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Journal of Environmental Quality : Just Published


Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Maguire, R.O., P.J. A. Kleinman, C.J. Dell, D.B. Beegle, R.C. Brandt, J.M. McGrath, and Q.M. Ketterings. 2011. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: A review. J. Environ. Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2009.0228

Current issue: J. Environ. Qual. 46(1)


    • Shai Sela, Harold M. van Es, Bianca N. Moebius-Clune, Rebecca Marjerison, Daniel Moebius-Clune, Robert Schindelbeck, Keith Severson and Eric Young
      Dynamic Model Improves Agronomic and Environmental Outcomes for Maize Nitrogen Management over Static Approach

      Large temporal and spatial variability in soil nitrogen (N) availability leads many farmers across the United States to over-apply N fertilizers in maize (Zea Mays L.) production environments, often resulting in large environmental N losses. Static Stanford-type N recommendation tools are typically promoted in the United States, but new dynamic model-based decision tools allow for highly adaptive N recommendations that account for specific production environments and conditions. This study compares the Corn N Calculator (CNC), a static N recommendation tool for New York, to Adapt-N, a dynamic simulation tool that combines soil, crop, and management information with real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. The efficiency of the two tools in predicting the Economically Optimum N Rate (EONR) is compared using field data from 14 multiple N-rate trials conducted in New York during the years 2011 through 2015. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Dynamic N recommendation tool reduces environmental impacts over static approach.
      • Dynamic N recommendation tool accounts for different production environments.
      • Dynamic N recommendation tool is successful in estimating field-measured EONR.

      Published: January 19, 2017


    • Bei Chu and Frieda Eivazi
      Enhanced Dissipation of Selected Herbicides in a Simulated Organic Matrix Biobed: A System to Control On-Farm Point-Source Pollution

      Most farms have a centralized location to fill spray tanks with pesticides and to flush and clean application equipment. These sites, depending on the frequency of use, could be significant sources of surface and groundwater contamination. One approach to minimize this contamination is to install a treatment system, such as a biobed. This study sought to construct a biobed and test the effects of different biomix materials in enhancing the dissipation of herbicides widely used in crop production. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Biobed material composition and ratio were evaluated.
      • The dissipation rates of atrazine and pendimethalin were enhanced in biomixes.
      • Phenol oxidase was higher in peat biomixes than in compost.
      • A mobile, low-cost system was designed to capture contamination on-farm.

      Published: December 28, 2016

    • Ying Wang and Nora Fung Yee Tam
      Glutathione–Ascorbate Cycle Is an Early Warning Indicator of Toxicity of BDE-47 in Mangroves

      Mangroves are often exposed to contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from wastewater discharges and solid waste dumping. As one of the most prevalent and toxic PBDE congeners in the environment, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and its oxidative stress deserves more attention. In plants, the glutathione–ascorbate (GSH-AsA) cycle plays an important role in the defensive processes against oxidative stress. However, the importance of this cycle in mangroves to defend against PBDE toxicity has not been reported. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • BDE-47 posed oxidative stress to Kandelia obovata seedlings.
      • Leaf and root biomass of K. obovata was suppressed after short BDE-47 exposure.
      • GSH-AsA cycle-related antioxidants changed significantly immediately after exposure.
      • GSH-AsA cycle was a more sensitive indicator to BDE-47 toxicity than growth.
      • AsA and GPx were early warning indicators to PBDE toxicity in mangrove plants.

      Published: October 13, 2016


    • Carl H. Bolster, Adam Forsberg, Aaron Mittelstet, David E. Radcliffe, Daniel Storm, John Ramirez-Avila, Andrew N. Sharpley and Deanna Osmond
      Comparing an Annual and a Daily Time-Step Model for Predicting Field-Scale Phosphorus Loss

      A wide range of mathematical models are available for predicting phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural fields, ranging from simple, empirically based annual time-step models to more complex, process-based daily time-step models. In this study, we compare field-scale P-loss predictions between the Annual P Loss Estimator (APLE), an empirically based annual time-step model, and the Texas Best Management Practice Evaluation Tool (TBET), a process-based daily time-step model based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool. We first compared predictions of field-scale P loss from both models using field and land management data collected from 11 research sites throughout the southern United States. We then compared predictions of P loss from both models with measured P-loss data from these sites. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • We compared predictions of P loss between an empirically-based and process-based model.
      • Predictions from both models were well correlated with each other.
      • The process-based model did not result in noticeably better predictions of P loss.
      • APLE predicted greater DP loss and TBET predicted greater PP loss.
      • Results indicate the need for improving accuracy of both models.

      Published: January 19, 2017

    • Peter A. Vadas, Laura W. Good, William E. Jokela, K.G. Karthikeyan, Francisco J. Arriaga and Melanie Stock
      Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff

      Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site–years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Winter application of dairy manure can significantly increase P loss in surface runoff.
      • Producers have few options to reduce P manure loss by avoiding near-term runoff.
      • Models can help quantify the effect of management on manure P loss in runoff.

      Published: January 19, 2017

    • David B. Baker, Laura T. Johnson, Remegio B. Confesor and John P. Crumrine
      Vertical Stratification of Soil Phosphorus as a Concern for Dissolved Phosphorus Runoff in the Lake Erie Basin

      During the re-eutrophication of Lake Erie, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loading and concentrations to the lake have nearly doubled, while particulate phosphorus (PP) has remained relatively constant. One potential cause of increased DRP concentrations is P stratification, or the buildup of soil-test P (STP) in the upper soil layer (<5 cm). Stratification often accompanies no-till and mulch-till practices that reduce erosion and PP loading, practices that have been widely implemented throughout the Lake Erie Basin. To evaluate the extent of P stratification in the Sandusky Watershed, certified crop advisors were enlisted to collect stratified soil samples (0–5 or 0–2.5 cm) alongside their normal agronomic samples (0–20 cm) (n = 1758 fields). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • P stratification increases surficial soil-test levels by 55% over agronomic cores.
      • Agronomic soil-test levels are not good indicators of surficial soil-test levels.
      • Soils in maintenance range account for the largest proportion of DRP runoff risks.
      • Targeted stratification reduction could reduce DRP runoff more than drawdown.
      • Stratification reduction could reduce DRP runoff more quickly than drawdown.

      Published: January 19, 2017

    • Ammar B. Bhandari, Nathan O. Nelson, Daniel W. Sweeney, Claire Baffaut, John A. Lory, Anomaa Senaviratne, Gary M. Pierzynski, Keith A. Janssen and Philip L. Barnes
      Calibration of the APEX Model to Simulate Management Practice Effects on Runoff, Sediment, and Phosphorus Loss

      Process-based computer models have been proposed as a tool to generate data for Phosphorus (P) Index assessment and development. Although models are commonly used to simulate P loss from agriculture using managements that are different from the calibration data, this use of models has not been fully tested. The objective of this study is to determine if the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model can accurately simulate runoff, sediment, total P, and dissolved P loss from 0.4 to 1.5 ha of agricultural fields with managements that are different from the calibration data. The APEX model was calibrated with field-scale data from eight different managements at two locations (management-specific models). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • The APEX model has limited ability to simulate effects of changing management.
      • If available, multiple management should be used to calibrate and validate the model.
      • Policy makers must exercise caution in using model-estimated P losses to evaluate PIs.

      Published: December 15, 2016

    • William I. Ford, Kevin W. King, Mark R. Williams and Remegio B. Confesor
      Modified APEX model for Simulating Macropore Phosphorus Contributions to Tile Drains

      The contribution of macropore flow to phosphorus (P) loadings in tile-drained agricultural landscapes remains poorly understood at the field scale, despite the recognized deleterious impacts of contaminant transport via macropore pathways. A new subroutine that couples existing matrix-excess and matrix-desiccation macropore flow theory and a modified P routine is implemented in the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. The original and modified formulation were applied and evaluated for a case study in a poorly drained field in Western Ohio with 31 months of surface and subsurface monitoring data. Results highlighted that a macropore subroutine in APEX improved edge-of-field discharge calibration and validation for both tile and total discharge from satisfactory and good, respectively, to very good and improved dissolved reactive P load calibration and validation statistics for tile P loads from unsatisfactory to very good. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • The field-scale APEX model is modified to account for macropore P contributions.
      • APEX modifications significantly improve hydrology and P simulations for a case study.
      • Macropore flow contributes approximately 48% of flow and 43% of P annually.
      • The model has potential for informing pathway partitioning in P site assessment tools.

      Published: December 1, 2016

    • Alisha Spears Mulkey, Frank J. Coale, Peter A. Vadas, Gary W. Shenk and Gopal X. Bhatt
      Revised Method and Outcomes for Estimating Soil Phosphorus Losses from Agricultural Land in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model

      Current restoration efforts for the Chesapeake Bay watershed mandate a timeline for reducing the load of nutrients and sediment into receiving waters. The Chesapeake Bay watershed model (WSM) has been used for two decades to simulate hydrology and nutrient and sediment transport; however, spatial limitations of the WSM preclude edge-of-field scale representation of phosphorus (P) losses. Rather, the WSM relies on literature-derived, county-scale rates of P loss (targets) for simulated land uses. An independent field-scale modeling tool, Annual Phosphorus Loss Estimator (APLE), was used as an alternative to the current WSM approach. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • APLE estimated P losses were compared with the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model’s (WSM) losses.
      • Substituting the APLE estimated P loss into the WSM improved calibration performance.
      • Findings suggest the importance of well-estimated transport factors in modeling P losses.

      Published: October 6, 2016

    • Mark R. Williams, Kevin W. King, Gregory A. LaBarge, Remegio B. Confesor and Norman R. Fausey
      Edge-Of-Field Evaluation of the Ohio Phosphorus Risk Index

      The Phosphorus Index (PI) has been the cornerstone for phosphorus (P)-based management and planning over the past twenty years, yet field-scale evaluation of many state PIs has been limited. In this study, P loads measured in surface runoff and tile discharge from 40 agricultural fields in Ohio with prevailing management practices were used to evaluate the Ohio PI. Annual P loads were highly variable among fields (dissolved reactive P: 0.03–4.51 kg ha−1, total P: 0.03–6.88 kg ha−1). Both measured annual dissolved reactive P (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.001) and total P (R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001) loads were significantly related to Ohio PI score. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Measured P loads from 40 fields were used to evaluate the Ohio Phosphorus Index.
      • Risk of P loss was linearly related to both measured annual and averaged P loads.
      • Field P management recommendations varied among local, state, and national metrics.
      • Field datasets should be used to improve and calibrate the Ohio Phosphorus Index.

      Published: September 15, 2016

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