Influence of Manure Application on Surface Energy and Snow Cover
- C.E. Kongoli *a and
- W.L. Blandb
Winter landspreading is an important part of manure management in the U.S. Upper Midwest. Although the practice is thought to lead to excessive P runoff losses, surprisingly little has been learned from field experiments or current water quality models. We captured knowledge gained from winter manure landspreading experiments by modifying a mechanistic snow ablation model to include manure. The physically based, modified model simulated the observed delay in snow cover disappearance and surface energy balance changes caused by application of the manure. Additional model simulations of surface energy balance estimates of radiation and turbulent fluxes showed that during intense melting events the manure on top of snow significantly reduced the energy available for melt of the snow underneath, slowing melt. The effect was most pronounced when snowmelt was driven by both relatively high solar radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. High absorbed shortwave radiation caused significant warming of the manure, which led to substantial losses in turbulent fluxes and longwave radiation. Simulations of snowmelt also showed that manure applications between 45 and 100 Mg ha−1 significantly reduced peak snowmelt rates, in proportion to the manure applied. Lower snowmelt rates beneath manure may allow more infiltration of meltwater compared with bare snow. This infiltration and attenuated snowmelt runoff may partially mitigate the enhanced likelihood of P runoff from unincorporated winter-spread manure.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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