View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Effect of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization on total soil nitrogen concentrations measured for the Morrow Plots between 1955 and 2005.

 
Total soil N§
2005 Net changein 51 yr¶
Rotation† Fertilizer treatment‡ Sampling depth 1955 Mean SD
cm g kg−1
C-C none 0–15 1.376 1.168 0.007 −0.208**
15–30 1.342# 1.068 0.008 −0.274***
30–46 1.020 0.996 0.006 −0.024
NPK 0–15 1.376 1.268 0.008 −0.108
15–30 1.342# 1.210 0.010 −0.132***
30–46 1.020 0.751 0.006 −0.269**
HNPK 0–15 1.534 1.421 0.014 −0.113
15–30 1.568 1.371 0.010 −0.197***
30–46 1.476 1.026 0.008 −0.450***
C-O(S) none 0–15 1.487 1.412 0.014 −0.075
15–30 1.638 1.312 0.008 −0.326***
30–46 1.460 1.284 0.009 −0.176*
NPK 0–15 1.487 1.500 0.013 +0.013
15–30 1.638 1.429 0.007 −0.209***
30–46 1.460 1.248 0.010 −0.212*
HNPK 0–15 1.890 1.449 0.005 −0.441***
15–30 1.707 1.426 0.008 −0.281***
30–46 1.408 1.061 0.010 −0.347***
C-O-H none 0–15 1.695 1.688 0.008 −0.007
15–30 1.661 1.526 0.014 −0.135***
30–46 1.461 1.055 0.004 −0.406***
NPK 0–15 1.695 1.681 0.006 −0.014
15–30 1.661 1.630 0.010 −0.031
30–46 1.461 1.163 0.009 −0.298***
HNPK 0–15 2.109 1.887 0.005 −0.222***
15–30 1.926 1.630 0.004 −0.296***
30–46 1.622 1.120 0.009 −0.502***
*, **, *** Significant at α = 0.05, 0.01, or 0.001, respectively. Multiple comparison tests of total soil N differences between 1955 and 2005 were performed with PROC MULTTEST in SAS using the step-down Bonferroni adjustment of P values.
C, corn; H, alfalfa hay; O, oats; S, soybean. Since 1967, the two-crop rotation has involved soybean instead of oats.
NPK, nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization (168 [1955–1966] or 224 [since 1967] kg N ha−1 for corn, 28 kg N ha−1 for oats) with no amendment before 1955; HNPK, high nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization (336 [1967–1997] or 224 [since 1998] kg N ha−1 for corn, 28 kg N ha−1 for oats) after manure, limestone, and rock phosphate application from 1904 to 1966.
§ Determined by the Kjeldahl method. SD, standard deviation, which averaged 0.021 g kg−1 for triplicate determinations of 1955 samples.
Obtained by difference. Values expressed as cumulative change rather than as a time-averaged rate, which may not have been constant throughout the study period.
# Analyses were performed on a sample collected in 1953, representing the same management practiced in 1955.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Changes reported in soil total nitrogen concentrations relative to baseline data, from cropping experiments with synthetic nitrogen fertilization.†

 
Cropping system§ Study period Fertilizer N applied Sampling depth# Total soil N††
Location Soil order‡ Form(s)¶ Mean rate Initial Final Net change Reference(s)
kg ha−1 yr−1 cm g kg−1
North America
 Canada
 Alberta Alfisols (l) Ws–F‡‡ 1938–1990 1–3 25 0–15 1.21 1.10 −0.11 Izaurralde et al. (2001)
 Saskatchewan Mollisols (c) Ws–F§§ 1958–1987 1, 4 43 0–15 2.05 1.87 −0.18 Campbell et al. (1991)
Mollisols (l) Ws–Ws §§ 1976–1990 4 30 0–15 3.5 (8)¶¶ 3.1(6)¶¶ −0.4(2)¶¶ Campbell and Zentner (1993, 1997)
Mollisols (sl) Wd–Wd (NT)§§ 1986–1994 4 40 0–15 0.96 1.04 +0.08 Campbell et al. (1996a)
Wd–Wd (CT)§§ 1986–1994 4 38 0–15 0.91 1.02 +0.11
Mollisols (c) Ws–Ws (NT)§§ 1986–1994 4 43 0–15 1.90 1.65 −0.25 Campbell et al. (1996b)
Ws–Ws (CT)§§ 1986–1994 4 39 0–15 1.65 1.56 −0.09
 Mexico Vertisols (c) Sc-Sc‡‡ 1972–2001 4 120 0–30 2.(0) 1.(5) −0.(5) Ribón Carrillo et al. (2003)
USA
 Alabama Ultisols (sl) C-Ct§§ 1925–1942 5 58 0–15 0.2(8) 0.2(9) +0.0(1) Cope et al. (1958)
 Georgia Ultisols (sl) To-Cs (Cv)§§ 1995–1999 5 81 0–20 1.95¶¶ 1.53¶¶ −0.42¶¶ Sainju et al. (2002)
To-Ep (Cv)§§ 1995–2000 5 133 0–20 1.39¶¶ 1.36¶¶ −0.03¶¶
 Illinois Alfisols (sil) C-S§§ 1965–1971 4 67 0–18 1.20 1.08 −0.12 Meints (1975), Meints et al. (1977)
Mollisols (sicl) 1965–1971 4 86 0–18 2.55 2.50 −0.05
1965–1971 4 134 0–18 2.24 2.26 +0.02
 Kansas Mollisols (sicl) Ww–Ww §§ 1915–1946 5 16 0–18 1.37 1.14 −0.23 Dodge and Jones (1948)
C-S-Ww (3)§§ 1915–1946 5 18 0–18 1.51 1.28 −0.23
A4–(C-C-Ww)4 (4)§§ 1915–1946 5 23 0–18 1.64 1.37 −0.27
 Michigan Alfisols (ls) C-S (2)§§ 1982–1991 1 84 0–25 0.72 0.66 −0.06 Vitosh et al. (1997)
Cs–S (2)§§ 1982–1991 1 84 0–25 0.66 0.52 −0.14
 Missouri Alfisols (sil) Ws–Ws ‡‡ 1914–1938 5 42 0–18 1.07 1.00 −0.07 Albrecht (1938), Smith (1942)
C-O-Ws–Rcl-Ti2 ‡‡ 1914–1938 5 45 0–18 1.12 1.26 +0.14 Smith (1942)
 Nebraska Mollisols (sil) Ww–F§§ 1969–1980 4 24 0–30 3.74¶¶ 3.79¶¶ +0.05¶¶ Doran et al. (1998)
Mollisols (sicl) C-S (4)§§ 1980–1990 4 42 0–15 1.74 1.71 −0.03 Lesoing and Doran (1997)
C-C (4)§§ 1980–1990 4 93 0–15 1.67 1.68 +0.01
 North Dakota Mollisols (sil) Ws–F (NT)§§ 1984–1991 4 26 0–61 1.27 0.95 −0.32## Black and Tanaka (1997)
Ws–F (MT)§§ 1984–1991 4 26 0–61 1.27 1.02 −0.25##
Ws–F (CT)§§ 1984–1991 4 26 0–61 1.27 1.10 −0.17##
 Ohio Alfisols (sil) C-O-Ws–Cl-Ti‡‡ 1894–1921 5 16 0–18 1.08 0.89 −0.19 Morris (1924)
 Oklahoma Mollisols (l) Ww–Ww §§ 1938–2002 4, 5 54 0–15 0.87 0.72 −0.15## Harper (1959), Davis et al. (2003)
 Oregon Mollisols (sil) Ww–F (CT)§§ 1931–1986 1, 4–6 19 0–30 3.81¶¶ 3.46¶¶ −0.35¶¶ Rasmussen and Parton (1994)
30–60 3.10¶¶ 2.65¶¶ −0.45¶¶
27 0–30 3.71¶¶ 3.35¶¶ −0.36¶¶
30–60 3.04¶¶ 2.64¶¶ −0.40¶¶
 Pennsylvania Alfisols (sil) C-O-Ww–H‡‡ 1881–1940 5 27 0–18 1.98 1.34 −0.64 White (1932, 1955)
Alfisols (sil) C-O-Ww–H‡‡ 1891–1931 5 40 0–18 1.38 1.39 +0.01 White and Holben (1931)
Alfisols (sil) C-S§§ 1981–1990 4, 7 73 0–10 3.41 3.25 −0.16 Wander et al. (1994)
 South Dakota Mollisols (l) C-Sg-Rcl (2)‡‡ 1915–1939 5 50 0–18 0.31 0.25 −0.06 Puhr (1945)
18–36 0.17 0.17 0
Mollisols (cl) C-C§§ 1989–2000 7 66 0–15 1.86 1.69 −0.17 Pikul et al. (2001)
124 0–15 1.85 1.73 −0.12
C-S§§ 1989–2000 7 33 0–15 1.89 1.70 −0.19
62 0–15 1.86 1.69 −0.17
 Washington Mollisols (sl) Ww–Ww §§ 1922–1940 1 12 0–15 0.67 0.58 −0.09 Smith et al. (1946)
24 0–15 0.72 0.62 −0.10
 Wisconsin Alfisols (sil) C-C§§ 1967–1989 4 68 0–20 1.46 1.02 −0.44 Vanotti et al. (1997)
136 0–20 1.46 1.18 −0.28
273 0–20 1.46 1.21 −0.25
Mollisols (sil) C-C§§ 1984–1990 4 84 0–20 1.74 1.64 −0.10
168 0–20 1.81 1.72 −0.09
Europe
 Denmark Alfisols (s) Ww–Rc-B-Gcl‡‡ 1929–1972 5, 6, 8 35 0–20 0.77 0.61 −0.16 Dam Kofoed (1982)
1914–1972 66 0–20 0.81 0.66 −0.15
Alfisols (sl) Ww–Rc-B-Gcl‡‡ 1929–1972 5, 6, 8 35 0–20 1.23 1.17 −0.06
70 0–20 1.26 1.22 −0.04
105 0–20 1.28 1.23 −0.05
Ww–Rc-B-Gcl (13)‡‡ 1988–2004 8 50 0–20 1.09 1.05 −0.04 Christensen et al. (2006)
Ww–Rc-B-Gcl (17)‡‡ 1988–2004 8 100 0–20 1.17 1.12 −0.05
Ww–Rc-B-Gcl (10)‡‡ 1988–2004 8 150 0–20 1.14 1.10 −0.04
Ww–Rc-B-Gcl (4)‡‡ 1988–2004 8 200 0–20 1.11 1.03 −0.08
 England Alfisols (sicl) B-B‡‡ 1868–1975 1, 8 48 0–23 1.02 0.98 −0.04 Jenkinson and Johnston (1977)
Alfisols (sicl) Ww–Ww ‡‡ 1881–1987 1, 4, 8 48 0–23 1.15 1.13 −0.02 Glendining and Powlson (1990)
96 0–23 1.26 1.24 −0.02
144 0–23 1.31 1.26 −0.05
Alfisols (sl) B-B‡‡ 1888–1972 1 46 0–23 1.43 0.63 −0.80 Mattingly et al. (1975)
5 46 0–23 1.43 0.73 −0.70
Ww–Ww ‡‡ 1888–1972 1 46 0–23 1.31 0.70 −0.61
5 46 0–23 1.26 0.76 −0.50
Inceptisols (sl) Sb-Ww–B‡‡ 1964–1983 4, 8 75 0–25 1.02 0.99 −0.03 Last et al. (1985)
150 0–25 1.02 1.04 +0.02
 France Alfisols (scl) Ws–Sb§§ 1959–1980 1, 4, 5 87 0–20 1.53 1.29 −0.24 Morel et al. (1984)
Ws–Sb‡‡ 1959–1980 1, 4, 5 87 0–20 1.45 1.17 −0.28
 Germany Mollisols (sl) Ry-Ry‡‡ 1929–1953 1, 5, 8 40 0–20 0.80 0.94 +0.14 Schmalfuß (1957)
Mollisols (sil) Sb-B-P-Ww ‡‡ 1930–1976 1, 5, 6 65 0–20 1.49 1.55 +0.06 Körschens (1978)
Mollisols (sl) P-Sb-C-Ce‡‡ 1949–1995 1, 8 75 0–20 1.2(6) 1.0(8) −0.1(8) Stumpe et al. (2000)
P-Sb-C-Ce§§ 1973–1997 1, 8 150 0–20 1.1(7) 1.1(5) −0.0(2)
P-Sb-C-Ce‡‡ 1973–1997 1, 8 150 0–20 1.1(7) 1.0(5) −0.1(2)
 Netherlands Entisols (sil) Ww–Sb-B-P§§ 1985–1991 5, 6 149 0–25 1.2(7) 1.3(0) +0.0(3) van Fassen and Lebbink (1994), Lebbink et al. (1994)
 Norway Inceptisols (cl) B-O-Ws §§ 1966–1984 6 80 0–20 2.9(0) 3.0(2) +0.1(2) Uhlen (1991)
B-O-Ws ‡‡ 1966–1984 6 80 0–20 2.8(2) 2.9(5) +0.1(3)
 Poland Spodosols (ls) Ry-Ry§§ 1957–1992 1 74 0–25 0.50 0.46 −0.04 Mercik et al. (1993)
4 74 0–25 0.52 0.53 +0.01
Ww–B§§ 1957–1992 4 74 0–25 0.42 0.45 +0.03
 Romania Mollisols (cl) C-Ww 1967–1992 4 135 NR 1.55 1.67 +0.12 Mihaila and Hera (1994)
 Sweden Inceptisols (cl) Ce§§ 1956–1991 6 107 0–20 4.90¶¶ 5.03¶¶ +0.13¶¶ Kirchmann et al. (1994), Persson and Kirchmann (1994)
Ce‡‡ 1956–1991 6 80 0–20 4.90¶¶ 4.23¶¶ −0.67¶¶
1 80 0–20 4.90¶¶ 4.21¶¶ −0.69¶¶
9 80 0–20 4.90¶¶ 4.54¶¶ −0.36¶¶
Alfisols (sicl) Ws–Gcl-P-Bt 1958–1976 4, 6 28 0–10 2.67 2.45 −0.22 Petterson and Wistinghausen (1979)
25–35 0.90 0.99 +0.09
55 0–10 2.60 2.61 +0.01
25–35 0.90 1.24 +0.34
111 0–10 2.49 2.61 +0.12
25–35 0.90 0.88 −0.02
Inceptisols (sil) B-L-Os-Ww–Sb§§ 1972–1981 4 86 0–20 2.0 1.9 −0.1 Mattsson (1987)
Africa
 Ghana Alfisols Ce-Y-Gn (21)‡‡ 1948–1953 1 27 0–30 0.68 0.60 −0.08 Djokoto and Stephens (1961)
 Nigeria Ultisols (sl) Gg-F‡‡ 1959–1967 1 17 0–15 0.32 0.26 −0.06 Jones (1971)
Asia
 China Ultisols (cl) Ri-Ww ‡‡ 1980–2005 7 300 0–15 1.43 1.68 +0.25 Yan et al. (2007)
Inceptisols Ww–C‡‡ 1990–2005 7 300 0–20 1.07 0.95 −0.12 Zhang et al. (2008)
 India Oxisols (l) T‡‡ 1937–1956 1 90 0–23 1.00 0.84 −0.16 Gokhale (1959)
Entisols (c) Ri-Ri‡‡ 1945–1954 1 84 0–15 0.83 0.82 −0.01 Digar (1958)
Inceptisols (sl) Ri-Ww–J‡‡ 1972–1979 1 50 0–22 0.78 0.66 −0.12 Mandal et al. (1984)
100 0–22 0.72 0.67 −0.05
150 0–22 0.77 0.69 −0.08
Inceptisols (sl) Ri-Ww–J§§ 1972–2002 7 300 0–30 0.96 0.87 −0.09 Manna et al. (2005)
Alfisols (scl) S-Ww §§ 1971–2002 7 105 0–30 0.50 0.50 0
Inceptisols (sl) S-Ww ‡‡ 1973–2005 7 20 0–15 0.45 0.64 +0.19 Kundu et al. (2007), Prakash et al. (2007)
Mollisols (cl) Ri-Ww ‡‡ 1977–1995 7 80 0–20 1.04 0.71 −0.33 Singh et al. (2000)
240 0–20 1.04 0.68 −0.36
Entisols (sl) Ri-Ww ‡‡ 1986–1996 7 100 0–15 0.50 0.52 +0.02 Kundu and Samui (2000)
150 0–15 0.56 0.58 +0.02
200 0–15 0.57 0.50 −0.07
Inceptisols (ls) Ri-Ww ‡‡ 1988–1997 7 240 0–15 0.8(3) 0.6(7) −0.1(6) Bhandari et al. (2002)
Vertisols (c) Sr-Ww ‡‡ 1988–2002 7 110 0–30 0.44 0.49 +0.05 Manna et al. (2005)
 Japan Entisols (c) Ri-Ri§§ 1933–1985 1 105 0–15 2.4(5) 2.6(9) +0.2(4) Suzuki et al. (1990)
 Philippines Inceptisols (c) Ri-Ri (3)§§ 1968–1986 7 280 0–20 0.8 0.(9) +0.(1) De Datta et al. (1988)
Mollisols (c) Ri-Ri (4)§§ 1968–1986 7 280 0–20 1.4 1.(8) +0.(4)
Vertisols (c) Ri-Ri (6)§§ 1968–1986 7 280 0–20 1.2 0.(9) −0.(3)
Australasia
 Australia Vertisols (c) Ws–Ws (NT)§§ 1989–1994 7 50 0–10 0.71 0.74 +0.03 Dalal et al. (1995)
Ws–Ws (CT)§§ 1989–1994 7 50 0–10 0.74 0.69 −0.05
 Fiji Oxisols Sc-Sc (3)†† 1978–1983 1 108 0–12 3.1 1.6 −1.5 Masilaca et al. (1986)
30–40 1.1 1.1 0
Most data as reported from fertilization with NPK.
Surface texture designated parenthetically as c (clay), cl (clay loam), l (loam), ls (loamy sand), s (sand), scl (sandy clay loam), sicl (silty clay loam), sil (silt loam), and sl (sandy loam).
§ A, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); B, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.); Bt, beet; C, corn (Zea mays L.); Ce, cereal; Cl, clover; Cs, silage corn; CT, conventional tillage; Ct, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.); Cv, cover crop; Ep, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.); F, fallow; Gcl, grass/clover mixture; Gg, gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth); Gn, groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.); H, hay; J, jute (Corchorus olitorius L.); L, ley; MT, mulch tillage; NT, no-tillage; O, oats (Avena sativa L.); Os, oilseed; P, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.); Rc, root crop; Rcl, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.); Ri, rice (Oryza sativa L.); Ry, rye (Secale cereale L.); S, soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.); Sb, sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.); Sc, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.); Sg, small grain; Sr, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench); T, tea (Camellia sinensis L.); Ti, timothy (Phleum pratense L.); To, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.); Wd, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.); Ws, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); Ww, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.); Y, yam (Dioscorea L.). Subscripted values indicate the number of consecutive years a given crop or crop sequence was grown. Values in parentheses indicate the number of separate trials summarized.
1, (NH4)2SO4; 2, NH4H2PO4; 3, (NH4)2HPO4; 4, NH4NO3; 5, NaNO3; 6, Ca(NO3)2; 7, urea; 8, CaNH4(NO3)3; 9, CaCN2
# NR, not reported.
†† Parentheses indicate uncertainty in estimating data reported in figures.
‡‡ Aboveground residues removed.
§§ Aboveground residues returned.
¶¶ Values expressed as Mg ha−1
## Initial and final values for total soil N obtained by different methods.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Effect of synthetic nitrogen fertilization on soil nitrogen mineralization in long-term cropping experiments.

 
Cropping system‡ Fertilizer N applied Net N mineralization¶
Location Soil order† Form(s)§ Mean rate Reference
kg ha−1 yr−1 mg kg−1 d−1
North America
 Canada Mollisols Ws–Ws# 0 1.12 Janzen (1987)
4 45 1.48
F-Ws–Ws# 0 0.88
4 30 1.09
 USA
  Colorado Mollisols Ww–F# 0 0.27§§ Kolberg et al. (1999)
7 16 0.28§§
32 0.27§§
48 0.33§§
Ww–C-F# 0 0.11§§
7 22 0.14§§
45 0.16§§
67 0.19§§
  Georgia Ultisols C-C 0 0.2(9) Stanford and Smith (1972)
NR 180 0.4(0)
  Missouri Alfisols C-C# 0 0.8 Jordan et al. (2004)
4 156 4.1
  Oregon Mollisols Ww–F# 0 0.36 Rasmussen et al. (1998)
4 22 0.45
45 0.43
  Washington Mollisols Ww–Ww # 0 0.2(4) El-Haris et al. (1983)
4 34 0.3(3)
67 0.4(2)
135 0.5(7)
270 0.7(6)
  Wisconsin Alfisols C-C# 0 0.34 Vanotti et al. (1997)
4 68 0.31
135 0.36
271 0.45
Mollisols C-C# 0 0.30
4 84 0.47
168 0.50
Europe
 Bulgaria Ultisols C-Ww 0 0.3(8) Ikonomova et al. (1999)
4 200 0.5(3)
 Czech Republic Alfisols Ws–Sb 0 0.13 Körschens et al. (1998)
1 104 0.25
 England Alfisols Ww–Ww†† 0 0.26 Shen et al. (1989)
4 47 0.28
94 0.36
141 0.42
182 0.46
1 147 0.55
10 147 0.48
 France Alfisols Ws–Sb†† 0 0.16 Houot et al. (1987)
4 87 0.19
 Germany Mollisols Ry-Ry# 0 0.43 Garz et al. (1982)
1, 8 40 0.80
0 0.15 Garz and Hagedorn (1990)
1, 8 40 0.20
Alfisols Rc-Ce-Ce 0 0.44 Bosch and Amberger (1983)
5 72 0.42
1 72 0.50
6 72 0.40
9 72 0.50
Mollisols Sb-B-P-Ww †† 0 1.18 Peschke et al. (1987)
8 128 1.13
Mollisols Sb-B-P-Ww †† 0 0.26 Körschens et al. (1998)
8 111 0.27
 Sweden Inceptisols Ce†† 0 0.10 Schnürer et al. (1985)
6 80 0.12
Ce# 6 80 0.08
Mollisols (4) B-Os-Ww–Sb# 0 0.47 Bjarnason (1989)
8 150 0.54
Inceptisols (2) B-Os-Ww–Sb# 0 0.48
8 150 0.64
Africa Vertisols Sc-Sc# 0 1.21§§ Graham et al. (2002)
1 140 1.80§§
Asia
 China Ultisols Ri-Ww †† 0 0.1(0) Yan et al. (2006)
7 315 0.1(1)
405 0.1(5)
495 0.1(5)
585 0.1(7)
Ultisols Ri-Ww †† 0 0.69 Yan et al. (2007)
7 300 0.91
Ri-W# 7 300 0.86
 India Inceptisols C-Ww–Cp†† 0 0.91 Kanchikerimath and Singh (2001)
7 130 1.10
260 1.48
390 1.74
Inceptisols Ri-Ww †† 0 0.56 Tirol-Padre et al. (2007)
3, 7 240 0.53
Ri-Ww ‡‡ 240 0.83
Values in parentheses indicate the number of separate trials summarized.
B, barley; C, corn; Ce, cereal; Cp, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.); F, fallow; Os, oilseed; P, potato; Rc, root crop; Ri, rice; Ry, rye; Sb, sugarbeet; Sc, sugarcane; Ws, spring wheat; Ww, winter wheat.
§ 1, (NH4)2SO4; 3, (NH4)2HPO4; 4, NH4NO3; 5, NaNO3; 6, Ca(NO3)2; 7, urea; 8, CaNH4(NO3)3; 9, CaCN2; 10, KNO3; NR, not reported.
Estimated by incubation. Parentheses indicate uncertainty in estimating data reported in figures.
# Aboveground residues returned.
†† Aboveground residues removed.
‡‡ Wheat straw returned.
§§ Expressed as kg ha−1 d−1



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Efficiency of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization for increasing corn grain production on the Morrow Plots, as related to soil nitrogen storage and loss and crop nitrogen removal.

 
Fertilizer N input (1955–2005)‡ Average corn grain yield§ Total soil N†† Estimate for 1955–2005
Apparent 0–15 cm 0–46 cm Soil N loss‡‡ Crop N removal§§ Apparent N balance¶¶
Rotation† Treatment† NDFF¶ FNUE# 1955 2005 1955 2005
Mg ha−1 Mg ha−1 yr−1 % Mg ha−1
C-C none 0 2.9 3.1 2.6 8.5 7.6 0.9** 2.1 1.2
NPK 10.8 8.6 66 36 3.1 2.9 8.5 7.3 1.2*** 5.8 −6.2
HNPK 12.5 9.2 69 28 3.3 3.2 9.9 8.7 1.2*** 6.2 −7.5
C-O(S) none 0 5.3 3.2 3.2 10.0 9.2 0.8** 6.1 5.3
NPK 5.7 10.4 49 32 3.2 3.2 10.0 9.3 0.7* 10.0 3.6
HNPK 6.5 10.5 50 23 3.9 3.2 10.6 8.8 1.8*** 9.6 1.3
C-O-H none 0 6.5 3.6 3.6 10.4 9.3 1.1** 2.4 1.3
NPK 4.1 11.7 44 33 3.6 3.6 10.4 9.5 0.9** 5.4 0.4
HNPK 4.8 11.0 41 20 4.1 3.9 11.5 9.7 1.8*** 6.4 −0.2
*, **, *** Significant at α = 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively.
C, corn; H, alfalfa hay; O, oats; S, soybean. Since 1967, the two-crop rotation has involved soybean instead of oats. NPK, nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization (168 [1955–1966] or 224 [since 1967] kg N ha−1 for corn, 28 kg N ha−1 for oats) with no amendment before 1955; HNPK, high nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium fertilization (336 [1967–1997] or 224 [since 1998] kg N ha−1 for corn, 28 kg N ha−1 for oats) after manure, limestone, and rock phosphate application from 1904 to 1966.
Cumulative totals for the 51-yr study period. Values reported for the HNPK treatment include estimated inputs of manure N between 1955 and 1966 on the basis of the assumption that the manure contained 4.5 g N kg−1 (Mullins et al., 2005).
§ Yield data were averaged for 7 yr between 1967 and 2005 when corn was grown in all three rotations and are reported at market standard moisture content (155 g kg−1).
NDFF, nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Estimated from corn yield data as 100 × (fertilized yield − unfertilized yield)/fertilized yield, assuming that grain N concentration was unaffected by fertilization.
# FNUE, fertilizer nitrogen uptake efficiency. Estimated from corn yield data as 100 × (fertilized yield − unfertilized yield) × grain N concentration/fertilizer N rate, where grain N concentration was calculated assuming 90 g protein kg−1 grain (the value reported by Martin et al. [1976] was adjusted to a moisture content of 155 g H2O kg−1) and 160 g N kg−1 protein.
†† Total N data reported in Table 1 were converted to soil N mass per hectare using bulk density data collected after the 2005 growing season.
‡‡ Obtained by difference for 0–46 cm.
§§ Estimated as the total amount of N removed in the harvested portion of each crop grown, using textbook values for crude protein (Martin et al., 1976) and assuming 160 g N kg−1 protein.
¶¶ Estimated as crop N removal − (fertilizer N input + soil N loss).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Efficiency of nitrogen fertilization for increasing cereal grain production and estimated nitrogen losses in long-term cropping experiments with a static plot design.

 
Fertilizer N Apparent Net N loss
Location/soil order† Cropping system‡ Study period Form(s)§ Mean rate Application¶ Grain yield# NDFF†† FNUE‡‡ From fertilizer§§ From soil¶¶ Total Reference(s)
kg ha−1 yr−1 Mg ha−1 yr−1 % kg ha−1 yr−1
England
 Alfisols (sicl) B-B††† 1882–1961 0 0.7 1 (23) 1 Warren and Johnston (1967)
1 48 spring 2.0 67 61 19 4 23
5 48 spring 2.1 69 65 17 -1 15
 Alfisols (sicl) Ww–Ww ††† 1882–1925 0 0.6 5 (23) 5 Garner and Dyke (1969)
1 48 spring 1.1 41 26 35 2 37
5 48 spring 1.4 55 42 27 3 30
 Alfisols (sicl) Ww–Ww††† 1970–1978 0 1.4 7 (23) 7 Dyke et al. (1983)
8 48 spring 3.0 51 62 18 10 28
8 96 spring 4.1 69 66 33 0 33
8 144 spring 4.5 76 63 53 −2 51
8 192 spring 4.7 78 53 91 -10 81
India
 Entisols (sl) Ri-Ww ††† 1986–1996 0 2.0 -22 (15) -22 Samui et al. (1998),
7 100 split (4) 3.2 36 26 74 −5 69 Kundu and Samui (2000)
7 200 split (4) 4.8 62 39 122 17 139
USA
 Missouri Ws–Ws††† 1914–1938 0 0.6 15 (18) 15 Smith (1942)
  Alfisols (sil) 5 86 spring 1.2 52 27 63 8 71
 Nebraska C-C††† 1953–1972 0 2.0 −7 (30) −7 Anderson and Peterson (1972)
  Mollisols (sl) 4 180 spring 5.4 62 27 132 -18 114
 Oklahoma Ww–Ww ††† 1930–1938 0 0.9 9 (15) 9 Harper (1959)
  Mollisols (l) 5 16 spring 1.3 32 80 3 9 12
 Oregon Ww–F‡‡‡ 1932–1966 0 2.2 24 (60) 24 Rasmussen and Parton (1994)
  Mollisols (sil) 1, 5, 6 34 fall§§§ 2.6 22 30 24 7 31
1967–1986 0 2.8 16 (60) 16
4 45 fall 3.9 41 52 22 14 36
4 90 fall 4.4 55 46 49 12 61
 South Dakota C-Sg- 1915–1939 0 1.1 39 (36) 39 Hutton (1938), Puhr (1945)
  Mollisols (l) Rcl††† 5 64 spring 1.3 16 10 57 57 114
 Wisconsin C-C‡‡‡ 1967–1989 0 2.8 46 (20) 46 Vanotti et al. (1997)
  Alfisols (sil)## 4 68 spring 5.2 62 70 20 56 76
4 136 spring 5.8 68 45 74 36 110
4 273 spring 6.3 71 26 202 32 234
Surface texture designated parenthetically as l (loam), sicl (silty clay loam), sil (silt loam), sl (sandy loam).
B, barley; C, corn; F, fallow; Rcl, red clover; Ri, rice; Sg, small grain; Ws, spring wheat; Ww, winter wheat.
§ 1, (NH4)2SO4; 4, NH4NO3; 5, NaNO3; 6, Ca(NO3)2; 7, urea; 8, CaNH4(NO3)3
Value in parentheses indicates the number of applications.
# Averaged over the study period and expressed on a dry-weight basis.
†† NDFF, nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Estimated as 100 × [(fertilized grain yield − unfertilized grain yield) × grain N concentration + ω̄ × (fertilized stover yield − unfertilized stover yield) × stover N concentration]/(fertilized grain yield × grain N concentration + ω̄ × fertilized stover yield × stover N concentration), where ω̄ = 1 if residue was removed and 0 otherwise.
‡‡ FNUE, fertilizer nitrogen uptake efficiency. Estimated as 100 × [(fertilized grain yield – unfertilized grain yield) × grain N concentration + ω̄ × (fertilized stover yield − unfertilized stover yield) × stover N concentration]/fertilizer N rate, where ω̄ = 1 if residue was removed and 0 otherwise. If not reported within the reference cited, grain and stover N concentrations were calculated from textbook values for crude protein (Martin et al., 1976).
§§ Estimated as fertilizer N rate × (1 – FNUE/100).
¶¶ Estimated from soil total N change during the study period, using bulk density data reported. Values in parentheses indicate the depth of sampling (in cm).
## Analysis based on time-weighted data for fertilizer N rate and yield.
††† Aboveground residues removed.
‡‡‡ Aboveground residues returned.
§§§ Spring application before 1944.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Efficiency of nitrogen fertilization for increasing grain yield in on-farm nitrogen-response experiments.

 
Cropping system† No. of trials Fertilizer N Yield without fertilizer N¶ Delta yield# EONR†† Typical N rate‡‡ Apparent
Location Form(s)‡ Application§ NDFF§§ FNUE¶¶ NBCR## Reference(s)
Mg ha−1 yr−1 kg ha−1 % kg ha−1
Corn
Illinois C-C 11 4, 7 sidedress 7.2 2.9 111 190 27 25 79 Mulvaney et al. (2006)
C-C (M1) 8 4, 7 sidedress 12.0 0.1 10 69 1 2 78
C-C (M2–5) 12 4, 7 sidedress 10.3 0.8 45 209 7 6 164
C-S 33 4, 7 sidedress 8.2 4.2 136 165 33 39 26
C-S (M1) 13 4, 7 sidedress 11.0 0.8 30 93 6 12 57
C-S (M2–5) 8 4, 7 sidedress 8.8 2.9 131 184 25 23 47
Iowa C-S 30 4 spring 8.9 2.6 108 161 21 24 53 Barker et al. (2006a,b)
C-S (M1–12) 10 4 spring 10.7 1.2 28 150 10 11 122
North Carolina C-C 13 4, 7 sidedress 4.4 5.8 196 174 56 47§§§ −22 Williams et al. (2007)
Pennsylvania C-C 10 4 spring 5.3 (21) 3.7 138 185 39 28 47 Fox and Piekielek (1983)
Wisconsin C-C (M > 3) 18 4 spring 7.9 1.4 76 190 15 10 114 Bundy and Andraski (1995)
Wheat
Canada O-Ws 6 4 spring 1.6 2.6 135 55 62 38§§§ −80 Bélanger et al. (1998)
China C-Ww (i) 121††† 7 split (2) 4.8 1.2 128 325 20 7 197 Cui et al. (2008)
Ri-Ww 3 7 split (3) 2.2 2.2 218 150 50 29§§§ −68 Liang et al. (2008)
Greece NR 253††† NR split (3) 2.0 1.4 172 110 41 16§§§ −62 Velemis et al. (1998)
Pakistan Ri-Ww 43††† 7 preplant 1.8 1.2 87 85 40 28§§§ −2 Aslam et al. (1993)
Pennsylvania O-Ww 5 4 split (2) 3.5 1.5 81 67 29 17§§§ −14 Roth et al. (1989)
Rice
California NR 25††† 1 preflood 3.5 3.8 149 168 52 26 19 Roberts et al. (1993)
India Ri-Ri 27††† 7 split (3) 5.1 1.9 88‡‡‡ 120 27 18 32 Yadvinder-Singh et al. (2007)
Philippines Ri-Ri 38††† NR split (2) 2.3 0.9 57 <20 28 18§§§ <−37 Mandac and Flinn (1983)
C, corn; NR, not reported; O, oats; Ri, rice; S, soybean; Ws, spring wheat; Ww, winter wheat. Manuring denoted parenthetically by M, with a subscript to indicate the number of years relative to the growing season studied, within which the most recent application was made. Irrigation denoted by (i).
1, (NH4)2SO4; 4, NH4NO3; 7, urea; NR, not reported.
§ Values in parentheses indicate the number of applications.
Reported at market standard moisture content (155 g kg−1 for corn, 135 g kg−1 for wheat, 120 g kg−1 for rice). Value in parentheses indicates pre-season application of fertilizer N (in kg ha−1).
# Economically optimum yield − yield without fertilizer N. The value reported for C-C in Pennsylvania was uncorrected for pre-season N fertilization.
†† EONR, economically optimum nitrogen rate. Estimated by regression analysis unless otherwise specified.
‡‡ If not reported by the reference(s) cited, this value was obtained from fertilizer recommendations relevant to the crop, location, and study period.
§§ NDFF, nitrogen derived from fertilizer. Estimated as 100 × delta yield/(delta yield + yield without fertilizer N), assuming that grain N concentration was unaffected by fertilization.
¶¶ FNUE, fertilizer nitrogen uptake efficiency. Estimated as 100 × delta yield × grain N concentration/typical N rate, where delta yield determined for the EONR was assumed to hold for the typical N rate, and grain N concentration was calculated from textbook values for crude protein (Martin et al., 1976), assuming 160 (corn or rice) or 175 (wheat) g N kg−1 protein.
## NBCR, nitrogen fertilization beyond crop requirement. Estimated as typical N rate – EONR.
††† NDFF and FNUE estimated from mean data representing all trials reported.
‡‡‡ Estimated by averaging cumulative N rates from four to five split applications according to leaf color.
§§§ Calculated for the EONR.