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Journal of Environmental Quality Abstract - Surface Water Quality

Use of Industrial Byproducts to Filter Phosphorus and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water


This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 40 No. 4, p. 1273-1280
    Received: Sept 10, 2010

    * Corresponding author(s): sheela.agrawal@ars.usda.gov
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  1. Sheela G. Agrawal *a,
  2. Kevin W. Kinga,
  3. James F. Mooreb,
  4. Phil Levisona and
  5. Jon McDonaldc
  1. a USDA–ARS, Soil Drainage Research Unit, 590 Woody Hayes Dr., Columbus, OH 43210
    b U.S. Golf Association, 770 Sam Bass Rd., McGregor, TX 76657
    c Kristar Enterprises, Inc., 360 Sutton Pl., Santa Rosa, CA 95407. Assigned to Associate Editor Gary Feyereisen


Golf courses are vulnerable to phosphate (PO43−) and pesticide loss by infiltration of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and through subsurface tile drainage. In this study, an effort was made to remove PO43−, chlorothalonil, mefenoxam, and propiconazole in a golf green's drainage water with a filter blend comprised of industrial byproducts, including granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, silica sand, coconut shell–activated carbon, and zeolite. To test this filter media, two 6-h storm events were simulated by repeat irrigation of the golf green after PO43− and pesticide application. Drainage flows ranged from 0.0034 to 0.6433 L s−1 throughout the course of the simulations. A significant decrease in the chlorothalonil load for the experimental run (with filter media) was observed compared with the control (without filter media) (p < 0.05). In general, percent reductions in chlorothalonil were very high (>80%) near peak flows. In contrast, filter media was not effective in removing PO43−, mefenoxam, or propiconazole (p > 0.05). Instead, it appears that the filter blend added PO43− to the effluent above flow rates of 0.037 L s−1. Overall, flow rate, the amount of filter media used, and contaminant properties may have influenced the filter media's ability to remove contaminants. More research is needed to determine the optimal blend and configuration for the filter media to remove significant amounts of all contaminants investigated.

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