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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Organic Compounds in the Environment

Surface Seals Reduce 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin Emissions in Field Tests


This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 36 No. 1, p. 110-119
    Received: Mar 15, 2006

    * Corresponding author(s): sgao@fresno.ars.usda.gov
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  1. Suduan Gao *a and
  2. Thomas J. Troutb
  1. a USDA-ARS, Water Management Research Unit, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648
    b USDA-ARS, Water Management Research Unit, Fort Collins, CO, 80526-8119


Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water application to the soil surface (or water seal) has been demonstrated to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions in soil column tests. This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in comparison to other surface seals under field conditions. In a small-plot field trial on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic Typic Xerorthents) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Telone C35 (61% 1,3-D and 35% CP) was shank-applied at a depth of 46 cm at a rate of 610 kg ha−1 Soil surface seal treatments included control (no tarp and no water application), standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp over dry and pre-irrigated soil, virtually impermeable film (VIF) tarp, initial water application by sprinklers immediately following fumigation, and intermittent water applications after fumigation. The atmospheric emissions and gas-phase distribution of fumigants in soil profile were monitored for 9 d. Among the surface seals, VIF and HDPE tarp over dry soil resulted in the lowest and the highest total emission losses, respectively. Intermittent water applications reduced 1,3-D and CP emissions significantly more than HDPE tarp alone. The initial water application also reduced emission peak and delayed emission time. Pre-irrigated soil plus HDPE tarp reduced fumigant emissions similarly as the intermittent water applications and also yielded the highest surface soil temperature, which may improve overall soil pest control.

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