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Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research in the Journal of Environmental Quality. Articles are compiled into bimonthly issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq, which include the complete archive. Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Maguire, R.O., P.J. A. Kleinman, C.J. Dell, D.B. Beegle, R.C. Brandt, J.M. McGrath, and Q.M. Ketterings. 2011. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: A review. J. Environ. Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2009.0228

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Current issue: J. Environ. Qual. 44(3)



  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE GASES

    • Maria Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Gay Necita Padilla, Cameron M. Pittelkow, Maegen Simmonds, Chris van Kessel and Bruce Linquist
      Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Flooded Rice Systems following the End-of-Season Drain

      Large CH4 and N2O fluxes can occur from flooded rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems following end-of-season drainage, which contribute significantly to the total growing-season greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine under what soil water conditions these emissions occur. In three field studies, GHG fluxes and dissolved CH4 in the soil pore water were measured before and after drainage. Across all fields, approximately 10% of the total seasonal CH4 emissions and 27% of the total seasonal N2O emissions occurred following the final drain, confirming the importance of quantifying postdrainage CH4 and N2O emissions. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.11.0497
      Published: June 12, 2015



    • P. A. Jacinthe, P. Vidon, K. Fisher, X. Liu and M. E. Baker
      Soil Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Cropland and Riparian Buffers in Different Hydrogeomorphic Settings

      Riparian buffers contribute to the mitigation of nutrient pollution in agricultural landscapes, but there is concern regarding their potential to be hot spots of greenhouse gas production. This study compared soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes in adjacent crop fields and riparian buffers (a flood-prone forest and a flood-protected grassland along an incised channel) and examined the impact of water table depth (WTD) and flood events on the variability of gas fluxes in riparian zones. Results showed significantly (P < 0.001) higher CO2 emission in riparian areas than in adjoining croplands (6.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.6 ± 0.5 Mg CO2–C ha−1 yr−1; mean ± SE). (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0014
      Published: June 12, 2015



    • S. O. Petersen, A. L. F. Hellwing, M. Brask, O. Højberg, M. Poulsen, Z. Zhu, Khagendra R. Baral and P. Lund
      Dietary Nitrate for Methane Mitigation Leads to Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Dairy Cows

      Nitrate supplements to cattle diets can reduce enteric CH4 emissions. However, if NO3 metabolism stimulates N2O emissions, the effectiveness of dietary NO3 for CH4 mitigation will be reduced. We quantified N2O emissions as part of a dairy cow feeding experiment in which urea was substituted in nearly iso-N diets with 0, 5, 14 or 21 g NO3 kg−1 dry matter (DM). The feeding experiment was a Latin square with repetition of Period 1. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.02.0107
      Published: June 5, 2015



  • BIOREMEDIATION AND BIODEGRADATION

    • Bartłomiej Woś and Marcin Pietrzykowski
      Simulation of Birch and Pine Litter Influence on Early Stage of Reclaimed Soil Formation Process under Controlled Conditions

      The impact of litter decomposition on chemical substrate properties and element leaching during early soil formation in afforested post-mine sites and the influence of different tree species are key issues in new ecosystem development. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and common birch (Betula pendula Roth) are important pioneering species used in afforestation of post-mine sites in central and eastern Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of litter decomposition of these species on the chemical properties of mine soil substrates. The impact of litter decomposition on soil properties was tested on quaternary and neogene substrates with different textures (sands, loams, and mixtures of clays and sands) in a controlled incubation experiment using PVC columns. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0315
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    • Helen P. Jarvie, Andrew N. Sharpley, Don Flaten, Peter J. A. Kleinman, Alan Jenkins and Tarra Simmons
      The Pivotal Role of Phosphorus in a Resilient Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus

      We make the case that phosphorus (P) is inextricably linked to an increasingly fragile, interconnected, and interdependent nexus of water, energy, and food security and should be managed accordingly. Although there are many other drivers that influence water, energy, and food security, P plays a unique and under-recognized role within the nexus. The P paradox derives from fundamental challenges in meeting water, energy, and food security for a growing global population. We face simultaneous dilemmas of overcoming scarcity of P to sustain terrestrial food and biofuel production and addressing overabundance of P entering aquatic systems, which impairs water quality and aquatic ecosystems and threatens water security. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0030
      Published: June 5, 2015



  • ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS, MODULES, AND DATASETS

    • Pierre-Luc Dessureault, Jean-François Boucher, Pascal Tremblay, Sylvie Bouchard and Claude Villeneuve
      Uncovering the Minor Contribution of Land-Cover Change in Upland Forests to the Net Carbon Footprint of a Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir

      Hydropower in boreal conditions is generally considered the energy source emitting the least greenhouse gas per kilowatt-hour during its life cycle. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of the land-use change on the modification of the carbon sinks and sources following the flooding of upland forested territories to create the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir in Quebec’s boreal forest using Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. Results suggest a carbon sink loss after 100 yr of 300,000 ± 100,000 Mg CO2 equivalents (CO2e). A wildfire sensitivity analysis revealed that the ecosystem would have acted as a carbon sink as long as <75% of the territory had burned over the 100-yr-long period. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.02.0071
      Published: May 27, 2015



    • W. Ford, K. King, M. Williams, J. Williams and N. Fausey
      Sensitivity Analysis of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) for Phosphorus Loads in Tile-Drained Landscapes

      Numerical modeling is an economical and feasible approach for quantifying the effects of best management practices on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loadings from agricultural fields. However, tools that simulate both surface and subsurface DRP pathways are limited and have not been robustly evaluated in tile-drained landscapes. The objectives of this study were to test the ability of the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX), a widely used field-scale model, to simulate surface and tile P loadings over management, hydrologic, biologic, tile, and soil gradients and to better understand the behavior of P delivery at the edge-of-field in tile-drained midwestern landscapes. To do this, a global, variance-based sensitivity analysis was performed, and model outputs were compared with measured P loads obtained from 14 surface and subsurface edge-of-field sites across central and northwestern Ohio. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0527
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Weihua Zhang, Juan Zheng, Pingping Zheng, Daniel C.W. Tsang and Rongliang Qiu
      Sludge-Derived Biochar for Arsenic(III) Immobilization: Effects of Solution Chemistry on Sorption Behavior

      Recycling sewage sludge by pyrolysis has attracted increasing attention for pollutant removal from wastewater and soils. This study scrutinized As(III) sorption behavior on sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) under different pyrolysis conditions and solution chemistry. The SDBC pyrolyzed at a higher temperature showed a lower As(III) sorption capacity and increasingly nonlinear isotherm due to loss of surface sites and deoxygenation–dehydrogenation. The Langmuir sorption capacity on SDBC (3.08–6.04 mg g−1) was comparable to other waste-derived sorbents, with the highest As(III) sorption on SDBC pyrolyzed at 400°C for 2 h. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0536
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Maria E. Grimmett
      Adsorption of Sulfamethazine from Environmentally Relevant Aqueous Matrices onto Hypercrosslinked Adsorbent MN250

      Four hundred tons of sulfamethazine are fed to livestock annually in North America for disease prevention and growth promotion, but the majority is excreted unmetabolized into the environment. Due to its slow degradation and high mobility, sulfamethazine contaminates groundwater and causes aquatic ecosystem damage. Sulfamethazine remediation methods are not universally effective, necessitating newer techniques. Hypercrosslinked polystyrene adsorbents show promise because of high surface areas, durability, and regenerable properties. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.02.0109
      Published: May 29, 2015



    • Magdalena Urbaniak, Edyta Kiedrzyńska, Marcin Kiedrzyński, Marek Zieliński and Adam Grochowalski
      The Role of Hydrology in the Polychlorinated Dibenzo- p -dioxin and Dibenzofuran Distributions in a Lowland River

      Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are environmental contaminants that have widespread distribution and pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We conducted a study to quantify the distribution, patterns, and transport of PCDDs and PCDFs along the Pilica River in central Poland under different hydrological conditions to estimate the loads of these compounds and understand their fate in aquatic systems. Water samples were collected at five sampling points along the river that represent a range of hydrological conditions including flooding and stable and low water flows. Reduced river water flow was associated with lower average total and toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PCDDs plus PCDFs: 33.6 pg L−1 and 4.21 pg TEQ L−1 for flooding; 28.3 pg L−1 and 3.6 pg TEQ L−1 for stable flow; 18.4 pg L−1 and 1.0 pg TEQ L−1 for low-water flow. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0418
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • Vered Giat and Uri Mingelgrin
      The Effect of the Moisture Regime on the Interaction of Fluorene with Porous Media

      Movement and persistence of organic molecules in porous media is strongly influenced by their interactions with the solid phase. Understanding these interactions is important for the execution of reliable risk assessments and for proper handling and disposal of toxic organic chemicals. Transport and attenuation models often assume rapid adsorption–desorption equilibration and neglect the role of the ever-changing moisture regime at the top of the vadose zone. Adsorption of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon fluorene (C13H10), both from hexane and from water, on a cattle manure compost and on two soils—Dor (montmorillonitic, 1.9% organic matter [OM]) and Maagan-Michael (kaolinitic, 5.2% OM)—was studied. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0441
      Published: May 1, 2015



  • PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

    • B. C. T. Macdonald, J. Gillen, S. Tuomi, J. Newport, P. S. Barton and A. D. Manning
      Can Coarse Woody Debris Be Used for Carbon Storage in Open Grazed Woodlands?

      Carbon dioxide off-setting policy in the agricultural sector is focused on manipulating the terrestrial carbon cycle by reafforestation and increasing the retention of carbon within agricultural soils. We quantified the amount of carbon stored in the living and dead biomass and the surface soils of a previously grazed woodland ecosystem. We demonstrate that modification of coarse woody debris management could potentially store 8 to 15 t C ha−1. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0445
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • REVIEWS AND ANALYSES

    • Heidi L. Sieverding, Lisa M. Bailey, Tyler J. Hengen, David E. Clay and James J. Stone
      Meta-Analysis of Soybean-based Biodiesel

      Biofuel policy changes in the United States have renewed interest in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] biodiesel. Past studies with varying methodologies and functional units can provide valuable information for future work. A meta-analysis of nine peer-reviewed soybean life cycle analysis (LCA) biodiesel studies was conducted on the northern Great Plains in the United States. Results of LCA studies were assimilated into a standardized system boundary and functional units for global warming (GWP), eutrophication (EP), and acidification (AP) potentials using biodiesel conversions from peer-reviewed and government documents. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.07.0320
      Published: May 8, 2015



  • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

    • Zachary S. Tait, Megan Thompson and Aron Stubbins
      Chemical Fouling Reduction of a Submersible Steel Spectrophotometer in Estuarine Environments Using a Sacrificial Zinc Anode

      The availability of in situ spectrophotometers, such as the S::CAN spectro::lyser, has expanded the possibilities for high-frequency water quality data collection. However, biological and chemical fouling can degrade the performance of in situ spectrophotometers, especially in saline environments with rapid flow rates. A complex freshwater washing system has been previously designed to reduce chemical fouling for the S::CAN spectro::lyser spectrophotometer. In the current study, we present a simpler, cheaper alternative: the attachment of a sacrificial zinc anode. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.11.0484
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • Daniel G. Strawn, April C. Rigby, Leslie L. Baker, Mark D. Coleman and Iris Koch
      Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ( Bromus marginatus )

      Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome (Bromus marginatus Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.11.0477
      Published: April 24, 2015



  • SOIL IN THE CITY

    • Sara C. Koropchak, W. Lee Daniels, Abbey Wick, G. Richard Whittecar and Nick Haus
      Beneficial Use of Dredge Materials for Soil Reconstruction and Development of Dredge Screening Protocols

      Upland placement of dredge sediments has the potential to provide beneficial reuse of suitable sediments for agricultural uses or urban soil reconstruction. However, the use of many dredge materials is limited by contaminants, and most established screening protocols focus on limiting major contaminants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and generally ignore fundamental agronomic parameters. Since 2001, we have placed over 450,000 m3 of Potomac River fresh water dredge materials and 250,000 m3 of saline materials from various locations into monitored confined upland facilities in Charles City, VA, and documented their conversion to agricultural uses. Groundwater and soil quality monitoring has indicated no adverse effects from material placement and outstanding agricultural productivity for the freshwater materials. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0529
      Published: May 15, 2015



  • SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL TRANSPORT AND FATE IN THE SUBSURFACE

    • Jack Schijven, Julia Derx, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Alfred Paul Blaschke and Andreas H. Farnleitner
      QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment

      Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of Escherichia coli, a human-associated Bacteroidetes microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0048
      Published: June 5, 2015



    • Ryan A. Blaustein, Yakov A. Pachepsky, Daniel R. Shelton and Robert L. Hill
      Release and Removal of Microorganisms from Land-Deposited Animal Waste and Animal Manures: A Review of Data and Models

      Microbial pathogens present a leading cause of impairment to rivers, bays, and estuaries in the United States, and agriculture is often viewed as the major contributor to such contamination. Microbial indicators and pathogens are released from land-applied animal manure during precipitation and irrigation events and are carried in overland and subsurface flow that can reach and contaminate surface waters and ground water used for human recreation and food production. Simulating the release and removal of manure-borne pathogens and indicator microorganisms is an essential component of microbial fate and transport modeling regarding food safety and water quality. Although microbial release controls the quantities of available pathogens and indicators that move toward human exposure, a literature review on this topic is lacking. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.02.0077
      Published: May 27, 2015



  • SPECIAL SECTION: SOIL IN THE CITY

    • Giada Brandani, Marco Napoli, Luciano Massetti, Martina Petralli and Simone Orlandini
      Urban Soil: Assessing Ground Cover Impact on Surface Temperature and Thermal Comfort

      The urban population growth, together with the contemporary deindustrialization of metropolitan areas, has resulted in a large amount of available land with new possible uses. It is well known that urban green areas provide several benefits in the surrounding environment, such as the improvement of thermal comfort conditions for the population during summer heat waves. The purpose of this study is to provide useful information on thermal regimes of urban soils to urban planners to be used during an urban transformation to mitigate surface temperatures and improve human thermal comfort. Field measurements of solar radiation, surface temperature (Ts), air temperature (Tair), relative humidity, and wind speed were collected on four types of urban soils and pavements in the city of Florence during summer 2014. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0521
      Published: May 27, 2015



    • Arjun K. Venkatesan, Abdul-Hakeem M. Hamdan, Vanessa M. Chavez, Jasmine D. Brown and Rolf U. Halden
      Mass Balance Model for Sustainable Phosphorus Recovery in a US Wastewater Treatment Plant

      In response to limited phosphorus (P) reserves worldwide, several countries have demonstrated the prospect of recovering significant amounts of P from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This technique uses enhanced biological P removal (EBPR) to concentrate P in sludge followed by chemical precipitation of P as struvite, a usable phosphate mineral. The present study models the feasibility of this enhanced removal and recovery technique in a WWTP in Arizona with design parameters typical of infrastructure in the United States. A mass balance was performed for existing treatment processes and modifications proposed to estimate the quantity of P that could be recovered under current and future flow conditions. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.11.0504
      Published: March 27, 2015



  • SPECIAL SECTION: THE URBAN FOREST AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    • Bryant C. Scharenbroch, Justin Morgenroth and Brian Maule
      Tree Species Suitability to Bioswales and Impact on the Urban Water Budget

      Water movement between soil and the atmosphere is restricted by hardscapes in the urban environment. Some green infrastructure is intended to increase infiltration and storage of water, thus decreasing runoff and discharge of urban stormwater. Bioswales are a critical component of a water-sensitive urban design (or a low-impact urban design), and incorporation of trees into these green infrastructural components is believed to be a novel way to return stored water to the atmosphere via transpiration. This research was conducted in The Morton Arboretum’s main parking lot, which is one of the first and largest green infrastructure installations in the midwestern United States. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0060
      Published: June 12, 2015



    • Ruzana Sanusia, Denise Johnstone, Peter May and Stephen J. Livesley
      Street Orientation and Side of the Street Greatly Influence the Microclimatic Benefits Street Trees Can Provide in Summer

      Maintaining human thermal comfort (HTC) is essential for pedestrians because people outside can be more susceptible to heat stress and heat stroke. Modification of street microclimates using tree canopy cover can provide important benefits to pedestrians, but how beneficial and under what circumstances is not clear. On sunny summer days, microclimatic measures were made in residential streets with low and high percentages of tree canopy cover in Melbourne, Australia. Streets with east-west (E-W) and streets with north-south (N-S) orientation were repeatedly measured for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and mean radiant temperature on both sides of the street between early morning and midafternoon. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0039
      Published: June 5, 2015



  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    • E. A. G. S. Amarawansha, D. Kumaragamage, D. Flaten, F. Zvomuya and M. Tenuta
      Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding

      Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0457
      Published: June 12, 2015



    • Ianis Delpla, Timothy G. Jones, Don T. Monteith, David D. Hughes, Estelle Baurès, Aude-Valérie Jung, Olivier Thomas and Chris Freeman
      Heavy Rainfall Impacts on Trihalomethane Formation in Contrasting Northwestern European Potable Waters

      There is emerging concern over the impact of extreme events such as heavy rainfall on the quality of water entering the drinking water supply from aboveground sources, as such events are expected to increase in magnitude and frequency in response to climate change. We compared the impact of rainfall events on streamwater quality in four contrasting upland (peatland and mineral soil) and lowland agricultural catchments used to supply drinking water in France (Brittany) and the United Kingdom (North Wales) by analyzing water samples collected before, during, and after specific events. At all four streams, heavy rainfall led to a considerable rise in organic matter concentration ranging from 48 to 158%. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality, as determined using specific ultraviolet absorbance, changed consistently at all sites during rainfall events, with a greater proportion of aromatic and higher molecular weight compounds following the onset of rainfall. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0442
      Published: May 15, 2015



    • Robert Budd, Michael Ensminger, Dan Wang and Kean S. Goh
      Monitoring Fipronil and Degradates in California Surface Waters, 2008–2013

      The phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil has become a popular replacement pest management tool as organophosphorus insecticides have been phased out for residential use and pyrethroids have come under scrutiny as a surface water contaminant. There has been an increasing concern of offsite transport of fipronil to surrounding surface waters and a corresponding increase in potential toxicity to aquatic organisms. The California Department of Pesticide Regulation Environmental Monitoring Program has collected over 500 urban surface water samples throughout California since 2008 to determine the presence and concentrations of fipronil and five degradate products. Statewide, fipronil was detected at high frequency (49%), as were the sulfone (43%) and desulfinyl (33%) degradates. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0018
      Published: May 8, 2015



    • T. Darch, A. Carswell, M. S. A. Blackwell, J. M. B. Hawkins, P. M. Haygarth and D. Chadwick
      Dissolved Phosphorus Retention in Buffer Strips: Influence of Slope and Soil Type

      Phosphorus (P) contributes to eutrophication of surface waters and buffer strips may be implemented to reduce its transfer from agricultural sources to watercourses. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that soil type and slope influence the retention of dissolved organic P and inorganic orthophosphate in agricultural runoff in 2-m-wide buffer strip soils. A solution, comprised of dissolved orthophosphate and the organic P compounds glucose-1-phosphate, RNA, and inositol hexakisphosphate (1.8 mg L−1 total P) and a chloride tracer, was applied as simulated overland flow to grassland soil blocks (2 m long × 0.5 m wide × 0.35 m deep), containing intact clay or loam soils, at slope angles of 2, 5, and 10°. Phosphorus forms were determined in the surface and subsurface flow from the soil blocks. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0440
      Published: April 24, 2015



    • Masaaki Chiwa, Takami Saito, Hirokazu Haga, Hiroaki Kato, Kyoichi Otsuki and Yuichi Onda
      A Nitrogen-Saturated Plantation of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa in Japan Is a Large Nonpoint Nitrogen Source

      Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations account for approximately 30% of the total forested area in Japan. Both are arbuscular mycorrhizal trees that leach more NO3 in response to nitrogen (N) deposition than do forests of ectomycorrhizal trees. However, little information is available about the size of N exports from these plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate nonpoint source N exports from a N-saturated plantation. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.09.0401
      Published: May 1, 2015



  • WASTE MANAGEMENT

    • Aslam Hanief, Denis Matiichine, Andrew E. Laursen, I. Vadim Bostan and Lynda H. McCarthy
      Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss Potential from Biosolids-Amended Soils and Biotic Response in the Receiving Water

      Application of municipal biosolids to agricultural soil can improve soil quality and improve crop yields. However, runoff or tile leachate from biosolids-applied fields may contribute to localized eutrophication of surface water. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine loss potential of nutrients from soils amended with two different biosolids (anaerobically digested and chemically stabilized) relative to loss from a reference soil and to determine response in freshwater microcosms to nutrients lost from soils. Total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured in runoff, and equivalent amounts were added to reference microcosms to determine if aquatic systems would respond similarly to TN and TP loading in bioavailable forms (PO43−, NH4+, NO3) simulating loading related to inorganic fertilizer application. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.01.0029
      Published: June 12, 2015



    • Kate Cassity-Duffey, Miguel Cabrera, Jake Mowrer and David Kissel
      Titration and Spectroscopic Measurements of Poultry Litter pH Buffering Capacity

      The pH value of poultry litter is affected by nitrification, mineralization, and the addition of acidifying chemicals, all acting on the poultry litter pH buffering capacity (pHBC). Increased understanding of poultry litter pHBC will aid in modeling NH3 volatilization from surface-applied poultry litter as well as estimating rates of alum applications. Our objectives were to (i) determine the pHBC of a wide range of poultry litters; (ii) assess the accuracy of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining poultry litter pHBC; and (iii) demonstrate the use of poultry litter pHBC to increase the accuracy of alum additions. Litter pHBC was determined by titration and calculated from linear and sigmoidal curves. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.11.0463
      Published: June 12, 2015



  • WETLANDS AND AQUATIC PROCESSES

    • Jason M. Taylor, Matthew T. Moore and J. Thad Scott
      Contrasting Nutrient Mitigation and Denitrification Potential of Agricultural Drainage Environments with Different Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes

      Remediation of excess nitrogen (N) in agricultural runoff can be enhanced by establishing wetland vegetation, but the role of denitrification in N removal is not well understood in drainage ditches. We quantified differences in N retention during experimental runoff events followed by stagnant periods in mesocosms planted in three different vegetation treatments: unvegetated, cutgrass [Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw.], and common cattail (Typha latifolia L.). We also quantified denitrification rates using membrane inlet mass spectrometry from intact cores extracted from each mesocosm treatment. All treatments retained 60% or more of NO3–N loads during the 6-h experimental runoff event, but mesocosms planted with cutgrass had significantly higher (68%) retention than the cattail (60%) or unvegetated (61%) treatments. (continued)


      doi:10.2134/jeq2014.10.0448
      Published: June 12, 2015



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