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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Waste Management

Feasibility and Costs of Phosphorus Application Limits on 39 U.S. Swine Operations


This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 33 No. 3, p. 1114-1123
    Received: July 16, 2003

    * Corresponding author(s): loryj@missouri.edu
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  1. John A. Lory *a,
  2. Raymond E. Masseyb,
  3. Joseph M. Zulovichc,
  4. John A. Hoehnec,
  5. Amy M. Schmidtc,
  6. Marcia S. Carlsond and
  7. Charles D. Fulhagec
  1. a Department of Agronomy, 210 Waters Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
    b Department of Agricultural Economics, 223 Mumford Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
    c Department of Biological Engineering, 207 Agricultural Engineering Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211
    d Department of Animal Science, 133 Animal Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211


Concerns about manure P and water quality have prompted new regulations imposing P limits on land application of manure. Previous research established that P limits increase land needs for animal feeding operations. We evaluated the effect of N, annual P, and rotation P limits on the feasibility of manure management. A mechanistic model characterized manure management practices on 39 swine operations (20 unagitated lagoon and 19 slurry operations) in five states (Iowa, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Extensive information collected from each operation was used to determine effects of manure storage type, ownership structure, and application limits on attributes of manure management. Phosphorus limits had substantially greater effect on slurry operations, increasing land needs 250% (0.3 hectares per animal unit [AU]) and time for manure application 24% (2.5 min AU−1) for rotation P limits and 41% (4.4 min AU−1) for annual P limits. Annual P limits were infeasible for current land application equipment on two operations and had the greatest effect on time and costs because they required all but three slurry operations to reduce discharge rate. We recommend implementing rotation P limits (not to exceed crop N need) to minimize time effects, allow most farmers to use their current manure application methods, and allow manure to fulfill crop N and P needs in the year of application. Phosphorus limits increased potential manure value but would require slurry operations to recover at least 61% of manure value through manure sales. Phosphorus limits are likely to shape the U.S. swine industry through differential effects on the various sectors of the swine industry.

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Copyright © 2004. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyASA, CSSA, SSSA