Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Risk assessment stages in managed aquifer recharge project development (NRMMC–EPHC–NHMRC, 2009a).

 


Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Attenuation zone in an aquifer. This plot of hazard concentration on a transect through the aquifer from recharge zone to recovery well shows that an observation well on the perimeter of the predetermined attenuation zone would verify that the required attenuation is achieved within the zone.

 


Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

City of Salisbury water harvesting facilities in the Parafield area, identifying the location of wells at the aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) and Parafield aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) sites (after Kremer et al., 2008).

 


Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cumulative volume injected and recovered from the start of aquifer storage transfer and recovery operation in September 2006 up to April 2009. This includes flushing phase (injection into recovery wells [RWs]) from September 2006 to June 2008, commencement of injection into injection wells (IWs) in September 2008, and commencement of recovery in February 2009.

 


Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as a function of the multiple barriers of the aquifer storage transfer and recovery scheme (dotted line indicates “tolerable risk” set at 1.0 × 10−6 DALYs per person per year).

 


Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time versus depth average electrical conductivity (EC) data obtained from down-hole profiles over the opened intervals, and EC data collected during sampling, at the injection wells IW1, IW2, IW3, and IW4 during the flushing phase from September 2006 to August 2008, showing the breakthrough of source water in the aquifer. Injection periods at the recovery wells (RW) are shown with gray shading.