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Journal of Environmental Quality : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq, which includes the complete archive.

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Maguire, R.O., P.J. A. Kleinman, C.J. Dell, D.B. Beegle, R.C. Brandt, J.M. McGrath, and Q.M. Ketterings. 2011. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: A review. J. Environ. Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2009.0228

Current issue: J. Environ. Qual. 45(4)



  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE GASES

    • Tom Misselbrook, John Hunt, Francesca Perazzolo and Giorgio Provolo
      Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Slurry Storage: Impacts of Temperature and Potential Mitigation through Covering (Pig Slurry) or Acidification (Cattle Slurry)

      Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH3 emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS). Cumulative emissions of both gases were influenced by mean temperature over the storage period. Methane emissions from the control treatments over the 2-mo storage periods for the cool, temperate, and warm periods were 0.3, 0.1, and 34.3 g CH4 kg−1 slurry volatile solids for CS and 4.4, 20.1, and 27.7 g CH4 kg−1 slurry volatile solids for PS. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Gaseous emissions from livestock slurry storage are strongly influenced by storage temperature.
      • Slurry acidification is an effective treatment to reduce CH4 and NH3 emissions.
      • Covering with a layer of clay granules is effective at reducing NH3, but not CH4, emission.
      • Methane conversion factors in national inventories should account for storage timing and duration.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0618
      Published: June 24, 2016



    • Somchai Butnan, Jonathan L. Deenik, Banyong Toomsan, Michael J. Antal and Patma Vityakon
      Biochar Properties Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Tropical Soils Differing in Texture and Mineralogy

      The ability of biochar applications to alter greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4, and N2O) has been attracting research interest. However, inconsistent published results necessitate further exploration of potential influencing factors, including biochar properties, biochar rates, soil textures and mineralogy, and their interactions. Two short-term laboratory incubations were conducted to evaluate the effects of different biochars: a biochar with low ash (2.4%) and high–volatile matter (VM) (35.8%) contents produced under low-temperature (350°C) traditional kiln and a biochar with high ash (3.9%) and low-VM (14.7%) contents produced with a high-temperature (800°C) Flash Carbonization reactor and different biochar rates (0, 2, and 4% w/w) on the GHG emissions in a loamy-sand Ultisol and a silty-clay-loam Oxisol. In the coarse-textured, low-buffer Ultisol, cumulative CO2 and CH4 emissions increased with increasing VM content of biochars; however, CO2 emission sharply decreased at 83 μg VM g−1 soil. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Biochar’s volatile matter and ash constituents affect soil emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O.
      • Biochar volatile matter raised CO2 emission up to a threshold in coarse-textured, low-buffer soil.
      • Biochar volatile matter raised CO2 emission regardless of its content in fine-textured, high-buffer soil.
      • Biochar ash decreased emissions of greenhouse gases regardless of soil texture.
      • Al in Ultisol and Mn in Oxisol interacted with volatile matter and ash in influencing GHG emissions.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0532
      Published: June 7, 2016



    • D.E. Pelster, B. Gisore, J. Goopy, D. Korir, J.K. Koske, M.C. Rufino and K. Butterbach-Bahl
      Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Cattle Excreta on an East African Grassland

      Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements from livestock excreta in Africa are limited. We measured CH4 and N2O emissions from excreta of six Boran (Bos indicus) and six Friesian (Bos taurus) steers near Nairobi, Kenya. The steers were fed one of three diets (T1 [chaffed wheat straw], T2 [T1 + Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner – 0.2% live weight per day], and T3 [T1 + calliandra – 0.4% live weight every 2 d]). The T1 diet is similar in quality to typical diets in the region. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • GHG emissions from African livestock excreta is lower than IPCC tier 1 emission factors.
      • Low-quality feeds with low protein content result in low N content of excreta.
      • Supplementation of cattle diet with calliandra reduced the methane emissions from cattle feces.
      • The species of cattle causes differences in GHG emissions from feces.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0050
      Published: May 31, 2016



    • Gabriel T. LaHue, Chris van Kessel, Bruce A. Linquist, Maria Arlene Adviento-Borbe and Steven J. Fonte
      Residual Effects of Fertilization History Increase Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Zero-N Controls: Implications for Estimating Fertilizer-Induced Emission Factors

      Agricultural N fertilization is the dominant driver of increasing atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations over the past half-century, yet there is considerable uncertainty in estimates of N2O emissions from agriculture. Such estimates are typically based on the amount of N applied and a fertilizer-induced emission factor (EF), which is calculated as the difference in emissions between a fertilized plot and a zero-N control plot divided by the amount of N applied. A fertilizer-induced EF of 1% is currently recognized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) based on several studies analyzing published field measurements of N2O emissions. Although many zero-N control plots used in these measurements received historical N applications, the potential for a residual impact of these inputs on N2O emissions has been largely ignored and remains poorly understood. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • The IPCC fertilizer-induced emission factor for N2O is based on zero-N control plots.
      • Many of these zero-N control plots received fertilizer N inputs 1 to 2 yr earlier.
      • We compared soils with no N inputs (>20 yr) to soils with N inputs until 1 to 2 yr ago.
      • Soils with historical N inputs had higher N2O emissions during an incubation.
      • Higher N2O emissions were related to increased soil inorganic N and labile organic N.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0409
      Published: May 31, 2016



  • HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • P. B. DeLaune and P. A. Moore
      Copper and Zinc Runoff from Land Application of Composted Poultry Litter

      Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Composting poultry litter resulted in increased total Cu and Zn in the end product.
      • Metal concentrations in compost did not correlate well with those in runoff.
      • Compost maturity and amendment can affect metal concentrations in runoff.
      • Alum-amended compost resulted in lower runoff metal concentrations than other compost treatments.
      • Metals in runoff did not differ between alum-amended compost and fresh litter.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0499
      Published: July 7, 2016



    • Alex Charlton, Ruben Sakrabani, Steve P. McGrath and Colin D. Campbell
      Long-term Impact of Sewage Sludge Application on Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii : An Evaluation Using Meta-Analysis

      The Long-Term Sludge Experiment (LTSE) began in 1994 at nine UK field sites as part of continuing research into the effects of sludge-borne heavy metals on soil fertility. The long-term effects of Zn, Cu, and Cd on the most probable numbers of cells (MPN) of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii were monitored for 8 yr in sludge-amended soils. To assess the statutory limits set by the UK Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations, the experimental data were reviewed using statistical methods of meta-analysis. Previous LTSE studies have focused predominantly on statistical significance rather than effect size, whereas meta-analysis focuses on the magnitude and direction of an effect, i.e., the practical significance rather than its statistical significance. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Meta-analysis provides effect size of Cd, Cu, and Zn in sludge on Rhizobium MPN in soils.
      • Zn in sludge significantly decreased Rhizobium MPN in soil by −26.6%.
      • Below UK limits, Cu in sludge decreased Rhizobium MPN in soil less than 5%.
      • Cd in sludge had no significant effect on Rhizobium MPN in soils.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0590
      Published: July 7, 2016



  • LANDSCAPE AND WATERSHED PROCESSES

    • Zachariah Zopp, Anita M. Thompson, K. G. Karthikeyan, Fred Madison and Sharon C. Long
      Subsurface Transport of Cryptosporidium in Soils of Wisconsin’s Carbonate Aquifer Region

      Cryptosporidium parvum is a waterborne pathogen known to have a significant reservoir in bovine manure. Land-dependent manure disposal may not result in significant or reliable pathogen attenuation and, therefore, presents a risk for transport of pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp. to groundwater. One factor missing in the existing literature is the role soil characteristics play in affecting Cryptosporidium oocyst transport. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • C. parvum transport potential was studied in soils overlying Wisconsin’s vulnerable carbonate aquifer.
      • Empirical work monitored the transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts through intact soil columns.
      • Transport of oocysts through different soil series was monitored under simulated rain conditions.
      • Results will inform manure treatment and management to minimize parasite transport risks.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0592
      Published: July 21, 2016



    • Hedeff I. Essaid, Nancy T. Baker and Kathleen A. McCarthy
      Contrasting Nitrogen Fate in Watersheds Using Agricultural and Water Quality Information

      Surplus nitrogen (N) estimates, principal component analysis (PCA), and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used in a multisite comparison contrasting the fate of N in diverse agricultural watersheds. We applied PCA-EMMA in 10 watersheds located in Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Nebraska, Mississippi, and Washington ranging in size from 5 to 1254 km2 with four nested watersheds. Watershed Surplus N was determined by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of N input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, fertilizer, and manure for the period from 1987 to 2004. Watershed average Surplus N ranged from 11 to 52 kg N ha−1 and from 9 to 32% of N input. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Stream NO3 discharge trends reflect contributions from different NO3 sources.
      • Watersheds with more permeable soils had greater Surplus N.
      • More permeable watersheds experienced greater N removal by denitrification.
      • Less permeable watersheds transported surplus N directly to the stream.
      • N removal by benthic processing was discerned in larger watersheds.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0071
      Published: July 7, 2016



    • Whitney L. Nash, W. Lee Daniels, Kathryn C. Haering, James A. Burger and Carl E. Zipper
      Long-term Effects of Rock Type on Appalachian Coal Mine Soil Properties

      Rock-derived overburden material is used as a topsoil substitute for reclamation of Appalachian coal mines. We evaluated five mixtures (n = 4 each) of sandstone (SS) and siltstone (SiS) overburden as topsoil substitutes for 25+ years to quantify changes in mine soil properties. The study area was planted only to tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)], but over 50 herbaceous species invaded over time. Standing biomass was highest in early years (5.2–9.3 Mg ha−1 in 1983) and was strongly affected by rock type (SS > SiS), declined significantly by 1989 (1.5–2.4 Mg ha−1), and then increased again (2×) by 2008. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Coal mine overburden rock type controls initial and long-term mine soil properties.
      • Rock fragments significantly decreased and silt+clay increased over 25+ years.
      • Mine soil pH quickly decreased, increased, and then decreased again over time.
      • Mine soil CEC increased dramatically over time, primarily via humus accumulation.
      • Rock type affected short-term standing biomass but not over the long-term.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0540
      Published: June 7, 2016



    • Herbert Ssegane and M. Cristina Negri
      An Integrated Landscape Designed for Commodity and Bioenergy Crops for a Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed

      Locating bioenergy crops on strategically selected subfield areas of marginal interest for commodity agriculture can increase environmental sustainability. Location and choice of bioenergy crops should improve environmental benefits with minimal disruption of current food production systems. We identified subfield soils of a tile-drained agricultural watershed as marginal if they had areas of low crop productivity index (CPI), were susceptible to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N) leaching, or were susceptible to at least two other forms of environmental degradation (marginal areas). In the test watershed (Indian Creek watershed, IL) with annual precipitation of 852 mm, 3% of soils were CPI areas and 22% were marginal areas. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • We classified subproductive soils or soils vulnerable to environmental degradation as marginal.
      • We forecasted the biomass potential of soils and associated water quality benefits.
      • Conversion of soils of lowest CPI to energy crops had no impact on NO3–N export.
      • Targeted conversion of 22% of the watershed to energy crops reduced nutrient export.
      • Largest environmental benefits were from converting environmentally vulnerable land.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0518
      Published: May 31, 2016



  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Santanu Bakshi, Deborah M. Aller, David A. Laird and Rajesh Chintala
      Comparison of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Laboratory and Field-Aged Biochars

      The long-term impact of biochar on soil properties and agronomic outcomes is influenced by changes in the physical and chemical properties of biochars that occur with time (aging) in soil environments. Fresh biochars, however, are often used in studies because aged biochars are generally unavailable. Therefore, a need exists to develop a method for rapid aging of biochars in the laboratory. The objectives of this study were to compare the physicochemical properties of fresh, laboratory-aged (LA), and field-aged (FA) (≥3 yr) biochars and to assess the appropriateness of a laboratory aging procedure that combines acidification, oxidation, and incubations as a mimic to field aging in neutral or acidic soil environments. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Major biochar aging mechanisms are leaching, surface oxidation, and DOC adsorption.
      • Biochar aging depends on types of feedstocks and thermochemical techniques.
      • VM/FC and H/Corg ratios of biochar are complimentary indices of biochar stability.
      • Laboratory aging can assess the long-term impacts of biochar on soil properties.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0062
      Published: June 24, 2016



    • Varun K. Kasaraneni and Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
      Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in Soils of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala: Occurrence, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment

      Exposure to high concentrations of carcinogenic pollutants in soils and sediments can result in increased health risks. Determining the levels and sources of contamination in developing communities is important for helping to reduce pollution and mitigate the risk of exposure. In the Mayan community of San Mateo Ixtatán, Guatemala, 24 samples of topsoil from urban, peri-urban, and agricultural sites and six samples of river sediment were collected and analyzed for 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The sum of the concentrations of these PAHs at the urban and peri-urban sites ranged from 460 to 3251 μg kg−1 (mean, 1401 μg kg−1), whereas at agricultural sites the range was 350 to 2087 μg kg−1 (mean, 1038 μg kg−1). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Soil contamination in SMI is higher than several urban and industrial regions.
      • PAH emitted from wood stoves seems to contribute over 70% of soil contamination in SMI.
      • The exposure to contaminated soil puts the residents of SMI at high cancer risk.
      • Finding alternative domestic fuels must be prioritized in developing countries.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.11.0585
      Published: June 24, 2016



  • PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

    • Brian M. Wallace, Maja Krzic, Reg F. Newman, Tom A. Forge, Klaas Broersma and Gerry Neilsen
      Soil Aggregate Dynamics and Plant Community Response after Biosolids Application in a Semiarid Grassland

      Biosolids may improve the ecological function of degraded semiarid grasslands, but an understanding of the plant community is essential. An experiment was established in 2001 to determine the effects of a single surface application of biosolids on soil aggregate stability and the composition of the plant community in a semiarid grassland in British Columbia, Canada. Four treatments were evaluated: (i) surface biosolids application at 20 (Bio-20) and (ii) 60 Mg ha 1 (Bio-60), (iii) mineral fertilizer, and (iv) a control. All treatments were replicated in four blocks. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Increased size and stability of soil aggregates 8 yr after a single biosolids application.
      • Evidence of a large nutrient flux early in the growing season 8 yr after biosolids application.
      • Biosolids decreased the cover of perennial grasses while increasing winter annuals.
      • The recovery of degraded grasslands is a slow process in semiarid environments.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0030
      Published: July 7, 2016



  • REVIEWS AND ANALYSES

    • L. E. Christianson, R. D. Harmel, D. Smith, M. R. Williams and K. King
      Assessment and Synthesis of 50 Years of Published Drainage Phosphorus Losses

      The prevalence of anthropogenic drainage systems in intensively cropped areas across North America combined with the degradation of important freshwater resources in these regions has created a critical intersection where understanding phosphorus (P) transport in drainage waters is vital. In this study, drainage-associated nutrient load data were retrieved and quantitatively analyzed to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the P loading and crop yield impacts of agronomic management practices within drained landscapes. Using the Drain Load table in the MANAGE (Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments) database, the effect of factors such as soil characteristics, tillage, and nutrient management on P loading were analyzed. Across site-years, generally less than 2% of applied P was lost in drainage water, which corroborates the order of magnitude difference between agronomic P application rates and P loadings that can cause deleterious water quality impacts. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Used the MANAGE water quality database to evaluate factors affecting drainage P loss.
      • Generally less than 2% of applied P was lost in drainage across all studies.
      • P application timing/method are important, but sparse data limited the assessment.
      • The scarcity of drainage P data relative to N is a critical gap in understanding.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0593
      Published: June 24, 2016



  • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

    • Katrina L. Gillette, Yaling Qian, Ronald F. Follett and Stephen Del Grosso
      Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Golf Course Fairway and Rough after Application of Different Nitrogen Fertilizers

      Few studies have quantified nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from intensively managed turfgrass systems on golf courses. Fertilizer treatments consisting of urea with inhibitors of nitrification and urease (INU), polymer-coated urea (PCU), and uncoated balanced methylene urea (BMU) chain, which use different mechanisms to control the release of N substrate, were applied to a golf course fairway and rough three times during the 2011 growing season at a rate of 50 kg N ha−1 per application. The vented chamber method was used to measure turf–soil–atmospheric N2O exchange. Cumulative emissions from fairway INU, PCU, and BMU treatments totaled 6.5, 1.9, and 7.6 kg N2O–N ha−1 yr−1, representing a 4.02, 1.25, and 4.75% loss of total N applied, respectively. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Polymer-coated urea was more resistant to N2O losses than other fertilizer treatments.
      • Cumulative emission from the rough was much lower than the fairway.
      • On cool-season grass fairways, summer N application led to great episodic N2O fluxes.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0047
      Published: July 7, 2016



    • Peter A. Turner, John M. Baker, Timothy J. Griffis and Rodney T. Venterea
      Impact of Kura Clover Living Mulch on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Corn–Soybean System

      Nitrous oxide (N2O), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce N2O emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean (Glycine max L.) systems. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Kura clover living mulch increased total N2O emissions.
      • Nitrogen scavenging by the kura clover living mulch may have reduced spring N2O emissions.
      • Emissions in the kura clover treatment were affected by soil disturbance and plant stress.
      • Corn and soybean yield were only marginally affected by kura clover living mulch.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0036
      Published: June 24, 2016



    • Sonya M. Havens, Curtis J. Hedman, Jocelyn D.C. Hemming, Mark G. Mieritz, Martin M. Shafer and James J. Schauer
      Influence of Acidification on the Partitioning of Steroid Hormones among Filtrate, Filter Media, and Retained Particulate Matter

      Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid–preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Acidification did not influence the partitioning of hormones onto the filter media.
      • Acidification increased partitioning of progesterone to particulates.
      • Acidification increased partitioning of melengestrol acetate to particulates.
      • Internal standard accounted for partitioning of progesterone to particulates.
      • Internal standard did not account for partitioning of melengestrol acetate to particulates.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0017
      Published: July 7, 2016



  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    • Judlyn M. Telesford-Checkley, Miguel A. Mora, Diane E. Boellstorff and Tony L. Provin
      An Evaluation of the Contribution of Macro- and Microelements from Colonial Nesting Waterbirds to Surface Water

      Macro- and microelements contained in the feces of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and other colonial birds in heronries can be sources of contamination of nearby waterways. Concentrations of the macroelements potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), sulfur (S) and the microelements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and boron (B) were measured in water and fecal samples collected from four locations containing heronries during the breeding seasons of 2011, 2012, and 2013. Nitrogen and phosphorus were measured but not reported in this study. Concentrations of K in feces ranged from 8.19 × 103 ± 4.38 × 102 to 4.88 × 104 ± 7.57 × 102 mg kg−1, and concentrations in water ranged from 3.92 ± 0.05 to 17.93 ± 0.37 mg L−1. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Deposition of inorganic elements to soil and water from bird feces is dependent on heronry size.
      • Potassium, Ca, and Mg are the main elements deposited from avian feces to water.
      • Birds nesting over or near water contribute significant amounts of nutrients to water.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0019
      Published: June 24, 2016



    • K. W. King, M. R. Williams, W. A. Dick and G. A. LaBarge
      Decreasing Phosphorus Loss in Tile-Drained Landscapes Using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

      Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural nonpoint-source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P sorbing potential. A before–after control–impact paired field experiment was used to examine the water quality effects of successive FGD gypsum applications (2.24 Mg ha−1; 1 ton acre−1 each) to an Ohio field with high soil test P levels (>480 ppm Mehlich-3 P). Analysis of covariance was used to compare event discharge, dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P (TP) concentrations and loadings in surface runoff and tile discharge between the baseline period (86 precipitation events) and Treatment Period 1 (42 precipitation events) and Treatment Period 2 (84 precipitation events). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • A paired field study demonstrated the water quality benefits of FGD gypsum.
      • FGD gypsum improved aggregate stability and increased infiltration.
      • FGD application reduced dissolved and total P concentrations.
      • FGD gypsum reduced dissolved and total P loads.
      • Significant reductions were realized in surface and tile drainage discharge.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.04.0132
      Published: July 7, 2016



    • Paul L. Mosquin, Jeremy Aldworth and Wenlin Chen
      Kriging Models Predicting Atrazine Concentrations in Surface Water Draining Agricultural Watersheds

      The performance of kriging methods in predicting maximum m-day (m = 1, 7, 14, or 30) rolling averages of atrazine concentrations in 42 site-years of Midwest Corn Belt watersheds under two systematic sampling designs (sampling every 7 or 14 d) was examined. Daily atrazine monitoring data obtained from the Atrazine Ecological Monitoring Program in the Corn Belt region (2009–2014) were used in the evaluation. Both ordinary and universal kriging methods were considered, with the covariate for universal kriging derived from the deterministic Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM). For the maximum 1-d rolling averages, prediction did not differ among methods. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • For right-skewed data, kriging methods on log scale are useful.
      • For right-skewed data, linear interpolation on log scale is useful.
      • For right-skewed data, linear interpolation on linear scale should be avoided.
      • Estimate of nugget close to zero is extremely useful for semivariogram modeling.
      • Linear semivariogram models worked at least as well as nonlinear models.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0544
      Published: June 7, 2016



    • Peter C. Van Metre, Jeffrey W. Frey, MaryLynn Musgrove, Naomi Nakagaki, Sharon Qi, Barbara J. Mahler, Michael E. Wieczorek and Daniel T. Button
      High Nitrate Concentrations in Some Midwest United States Streams in 2013 after the 2012 Drought

      Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from <0.04 to 41.8 mg L−1 as N (mean, 5.31 mg L−1). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Multiyear precipitation patterns can affect nitrate loading to streams.
      • Anomalously high nitrate concentrations in 2013 in some streams followed the 2012 drought.
      • Nitrate correlated to nitrogen fertilizer applications and multiyear precipitation patterns.
      • High nitrate in small Midwest streams in 2013 coincides with high loading in the Mississippi River.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0591
      Published: June 7, 2016



  • URBAN POLLUTANTS

    • Pei-Hsiou Ding, Gen-Shuh Wang, Bing-Yu Chen and Gwo-Hwa Wan
      Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System

      Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area in Taiwan.
      • Clear downward trends for CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 levels in the surveyed areas, but not for O3.
      • Levels of NO2 and CO in the Taipei area showed improvement after MRT system installation.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.08.0432
      Published: July 7, 2016



  • VADOSE ZONE PROCESSES AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    • A. Muwamba, P. Nkedi-Kizza and K. T. Morgan
      Determination of Sorption Coefficient of Phosphorus Applied for Sugarcane Production in Southwestern Florida

      Phosphorus is among the essential nutrients applied to sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fields in the form of a fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) in southwestern Florida. Sorption coefficient is used for modeling P movement, and in this study, we hypothesized that the sorption coefficient determined using fertilizer mixture (N, P, and K) will be significantly different from values determined using KCl and CaCl2, the electrolytes most commonly used for conducting sorption experiments. Supporting electrolytes, 0.01 mol L-1 KCl, 0.005 mol L-1 CaCl2, deionized (DI) water, simulated Florida rain, and fertilizer mixture prepared in Florida rain were used to characterize P sorption. Immokalee (Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Alaquods) and Margate (Sandy, siliceous hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents) are the dominant mineral soils used for sugarcane production in southwestern Florida; we used the A and Bw horizons of Margate soil and the A and Bh horizons of the Immokalee soil for sorption experiments in this study. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Soil was sampled from two sugarcane fields with Margate and Immokalee soils.
      • Electrolytes used were KCl, CaCl2, water, Florida rain, and fertilizer mixture.
      • The KD of P applied to sugarcane fields of southwestern Florida should be determined using KCl.
      • The kinetics of P applied to sugarcane fields of southwestern Florida can be studied using KCl.
      • Movement of P in sugarcane fields should be modeled using KD determined with KCl.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.03.0087
      Published: July 14, 2016



    • Hong Wang, Yuanfang Huang, Chongyang Shen, Junxue Wu, An Yan and Hongyan Zhang
      Co-transport of Pesticide Acetamiprid and Silica Nanoparticles in Biochar-Amended Sand Porous Media

      The role of biochar as a soil amendment on the transport of acetamiprid, a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, is little known. We conducted saturated column experiments to examine cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles (NPs) in pure and biochar-amended sands. Retention of acetamiprid was minor in the pure sand, whereas application of biochar in the sand significantly increased retention. Retention was greater at lower ionic strengths and near neutral pH values and was attributed to biodegradation and sorption through π–π interaction and pore filling. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • We examined cotransport of acetamiprid and silica nanoparticles in biochar-amended sand.
      • Amendment with biochar significantly increased the removal of acetamiprid.
      • The removal of acetamiprid by biochar was attributed to biodegradation and sorption.
      • Silica nanoparticles were favorably attached on biochar surfaces in 2:1 electrolyte.
      • The presence of silica nanoparticles enhanced transport of acetamiprid.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0073
      Published: June 24, 2016



  • WASTE MANAGEMENT

    • D. Kumaragamage, O. O. Akinremi and G. J. Racz
      Comparison of Nutrient and Metal Loadings with the Application of Swine Manure Slurries and Their Liquid Separates to Soils

      The accumulation of phosphorus (P) and metals is a serious concern with the continuous application of manure to agricultural soils. Solid–liquid separation of swine slurry is a promising approach to reduce P and metal loadings through application of separated liquid (SL) as a nutrient source. However, little information is available on nutrient and metal loadings with the application of SL compared with unseparated raw manure (RM). We analyzed element concentrations and calculated nutrient and metal loadings for RM and their respective SL applications, considering an application rate of 100 kg total nitrogen (N) ha−1. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • P loading with SL was only 50 to 70% of that of swine slurry applied at equivalent rate of N.
      • Loadings of K and Na with SL were higher, indicating a possible salt build-up in soil.
      • Cu and Zn loading with application of swine slurry and SL were above crop removal rates.
      • Loadings of other trace metals were low with both SL and raw swine slurry application.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.04.0130
      Published: July 7, 2016



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