and Soil Sciences Departmental Paper no. 9608-11.

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