Phosphorus Forms in Biosolids-Amended Soils and Losses in Runoff
- Chad J. Penn * and
- J. Thomas Sims
Continuous addition of municipal biosolids to soils based on plant nitrogen (N) requirements can cause buildup of soil phosphorus (P) in excess of crop requirements; runoff from these soils can potentially contribute to nonpoint P pollution of surface waters. However, because biosolids are often produced using lime and/or metal salts, the potential for biosolids P to cause runoff P losses can vary with wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process. This study was conducted to determine the effect of wastewater treatment process on the forms and amounts of P in biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and in runoff from biosolids-amended soils. We amended two soil types with eight biosolids and a poultry litter (PL) at equal rates of total P (200 kg ha−1); unamended soils were used as controls. All biosolids and amended soils were analyzed for various types of extractable P, inorganic P fractions, and the degree of P saturation (acid ammonium oxalate method). Amended soils were placed under a simulated rainfall and all runoff was collected and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), iron-oxide-coated filter paper strip–extractable phosphorus (FeO-P), and total phosphorus (EPA3050 P). Results showed that biosolids produced with a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process caused the highest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP. Alternatively, biosolids produced with iron only consistently had the lowest extractable P and caused the lowest increases in extractable soil P and runoff DRP when added to soils. Differences in soil and biosolids extractable P levels as well as P runoff losses were related to the inorganic P forms of the biosolids.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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