Fungicide Leaching from Golf Greens: Effects of Root Zone Composition and Surfactant Use
- Mats Larsbo *a,
- Trygve S. Aamlidb,
- Lave Perssona and
- Nick Jarvisa
- a Dep. of Soil Sciences, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), PO Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
b The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Bioforsk Øst Landvik, N-4886 Grimstad, Norway. The use of trade names in this paper does not imply endorsement of a product
Soil water repellency in golf putting greens may induce preferential “finger flow,” leading to enhanced leaching of surface applied fungicides. We examined the effects of root zone composition, treatment with a non-ionic surfactant, and the use of the fungicide iprodion or a combination of azoxystrobin and propiconazole on soil water repellency, soil water content distributions, fungicide leaching, and turf quality during 1 yr. Soil water repellency was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and tension infiltrometers. Our study was made on a 3-yr-old experimental green seeded with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) ‘Penn A-4’ at Landvik in southeast Norway. The facility consists of 16 lysimeters with two different root zone materials: (i) straight sand (1% gravel, 96% sand, 3% silt and clay, 4 g kg−1 organic matter) (SS) and (ii) straight sand mixed with garden compost to an organic matter content of 21 g kg−1 (Green Mix [GM]). Surfactant treatment resulted in 96% lower average WDPTs at 1 cm depth, three times higher water infiltration rates at the soil surface, and reduced spatial variation in soil water contents. Fungicide leaching was close to zero for the GM lysimeters probably due to stronger sorption. Concentrations in the drainage water from SS lysimeters often exceeded surface water guideline values for all three fungicides, but surfactant treatment dramatically reduced fungicide leaching from these lysimeters. In autumn and winter, surfactant-treated plots were more infected with fungal diseases probably because of higher water content in the turfgrass thatch layer.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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