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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 29 No. 3, p. 901-906
    Received: Aug 9, 1999

    * Corresponding author(s): Don.Waite@ec.gc.ca
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Duplicate Sampling of Surface Films and Associated Pond Water for Herbicides

  1. D. T. Waite *,
  2. A. J. Cessna,
  3. R. Grover and
  4. E. J. Woodsworth
  1. E nvironment Canada, 300-2365 Albert St., Regina, SK, S4P 4K1 Canada.
    R esearch Centre, Agric. and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1 Canada.
    C anadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X4 Canada.



This paper describes the variability of herbicide concentrations in the surface film and subsurface water of small, artificial prairie ponds (dugouts) as determined by comparing duplicate samples. Duplicate surface film samples were collected using a horizontally held glass plate and washed into a collection bottle with dichloromethane. Subsurface water samples were collected by plunging bottles into the pond to a depth of approximately 0.25 m. The samples were collected weekly from two dugouts in 1989 and from one dugout in 1990. Samples were analyzed for 2,4-D, dicamba, bromoxynil, MCPA, triallate, trifluralin, and diclofop using a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The average variability of the surface film samples was ±40% of the average of the pair with a confidence interval of 97% (p = 0.05). The average variability of the subsurface water samples was ±25% of the average of the pair with a confidence interval of 71% (p = 0.05). Possible reasons for the variability, including the nonhomogeneity of the surface film, are discussed.

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