Salmonella Survival in Manure-Treated Soils during Simulated Seasonal Temperature Exposure
- Richard A. Holley *a,
- Katia M. Arrusad,
- Kimberly H. Ominskib,
- Mario Tenutac and
- Gregory Blanka
- a Department of Food Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 Canada
d present address: Food Development Centre, 810 Phillips Street, Portage la Prairie, MB, R1N 3J9 Canada
b Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 Canada
c Department of Soil Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 Canada
Addition of animal manure to soil can provide opportunity for Salmonella contamination of soil, water, and food. This study examined how exposure of hog manure-treated loamy sand and clay soils to different simulated seasonal temperature sequences influenced the length of Salmonella survival. A six-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Hadar, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Typhimurium) was added to yield 5 log cfu/g directly to about 5 kg of the two soils and moisture adjusted to 60 or 80% of field capacity (FC). Similarly, the Salmonella cocktail was mixed with fresh manure slurry from a hog nursery barn and the latter added to the two soils at 25 g/kg to achieve 5 log cfu/g Salmonella Manure was mixed either throughout the soil or with the top kilogram of soil and the entire soil volume was adjusted to 60 or 80% FC. Soil treatments were stored 180 d at temperature sequences representing winter to summer (−18, 4, 10, 25°C), spring to summer (4, 10, 25, 30°C), or summer to winter (25, 10, 4, −18°C) seasonal periods with each temperature step lasting 45 d. Samples for Salmonella recovery by direct plating or enrichment were taken at 0, 7, and 15 d post-inoculation and thereafter at 15-d intervals to 180 d. Salmonella numbers decreased during application to soil and the largest decreases occurred within the first week. Higher soil moisture, manure addition, and storage in the clay soil increased Salmonella survival. Salmonella survived longest (≥180 d) in both soils during summer-winter exposure but was not isolated after 160 d from loamy sand soil exposed to other seasonal treatments. For all but one treatment decimal reduction time (DRT45d) values calculated from the first 45 d after application were ≤30 d and suggested that a 30-d delay between field application of manure in the spring or fall and use of the land would provide reasonable assurance that crop and animal contamination by Salmonella would be minimized.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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