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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 32 No. 2, p. 500-506
     
    Received: May 9, 2001
    Published: Mar, 2003


    * Corresponding author(s): domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si
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doi:10.2134/jeq2003.5000

Ethylenediaminedissuccinate as a New Chelate for Environmentally Safe Enhanced Lead Phytoextraction

  1. H. Grčman,
  2. D. Vodnik,
  3. Š. Velikonja-Bolta and
  4. D. Leštan *
  1. Agronomy Dep., Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract

Using a soil column experiment, we compared the effect of a single dose and weekly additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminedissuccinate (EDDS) on the uptake of Pb, Zn, and Cd by Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt], and on the leaching of heavy metals through the soil profile. The analysis of plant material revealed that both chelates increased the concentrations of Pb and, to a lesser extent, also of Zn and Cd in the leaves of the test plant. The most effective applications were single doses of 10 mmol EDTA and EDDS kg−1 soil, which caused the concentrations of Pb in the shoots to increase 94.2- and 102.3-fold, respectively, relative to the control. The same dose of EDTA increased the concentration of Zn and Cd in the leaves 4.3- and 3.8-fold and of EDDS 4.7- and 3.5-fold, respectively. In treatments with weekly additions and lower concentrations of both chelates, EDTA was more effective than EDDS in increasing the plant uptake of Pb. In soil columns treated with weekly additions of 10 mmol kg−1 EDTA, on average 22.7, 7.0, and 39.8% of initial total Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soil were leached through the soil profile. The same amount of EDDS caused much lower leaching of Pb and Cd—only 0.8 and 1.5% of initial total concentrations. Leaching of Zn, 6.2% of the total concentration, was comparable with the EDTA treatment. A biotest with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) indicated a greater phytotoxic effect of EDTA than EDDS addition. EDDS was also less toxic to soil fungi, as determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and caused less stress to soil microorganisms, as indicated by the trans to cis PLFA ratio. Chelate addition did not prevent the development of arbuscular mycorrhiza on red clover.

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Copyright © 2003. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyPublished in J. Environ. Qual.32:500–506.