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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 32 No. 6, p. 2223-2229
    Received: Feb 4, 2003

    * Corresponding author(s): spapiernik@ussl.ars.usda.gov
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Effect of Formulation on the Behavior of 1,3-Dichloropropene in Soil

  1. Jung-Ho Kima,
  2. Sharon K. Papiernik *b,
  3. Walter J. Farmerc,
  4. Jianying Ganc and
  5. Scott R. Yatesb
  1. a Department of Environmental Science, Kyungsan University, Kyungsan, Korea
    b USDA Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Salinity Laboratory, 450 West Big Springs Road, Riverside, CA 92507
    c Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521


The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been identified as a partial replacement for methyl bromide (CH3Br) in soil fumigation. 1,3-Dichloropropene is formulated for soil fumigation as Telone II (Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN) for shank application and as an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) (Telone EC or InLine; Dow AgroSciences) for drip application. This study investigated the effect of formulation on the phase partitioning, transformation rate, and volatilization of 1,3-D isomers. Air–water partitioning coefficients (K H) were slightly higher for Telone II than for Telone EC, presumably due to the higher apparent water solubility of the EC formulation. Sorption of 1,3-D isomers in two soils was not affected by formulation. Formulation had no significant effect on the rate of 1,3-D transformation in water or soil. In general, differences in the rate of 1,3-D transformation and phase partitioning due to formulation as Telone II or Telone EC were very small. Thus, the effect of formulation on 1,3-D fate may be ignored in transformation and phase partition of 1,3-D in water and soil. Packed soil columns without plastic tarp indicated that with relatively shallow subsurface (10 cm) drip application of Telone EC, emission of 1,3-D isomers was more rapid and produced greater maximum instantaneous flux than deeper (30 cm) shank injection of Telone II. Both application methods resulted in the same cumulative emissions for both isomers, 45% for (E)-1,3-D and approximately 50% for (Z)-1,3-D. These results suggest that for drip application of fumigants to be effective in reducing emissions, the fumigant must be applied at sufficient depths to prevent rapid volatilization from the soil surface if the water application rate does not sufficiently restrict vapor diffusion.

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Copyright © 2003. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyASA, CSSA, SSSA