Release of Metals from Metal-Amended Soil Treated with a Sulfosuccinamate Surfactant: Effects of Surfactant Concentration, Soil/Solution Ratio, and pH
- Maria del Carmen Hernández-Soriano,
- Aránzazu Peña and
- Ma Dolores Mingorance *
Anionic surfactants, mainly sulfosuccinamates, can be found in soils as the result of sludge application, wastewater irrigation, and remediation processes. Relatively high concentrations of surfactants together with multimetals can represent an environmental risk. A study was performed to assess the potential of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22) for release of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from a metal-amended soil representative of a Mediterranean area. Metal desorption was performed by batch experiments and release kinetics were assessed. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the influence of A22 concentration and the surfactant/soil ratio, as extraction key factors. An increase in solution/soil ratio to 100 (mL g−1) caused higher metal release. Leaching predictions found Pb to have the lowest and Cd the highest hazard. Metal release was highly dependent on pH. When extraction was made at pH less than 7, low or negligible amounts of metals were leached, whereas an increase to pH 7 caused desorption rates of 50 to 55% for Cd, Cu, and Zn but only 35% for Pb. Complexed metal-carboxylic groups from A22 were mainly responsible for its higher extractive capacity, especially of Cd and Cu.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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