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This article in JEQ

  1. Vol. 42 No. 1, p. 271-283
     
    Received: Mar 8, 2012
    Published: December 6, 2012


    * Corresponding author(s): trine.norgaard@agrsci.dk
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doi:10.2134/jeq2012.0105

Comparative Mapping of Soil Physical–Chemical and Structural Parameters at Field Scale to Identify Zones of Enhanced Leaching Risk

  1. Trine Norgaard *a,
  2. Per Moldrupb,
  3. Preben Olsena,
  4. Anders L. Vendelboea,
  5. Bo V. Iversena,
  6. Mogens H. Grevea,
  7. Jeanne Kjaerc and
  8. Lis W. de Jongea
  1. a Dep. of Agroecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus Univ., Blichers Allé 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
    b Dep. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg Univ., Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark
    c Rambøll, Hannemanns Allé 53, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark

Abstract

Preferential flow and particle-facilitated transport through macropores contributes significantly to the transport of strongly sorbing substances such as pesticides and phosphorus. The aim of this study was to perform a field-scale characterization of basic soil physical properties like clay and organic carbon content and investigate whether it was possible to relate these to derived structural parameters such as bulk density and conservative tracer parameters and to actual particle and phosphorus leaching patterns obtained from laboratory leaching experiments. Sixty-five cylindrical soil columns of 20-cm height and 20-cm diameter and bulk soil were sampled from the topsoil in a 15-m × 15-m grid in an agricultural loamy field. Highest clay contents and highest bulk densities were found in the northern part of the field. Leaching experiments with a conservative tracer showed fast 5% tracer arrival times and high tracer recovery percentages from columns sampled from the northern part of the field, and the leached mass of particles and particulate phosphorus was also largest from this area. Strong correlations were obtained between 5% tracer arrival time, tracer recovery, and bulk density, indicating that a few well-aligned and better connected macropores might change the hydraulic conductivity between the macropores and the soil matrix, triggering an onset of preferential flow at lower rain intensities compared with less compacted soil. Overall, a comparison mapping of basic and structural characteristics including soil texture, bulk density, dissolved tracer, particle and phosphorus transport parameters identified the northern one-third of the field as a zone with higher leaching risk. This risk assessment based on parameter mapping from measurements on intact samples was in good agreement with 9 yr of pesticide detections in two horizontal wells and with particle and phosphorus leaching patterns from a distributed, shallow drainage pipe system across the field.

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Copyright © 2013. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.