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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Surface Water Quality

Surface Runoff Losses of Phosphorus from Virginia Soils Amended with Turkey Manure Using Phytase and High Available Phosphorus Corn Diets


This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 33 No. 4, p. 1431-1439
    Received: June 17, 2003

    * Corresponding author(s): chpenn@vt.edu
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  1. C. J. Penn *a,
  2. G. L. Mullinsa,
  3. L. W. Zelaznya,
  4. J. G. Warrena and
  5. J. M. McGrathb
  1. a Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, 330 Smyth Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061
    b Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717


Many states have passed legislation that regulates agricultural P applications based on soil P levels and crop P uptake in an attempt to protect surface waters from nonpoint P inputs. Phytase enzyme and high available phosphorus (HAP) corn supplements to poultry feed are considered potential remedies to this problem because they can reduce total P concentrations in manure. However, less is known about their water solubility of P and potential nonpoint-source P losses when land-applied. This study was conducted to determine the effects of phytase enzyme and HAP corn supplemented diets on runoff P concentrations from pasture soils receiving surface applications of turkey manure. Manure from five poultry diets consisting of various combinations of phytase enzyme, HAP corn, and normal phytic acid (NPA) corn were surface-applied at 60 kg P ha−1 to runoff boxes containing tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and placed under a rainfall simulator for runoff collection. The alternative diets caused a decrease in manure total P and water soluble phosphorus (WSP) compared with the standard diet. Runoff dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations were significantly higher from HAP manure-amended soils while DRP losses from other manure treatments were not significantly different from each other. The DRP concentrations in runoff were not directly related to manure WSP. Instead, because the mass of manure applied varied for each treatment causing different amounts of manure particles lost in runoff, the runoff DRP concentrations were influenced by a combination of runoff sediment concentrations and manure WSP.

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Copyright © 2004. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyASA, CSSA, SSSA