Environmental Concentrations of Agricultural Herbicides
- D. T. Waite *a,
- A. J. Cessnab,
- R. Groverc,
- L. A. Kerrd and
- A. D. Snihurae
- a Environment Canada, 300-2365 Albert St., Regina, SK, Canada S4P 4K1
b Research Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1
c Research Station, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Regina, SK, Canada
d Research Station, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Regina, SK, Canada
e Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK
The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and triallate [S-2,3,3-trichloroallyl di-isopropyl(thiocarbamate)] are extensively used to control broadleaf and wild oat (respectively) weed infestations in Canadian cereal crops. In 1990, for example, more than 3.8 million kg of 2,4-D and 2.7 million kg of triallate were applied in the three prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba). Maximum air concentrations of these two herbicides during the summers of 1989 and 1990 near Regina, Saskatchewan, were 3.90 ng m−3 (2,4-D) and 60.04 ng m−3 (triallate). Concentrations of these two herbicides were also measured in bulk atmospheric deposition (wet plus dry) and in farm pond water and associated surface film. Maximum measured levels of 2,4-D were 3550 ng m−2 d−1 (bulk deposition), 332 ng m2 (surface film), and 290 ng L−1 (pond water). Maximum levels of triallate were 2300 ng m−2 d−1 (bulk deposition), 212 ng m−2 (surface film), and 500 ng L−1 (pond water). The highest quantities of the herbicides tended to be found during or immediately after the time of regional application. The movement of the herbicides in the environment will be discussed in relation to the four matrices studied.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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