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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 28 No. 5, p. 1412-1421
     
    Received: Nov 4, 1998


    * Corresponding author(s): larney@em.agr.ca
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doi:10.2134/jeq1999.00472425002800050004x

Herbicide Transport on Wind-Eroded Sediment

  1. Francis J. Larney *,
  2. Allan J. Cessna and
  3. Murray S. Bullock
  1. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1.

Abstract

Abstract

Although wind erosion is a pervasive soil degradation problem on the semiarid Canadian prairies, few studies have been conducted on wind-eroded sediment as an environmental pathway for herbicide transport. An experiment was conducted on a clay loam soil at Lethbridge, AB, in 1993 to 1994, to examine wind-eroded sediment as a transport mechanism for two soil-incorporated [trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline) and triallate (S-2,3,3-trichloroallyl diisopropylthiocarbamate)] and four surface-applied herbicides [diclofop {(±)-2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propanoic acid), bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), mecoprop {(±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid}, and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)]. The concentrations of diclofop and bromoxynil in sediments decreased with increasing capture height, with the 100-cm height having significantly lower concentrations (diclofop, 627 µg kg−1; bromoxynil, 70 µg kg−1) than the 10-cm height (diclofop, 1132 µg kg−1; bromoxynil, 231 µg kg−1). This implies that these herbicides were primarily associated with larger soil particles captured closer to the soil surface. For the soil-incorporated herbicides, concentrations were significantly higher in the surface soil (0–2.5 cm) than in the wind-eroded sediment, whereas concentrations of surface-applied herbicides were generally higher in wind-eroded sediment than in surface soil. Overall wind erosion losses (expressed as a percent of amount applied) of the two soil-incorporated herbicides (1.5%) were about three times lower than those of the four surface-applied herbicides (average loss, 4.5%). The results demonstrate the potential hazard of environmental transport of herbicides on wind-eroded sediment and its associated implications for off-site air and water quality.

LRC contribution no. 3879789.

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