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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Bioremediation and Biodegradation

Soil Amendments, Plant Age, and Intercropping Impact p,p′-DDE Bioavailability to Cucurbita pepo

 

This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 35 No. 4, p. 992-1000
     
    Received: July 13, 2005


    * Corresponding author(s): Jason.White@po.state.ct.us
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doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0271
  1. Jason C. White *a,
  2. Zakia D. Parrisha,
  3. Martin P. N. Gentb,
  4. William Iannucci-Bergerc,
  5. Brian D. Eitzerc,
  6. Mehmet Isleyenc and
  7. MaryJane Incorvia Mattinac
  1. a Department of Soil and Water, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES), 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504
    b Department of Forestry and Horticulture, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES), 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504
    c Department of Analytical Chemistry, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES), 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504

Abstract

Field experiments were conducted to optimize the phytoextraction of weathered p,p′-DDE (p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) by Cucurbita subspecies. The effects of two soil amendments, mycorrhizae or a biosurfactant, on p,p′-DDE accumulation was determined. Also, p,p′-DDE uptake was assessed during plant growth (12, 26, 38, and 62 d), and cultivars that accumulate weathered p,p′-DDE were intercropped with cultivars known not to have that ability. Cucurbita pepo L. ssp. pepo accumulated large amounts of the contaminant, having stem bioconcentration factors, amounts of p,p′-DDE translocated, and contaminant phytoextraction that were 14, 9.9, and 5.0 times greater than C. pepo L. ssp. ovifera (L.) D.S. Decker, respectively. During 62 d, the stem BCF (bioconcentration factor) for p,p′-DDE in subspecies pepo remained constant and the total amount of contaminant accumulated was correlated with plant biomass (r 2 = 0.86). For subspecies ovifera, the stem BCF was highest at 12 d (1.5) but decreased to 0.39 by 62 d, and p,p′-DDE removal was not correlated with plant biomass. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased p,p′-DDE accumulation by both subspecies by an average 4.4 times. For subspecies pepo, mycorrhizae increased the percentage of contaminant extracted from 0.72 to 2.1%. Biosurfactant amendment also enhanced contaminant accumulation by both subspecies, although treatment reduced subspecies ovifera biomass by 60%. The biosurfactant had no effect on the biomass of subspecies pepo, increased the average contaminant concentration by 3.6-fold, and doubled the overall amount of p,p′-DDE removed from the soil. Soil amendments that enhance the mobility of weathered persistent organic pollutants will significantly increase the amount of contaminant phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo

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Copyright © 2006. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyASA, CSSA, SSSA