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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 30 No. 5, p. 1575-1580
     
    Received: Oct 29, 2000


    * Corresponding author(s): amar.chaudri@bbsrc.ac.uk
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doi:10.2134/jeq2001.3051575x

Cadmium Content of Wheat Grain from a Long-Term Field Experiment with Sewage Sludge

  1. Amar M. Chaudri *a,
  2. Céline M.G. Allaina,
  3. S.H. Badawyab,
  4. Martin L. Adamsa,
  5. Steve P. McGratha and
  6. Brian J. Chambersc
  1. a Agriculture and Environment Division, IACR-Rothamsted, Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK
    b Soil Science Dep., Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt
    c ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre, Meden Vale, Mansfield, Notts, NG20 9PF, UK

Abstract

Grain Cd concentrations were determined in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Soissons, Brigadier, and Hereward grown in 1994, 1996, and 1999, respectively, in soils of a long-term field experiment to which sewage sludges contaminated with Zn, Cu, Ni, or Cr had previously been added. Soil pore water soluble Cd and free Cd2+ increased linearly with increasing total soil Cd (R 2 = 0.82 and 0.84, respectively; P < 0.001). Similarly, soil pore water free Cd2+ increased linearly with increasing soil pore water soluble Cd (R 2 = 0.98; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of a plateau in soil pore water Cd concentrations with increasing soil Cd concentrations. Grain Cd concentrations were significantly correlated with total soil Cd (P < 0.001), soil pore water Cd (P < 0.001), and free Cd2+ (P < 0.001). A slight curvilinear relationship between grain Cd and soil Cd was apparent, but there was no plateau, even at the maximum soil Cd concentration of about 2.7 mg kg−1 The relationship between soil pore water Cd and grain Cd was linear for all three cultivars. The slopes were in the order 1994 > 1996 > 1999, with more Cd being taken up into the grain by Soissons grown in 1994, and least by Hereward grown in 1999. For Soissons, Cd concentration in the grain greater than the EU limit (0.24 mg kg−1 dry wt.) occurred at soil Cd less than the current UK limit of 3 mg kg−1 for soils receiving sewage sludge. In contrast, for Brigadier and Hereward, grain Cd concentrations were near to and less than the EU limit, respectively, at soil Cd concentrations of 3 mg kg−1

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Copyright © 2001. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyPublished in J. Environ. Qual.30:1575–1580.