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Types of P sorbing materials used to remove P sources from water, with main reactive compounds and examples of application.

 
Material Compounds Example applications References†
Natural materials
 Minerals (e.g., iron oxide, shale, limestone) Fe, Al, Ca Filter for wastewater, agricultural runoff 1, 2
 Polymineralic soils or sands Fe, Al, Ca Constructed wetlands 2
Synthetic filtration products
 Expanded calcinated clay aggregates Ca Constructed wetlands 2
 Lanthanum modified clay (Phoslock) La Trap P in sediments 3
 Synthetic analogs of natural minerals (e.g., zeolite) Al Wastewater treatment 4
By-products from industrial activities
 Blast furnace steel slag Ca, Al Golf course runoff 5
 Red mud Fe, Al, Ca Septic tank effluent 6
 Fly ash Al, Fe Constructed wetlands 2
 Melter slag + basic slag Ca Drainage backfill, filter sock 7
 Flue gas desulfurization gypsum Ca Agricultural drainage water 8
 Drinking water treatment residuals Fe, Al Immobilizing P in soils 9
 Oxygenation products of anaerobic groundwater Fe Tile drain envelope 10
1. Dobbie et al. (2009); 2. Drizo et al. (1999); 3. Robb et al. (2003); 4. Dao (2003); 5. Penn et al. (2012); 6. Cheung and Venkitachalam (2006); 7. McDowell et al. (2008); 8. Bryant et al. (2012); 9. Elliott et al. (2002); 10. Chardon et al. (2012).