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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Surface Water Quality

Effect of Liquid Swine Manure Rate, Incorporation, and Timing of Rainfall on Phosphorus Loss with Surface Runoff


This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 37 No. 1, p. 125-137
    Received: Mar 10, 2007

    * Corresponding author(s): apmallar@iastate.edu
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  1. Brett L. Allen and
  2. Antonio P. Mallarino *
  1. Dep. of Agronomy, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50010. B.L. Allen was formerly a graduate research assistant and postdoctoral research associate and is currently at USDA-ARS, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Lab, Sidney, MT 59270


Excessive manure phosphorus (P) application increases risk of P loss from fields. This study assessed total runoff P (TPR), bioavailable P (BAP), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations and loads in surface runoff after liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure application with or without incorporation into soil and different timing of rainfall. Four replicated manure P treatments were applied in 2002 and in 2003 to two Iowa soils testing low in P managed with corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations. Total P applied each time was 0 to 80 kg P ha−1 at one site and 0 to 108 kg P ha−1 at the other. Simulated rainfall was applied within 24 h of P application or after 10 to 16 d and 5 to 6 mo. Nonincorporated manure P increased DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations and loads linearly or exponentially for 24-h and 10- to 16-d runoff events. On average for the 24-h events, DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations were 5.4, 4.7, and 2.2 times higher, respectively, for nonincorporated manure than for incorporated manure; P loads were 3.8, 7.7, and 3.6 times higher; and DRP and BAP concentrations were 54% of TPR for nonincorporated manure and 22 to 25% for incorporated manure. A 10- to 16-d rainfall delay resulted in DRP, BAP, and TPR concentrations that were 3.1, 2.7, and 1.1 times lower, respectively, than for 24-h events across all nonincorporated P rates, sites, and years, whereas runoff P loads were 3.8, 3.6, and 1.6 times lower, respectively. A 5- to 6-mo simulated rainfall delay reduced runoff P to levels similar to control plots. Incorporating swine manure when the probability of immediate rainfall is high reduces the risk of P loss in surface runoff; however, this benefit sharply decreases with time.

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Copyright © 2008. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science SocietyAmerican Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America