Partitioning and Persistence of Trichlorfon and Chlorpyrifos in a Creeping Bentgrass Putting Green
- L. Wu *a,
- R.L. Greenb,
- G. Liuc,
- M.V. Yatesad,
- P. Pachecob,
- J. Gana and
- S.R. Yatesad
- a Dep. of Environ. Sci., Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521
b Dep. of Botany and Plant Sci., Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521
c Inst. of Mountain Hazard and Environ., Chinese Academy of Sci., Chengdu, China 610041
d U.S. George Brown Salinity Lab., USDA-ARS, Riverside, 450 W. Big Spring, Riverside, CA 92507
Golf course putting greens typically receive high pesticide applications to meet high quality demands. Research on pesticide fate in turf ecosystems is important to better understand the potential impact of pesticide use on the environment and human health. This research was conducted to evaluate the environmental fate of two commonly used insecticides—trichlorfon (dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate) and chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridylphosphorothioate)—in a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting green under customary field management practices at the University of California-Riverside Turf Research Facility during 1996 and 1997. The two insecticides were chosen because of their difference in water solubility, persistence, adsorption, and vapor pressure. Volatilization, clipping removal, and soil residues of the insecticides were quantified and leaching was monitored using lysimeters installed in putting green plots. Results showed trichlorfon volatilization, clipping removal, and leaching loss was insignificant (in the range of 0.0001–0.06% of applied mass) both in 1996 and 1997. No significant difference in clipping removal of trichlorfon and chlorpyrifos was observed in both years (0.06 and 0.05% of applied mass for trichlorfon and 0.15 and 0.19% of applied mass for chlorpyrifos, respectively, in 1996 and 1997), but significantly lower cumulative leaching and lower soil concentration was observed in 1997 than in 1996. Volatilization loss of chlorpyrifos was not significantly different between 1996 (2.05%) and 1997 (2.71%). Volatilization loss of trichlorfon in 1996 (0.01%) was significantly higher than in 1997 (0.008%). This study demonstrated the fraction of applied insecticides leaving the turf putting greens was minimal.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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