Degradation and Mobility of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate and Nonylphenol in Sludge-Amended Soil
- Anne Marie Jacobsen *ac,
- Gerda Krog Mortensena and
- Hans Christian Bruun Hansenb
- a Risø National Laboratory, Plant Research Department, Building PRD-301, Post Office Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
c The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
b The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Chemistry Department, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
Degradation and mobility of the surfactants linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and nonylphenol (NP) were investigated in a lysimeter study using a sandy loam soil and 45-cm soil columns. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge was incorporated in the top-15-cm soil layer to an initial content of 38 mg LAS and 0.56 mg NP kg−1 dry wt., respectively. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was sown onto the columns. The lysimeters were placed outdoors and therefore received natural precipitation, but were also irrigated to a total amount of water equivalent to 700 mm of precipitation. Leachate and soil samples from three soil layers were collected continuously during a growth period of 110 d. Leachate samples and soil extracts were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations in the top-15-cm soil layer declined to 25 and 45% of the initial contents for LAS and NP, respectively, within the first 10 d of the study. At the end of the study, less than 1% LAS was left, while the NP content was below the detection limit. Assuming first-order degradation kinetics, half-lives of 20 and 37 d were estimated for LAS and NP, respectively. The surfactants were not measured in leachate samples in concentrations above the analytical detection limits of 4.0 and 0.5 μg L−1 for LAS and NP, respectively. In addition, neither LAS nor NP were measured in concentrations above the detection limits of 150 and 50 μg kg−1 dry wt., respectively, in soil layers below the 15 cm of sludge incorporation, indicating negligible downward transport of the surfactants in the lysimeters.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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