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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 4 No. 3, p. 294-303
    Received: Sept 9, 1974

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The Potential of Autocides and Microorganisms as Ecologically Acceptable Agents for the Regulation of Spruce Budworm Infestations1

  1. J. Weatherston and
  2. A. Retnakaran2



The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is the most economically important indigenous pest in eastern North America. In order to protect valuable timber the budworm population must be restricted to endemic levels. To achieve this, and simultaneously attempt to improve environmental quality is a major objective of much research into the development of new insect control methods.

This review presents an encapsulated report of researches into the use of pheromones and hormones (autocides), and viruses, fungi, bacteria and microsporida (microorganisms) as possible control agents. Such agents would be more selective than conventional insecticides. Several of the control methods discussed in this report are almost operational, and while it is evident that none of them can completely replace chemical insecticides, field tests indicate that they have a potential in budworm control. The results also indicate the urgent need for testing the integrated use of the autocides and microorganisms, and the integrated application of these newer control agents with conventional chemical insecticides.

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