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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 36 No. 6, p. 1678-1685
    Received: Apr 2, 2007

    * Corresponding author(s): jgan@ucr.edu
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Bioavailability of Permethrin and Cyfluthrin in Surface Waters with Low Levels of Dissolved Organic Matter

  1. W. C. Yanga,
  2. W. Huntera,
  3. F. Spurlockb and
  4. J. Gan *a
  1. a Dep. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521
    b California Dep. of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, CA 95812


Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides in both agricultural and urban environments, and their potential movement to surface streams and toxicity to susceptible aquatic species is an emerging concern. Natural surface waters usually contain low levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Limited data have shown that DOM preparations can significantly alter the bioavailability and toxicity effects of pyrethroids. However, the importance of these effects in natural waters has not been investigated. In this study we measured uptake and acute toxicity of permethrin and cyfluthrin by Daphnia species in 15 surface water samples. Low levels of DOM (3–20 mg L−1) inhibited cyfluthrin uptake by Daphnia magna and acute toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in most samples. For permethrin, the effects of DOM on bioavailability and toxicity were generally not significant. The effects of DOM on bioavailability of cyfluthrin could not be explained from the DOC concentration alone, suggesting that properties of DOM were also important in regulating bioavailability. Regression of K DOC with selected DOM properties revealed significant dependence of K DOC on the carboxylic acid content of DOM. Moreover, concentrations sensed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were well correlated with the observed changes in bioaccumulation by D. magna and acute toxicity to C. dubia Therefore, selective sampling methods such as SPME may be used for measuring the bioavailable concentrations of pyrethroids in waters with naturally occurring DOM levels and predicting the actual toxicity effects.

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Copyright © 2007. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyAmerican Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America