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Measurements and samplings carried out during the 9 wk storage period.

 
Week Measurements Treatments N chambers
0 Odor concentration in headspace air U and SD-SM-SH† 6
Concentration of VOC's‡ in headspace air
Concentration of NH3 and H2S in headspace air
Thickness of the straw cover
Physicochemical characteristics of the slurry
2, 4, 6, 8 Concentration of NH3 and H2S U, SD, SM, SH and SDnew § 15
9 Odor concentration in headspace air U, SD, SM, SH and SDnew 15
Concentration of VOC's in headspace air
Concentration of NH3 and H2S in headspace air
Thickness of the straw cover
Physicochemical characteristics of the slurry
Measurements were taken in slurry added straw dry (SD) treatment and assumed to be similar for slurry added straw and moderate moisture content (SM) and slurry added straw and high moisture content (SH) treatments
VOC, volatile organic compounds.
§ Chambers corresponding to SDnew at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 did not contain new straw, as the removal of the aged straw cover and the addition of new straw, in SDnew treatment was performed at Week 9.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Thicknesses of straw covers and physicochemical characteristics of slurries† ‡

 
Start of experiment End of experiment
UWeek 0 SD-SM-SHWeek 0 UWeek 9 SDWeek 9 SMWeek 9 SHWeek 9 SDnew
Thickness, cm 0a 10b 0au 8.9bcv 7.2c 10.1b 9.3v
pH 7.10a 7.08a 8.10bu 7.67cv 7.52d 7.43e 7.69v
T, °C 16.0a 15.8a 14.0bu 13.7bu 13.5b 14.2b 14.7u
Dry matter, g kg−1 40a 42a 35bu 42bu 38b 31b 43u
Volatile solids, g kg−1 27a 31a 23bu 30bu 26b 22b 30u
Total N, g L−1 5.2a 4.4ab 4.4abu 4.4abu 3.8b 3.5b 4.5u
Ammonium N, g L−1 3.0a 3.0a 2.7bu 2.6bu 2.1b 2.8b 2.2u
Acetic acid, g m−3 5878a 4601a 196bu 532bu 635b 429b 453u
Propanoic acid, g m−3 2957a 2738a 375bu 2893av 2213ac 1898c 2169v
2-Methyl propanoic acid, g m−3 499a 497a 199bu 377bu 304b 286b 310u
3-Methyl butanoic acid, g m−3 701a 699a 341bu 549bu 440b 326b 492u
Pentanoic acid, g m−3 136a 134a 8bu 10bu 10b 14b 8u
Values are arithmetic means from three repetitions per treatment.
Same letters (a, b, c, d) within rows indicate no significant differences (P > 0.05) between UWeek 0, SD-SM-SHWeek 0, UWeek 9, SDWeek 9, SMWeek 9, and SHWeek 9 Same letters (u, v, w) within rows indicate no significant differences (P > 0.05) between UWeek 9, SDWeek 9, and SDnew



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Concentration of odor and odorants in air sampled above uncovered and straw covered slurries† ‡

 
Start of experiment End of experiment
U Week 0 SD-SM-SHWeek 0 UWeek 9 SDWeek 9 SMWeek 9 SHWeek 9 SDnew
Odor concentration (OC), OU m−3 760 (7)a 1027 (6)a 1173 (8)au 819 (4)au 1144 (15)a 1400 (13)a 605 (4)u
NH3, mg m−3 55 (4)a 155 (3)a 118 (18)bu 2.4 (0)cv 1.4 (1)c 1.8 (1)c 63 (5)w
H2S, mg m−3 0 (-)a 0 (-)a 0.30 (0.21)bu 0.17 (0.21)bu 0.36 (0.18)b 0.37 (0.17)b 0.29 (16)u
1-Butanol, μg m−3 77 (47)a 506 (17)a 3.4 (0.8)bu 5.7 (0.1)bu 6.6 (0.1)b 6.7 (0.2)b 5.8 (18)u
Trimethylamine, μg m−3 81 (20)a 657 (3)b 0.0 (-)cu 0.0 (173)cu 0.0 (-)c 1.0 (165)c 0.2 (173)u
Acetic acid, μg m−3 64 (25)a 142 (4)a 1370 (7)bu 1269 (7)bu 1183 (9)b 901 (11)b 1393 (9)u
Propionic acid, μg m−3 66 (12)a 55 (5)a 13 (7)bu 7.3 (16)bu 12 (1)b 9.5 (7)b 12 (58)u
2-Methyl propanoic acid, μg m−3 9.0 (21)a 12 (24)a 0.5 (173)bu 0.4 (173)bu 1.3 (30)b 0.0 (-)b 1.9 (173)u
Butanoic acid, μg m−3 3.1 (97)a 1.8 (76)a 1.3 (50)au 0.2 (87)au 2.1 (96)a 0.2 (92)a 1.8 (56)u
3-Methyl butanoic acid, μg m−3 9.0 (2)ab 29.5 (2)b 5.9 (31)au 7.1 (9)abu 13 (37)ab 7.1 (6)a 19 (10)u
Pentanoic acid, μg m−3 0.4 (87)a 0.1 (173)a 0 (-)bu 0 (-)bu 0 (-)b 0 (-)b 0 (-)u
Dimethyl sulfide, μg m−3 6.2 (32)ab 2.1 (30)a 28 (6)cu 4.7 (38)abv 3.0 (13)ab 8.4 (17)b 32 (5)u
Dimethyl disulfide, μg m−3 9.4 (51)a 2.4 (137)a 16 (7)au 4.7 (11)au 4.1 (19)a 5.6 (35)a 6.9 (4)u
Carbon disulfide, μg m−3 0.1 (90)a 0.0 (173)a 96 (18)bu 21 (7)bv 25 (27)b 42 (17)b 28 (3)uv
Phenol, μg m−3 1.0 (73)a 0.8 (32)a 6.3 (18)bu 1.3 (42)av 1.1 (53)a 1.0 (87)a 1.8 (70)v
p-cresol, μg m−3 1.1 (115)ab 0.2 (165)a 205 (15)cu 11 (45)abv 13 (21)ab 9.8 (77)ab 93 (19)u
Indole, μg m−3 1.6 (87)a 1.7 (28)a 0.4 (68)bu 0.7 (89)bu 0.7 (51)b 0.8 (98)b 0.7 (19)u
Skatole, μg m−3 18 (43)a 0.3 (152)b 15 (39)au 0 (100)bv 0.6 (139)b 0.3 (149)b 2.9 (33)v
Benzyl alcohol, μg m−3 0.0 (90)a 0.1 (73)a 189 (16)bu 2.5 (106)acv 3.4 (58)ac 12 (22)c 52 (29)u
Benzaldehyde, μg m−3 12 (20)a 1.8 (90)a 1.7 (15)bu 0.8 (60)bu 1.2 (39)b 1.0 (51)b 0.9 (19)u
Values are geometric means (calculated by back transformations of loge arithmetic means) and values in parenthesis are coefficients of variation on loge basis (calculated as the ratio of the standard deviation to the arithmetic mean of loge statistics).
The GLM analysis was carried out on loge basis. Same letters (a, b, c, d) within rows indicate no significant differences (P > 0.05) between UWeek 0, SD-SM-SHWeek 0, UWeek 9, SDWeek 9, SMWeek 9, and SHWeek 9 Same letters (u, v, w) within rows indicate no significant differences (P > 0.05) between UWeek 9, SDWeek 9, and SDnew