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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 31 No. 6, p. 2096-2103
     
    Received: Nov 7, 2001


    * Corresponding author(s): sknutes@clemson.edu
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doi:10.2134/jeq2002.2096

Influence of Plant Age and Size on Simazine Toxicity and Uptake

  1. S. L. Knuteson *a,
  2. T. Whitwellb and
  3. S. J. Klainea
  1. a Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, P.O. Box 709, 509 Westinghouse Dr., Pendleton, SC 29670
    b 172 P&A, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

Abstract

Improper pesticide management can lead to environmental problems such as water quality degradation and ecological stress. Recent research in our laboratory has focused on development of constructed wetlands to assimilate pesticide-contaminated water. For improved aesthetics, these wetlands have been established with ornamental plant species. The effectiveness of a plant species for phytoremediation depends in part on its tolerance for the contaminant. Plant tolerance for pesticides may vary depending on plant age and size. This study examined the influence of plant age and size on the uptake, distribution, and toxicity of the herbicide simazine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine] in two ornamental wetland plants: parrot feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.] and canna (Canna × hybrida L. ‘Yellow King Humbert’). Plants of different ages and sizes were exposed to simazine in 10% Hoagland's nutrient solution. Toxicity was characterized using plant growth, water uptake, and photosynthetic yield during exposure and postexposure periods. In addition, other plants were exposed to [14C] simazine in nutrient medium to characterize pesticide uptake and translocation. Four-week-old parrot feather and canna were more tolerant of simazine than two-week-old plants. The two-week-old plant tissues of both species had higher tissue burdens of simazine than four-week-old plants. Simazine was primarily accumulated in the leaves of both parrot feather and canna. These results suggest that plants in a constructed wetland designed for simazine assimilation would be more vulnerable to simazine toxicity shortly after emergence.

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Copyright © 2002. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyPublished in J. Environ. Qual.31:2096–2103.