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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 30 No. 5, p. 1624-1630
     
    Received: Aug 14, 2000


    * Corresponding author(s): masten@egr.msu.edu
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doi:10.2134/jeq2001.3051624x

Toxicity of Ozonated Animal Manure to the House Fly, Musca domestica

  1. Susan J. Masten *a,
  2. Hyesoon Kim-Yanga,
  3. Edward D. Walkerb,
  4. Hugo Romanc and
  5. Melvin T. Yokoyamac
  1. a Dep. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824
    b Dep. of Entomology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824
    c Dep. of Animal Science, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824

Abstract

Swine manure slurries were ozonated at a dosage of 1 g/L and tested for their toxicity to the house fly (Musca domestica). The observed toxicity of ozonated swine manure was consistent and independent of origin of the swine manure. A dose (dilution) response curve was performed. A 50% dilution in the ozonated swine manure slurry resulted in 90% reduction in toxicity. Neither the synthetic nor ozonated synthetic swine manure, both of which contained higher concentrations of formaldehyde and three other unidentified carbonyl compounds than the ozonated swine manure, were toxic to the flies. Ozonated swine manure slurry was centrifuged and passed through a 0.45-μm filter. The liquid phase was as toxic as the unfiltered slurry; as such, the toxicant appears to be present in liquid phase. Neither ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, nor other simple aldehydes appeared to be the toxic agent. The toxic agent appears to be a polar chemical compound and is concentrated in the urine. Several possible compounds have been identified. The toxicity of untreated and ozonated manure slurries from different livestock was compared. Six animal manure slurries (beef and dairy cattle, horse, poultry, sheep, and swine) were ozonated (dosage of 1 g/L) and tested for toxicity to the house fly. Ozonated dairy cattle manure slurry showed 78% mortality after 72 h, whereas ozonated swine manure slurry achieved a 100% mortality rate in 48 h. Neither the unozonated dairy nor swine manure slurries, nor any of the other raw or ozonated manure slurries, were toxic to the flies.

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Copyright © 2001. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyPublished in J. Environ. Qual.30:1624–1630.