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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 41 No. 5, p. 1487-1496
     
    Received: Apr 27, 2012
    Published: September 14, 2012


    * Corresponding author(s): marco.milan@unito.it
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doi:10.2134/jeq2012.0175

Dissipation of Propanil and 3,4 Dichloroaniline in Three Different Rice Management Systems

  1. Marco Milan *,
  2. Francesco Vidotto,
  3. Serenella Piano,
  4. Michèle Negre and
  5. Aldo Ferrero
  1. Dipartimento di Agronomia, Selvicoltura e Gestione del Territorio, Università di Torino, via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy. Assigned to Associate Editor Dongqiang Zhu

Abstract

This study focused on the dissipation of propanil and 3,4 dichloroaniline (3,4 DCA) over time in the soil, field water, inlet water, and outlet water of paddy fields under three management systems: conventional water seeding (CON), conventional water seeding with supplied liquid manure (LMA), and dry seeding (DRY). Propanil dissipation in water was also investigated under laboratory conditions. The field study was conducted from 2004 to 2006 at Vercelli, northern Italy. Propanil and 3,4 DCA showed rapid dissipation in water and soil environments both in the field and in the laboratory. Under controlled conditions, chemical hydrolysis was not detected for either compounds for up to 100 d at pHs of 5, 7, and 9. In the laboratory, the half-life of propanil in irrigation water was 1.1 d; its half-life in soil was routinely measured at <1.0 d (between 0.17 and 1.77 d). 3,4 DCA was found to persist much longer. Measured in all three study years at 50 d after treatment, its concentration ranged between 44 μg kg−1 (CON) and 140 μg kg−1 (DRY). Propanil and 3,4 DCA concentrations in paddy water were particularly high in samples collected at 4 d (2004) and 2 d (2005) after treatment. Maximum concentrations were 54.4 μg L−1 (CON) for propanil (2005) and 113.7 μg L−1 (LMA) for 3,4 DCA (2004). The concentrations of propanil and 3,4 DCA in inlet water were never above 1.1 and 0.3 μg L−1, respectively, whereas the highest concentration of each compound in outlet water was in samples collected first after treatment in 2005 and 2006. Both chemicals dissipated rapidly in all the soil-water environments but displayed no important differences among the three management systems. In conclusion, propanil and 3,4 DCA did not persist longer in paddy fields. A risk of water network contamination by these compounds may occur only early after herbicide spraying. A water-holding period after herbicide spraying may reduce this risk.

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Copyright © 2012. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.