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Journal of Environmental Quality : Just Published

 

Accepted, edited articles are published here after author proofing to provide rapid publication and better access to the newest research. Articles are compiled into issues at dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq, which includes the complete archive.

Citation | Articles posted here are considered published and may be cited by the doi.

Maguire, R.O., P.J. A. Kleinman, C.J. Dell, D.B. Beegle, R.C. Brandt, J.M. McGrath, and Q.M. Ketterings. 2011. Manure application technology in reduced tillage and forage systems: A review. J. Environ. Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2009.0228

Current issue: J. Environ. Qual. 45(3)



  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE GASES

    • S. M. McGinn, H. H. Janzen, T. W. Coates, K. A. Beauchemin and T. K. Flesch
      Ammonia Emission from a Beef Cattle Feedlot and Its Local Dry Deposition and Re-Emission

      Ammonia (NH3) volatized from livestock manure is affiliated with ecosystem and human health concerns and decreased fertilizer value of manure and can also be an indirect source of greenhouse gas. Beef cattle feedlots, where thousands of cattle are grouped together to enable greater control of feed management and production, are hot spots in the agricultural landscape for NH3 emissions. Quantifying the feedlot NH3 emissions is a difficult task, partly due to the reactive nature of NH3 within and surrounding the feedlot. Our study used a dispersion model coupled to field measurements to derive NH3 emissions from a feedlot in southern Alberta, Canada. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Beef feedlots are “hot spots” of ammonia emissions in the landscape.
      • A significant fraction of the emitted ammonia is deposited to local land.
      • Nitrogen fate of emitted ammonia is dynamic.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0009
      Published: April 22, 2016



    • Mario Tenuta, Xiaopeng Gao, Donald N. Flaten and Brian D. Amiro
      Lower Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Anhydrous Ammonia Application Prior to Soil Freezing in Late Fall Than Spring Pre-Plant Application

      Fall application of anhydrous ammonia in Manitoba is common but its impact on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is not well known. A 2-yr study compared application before freeze-up in late fall to spring pre-plant application of anhydrous ammonia on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a clay soil in the Red River Valley, Manitoba. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were grown on two 4-ha fields in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Field-scale flux of N2O was measured using a flux-gradient micrometeorological approach. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Late-fall ammonia application prior to freeze-up did not induce N2O emissions over winter.
      • Late-fall application did increase N2O emissions during thaw the following year.
      • Despite lower area-based emission in the first study year, poor yield increased yield-scaled emissions.
      • For the second study year, yield-scaled emissions were similar for application treatments.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.03.0159
      Published: April 1, 2016



    • Daniel N. Miller, Mindy J. Spiehs, Vincent H. Varel, Bryan L. Woodbury, James E. Wells and Elaine D. Berry
      Distillers By-Product Cattle Diets Enhance Reduced Sulfur Gas Fluxes from Feedlot Soils and Manures

      Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times during Feeding Trial 1 from cattle fed 0, 20, 40, and 60% WDGS. Fluxes of TRS from 40 and 60% WDGS manures were 3- to 13-fold greater than the 0 and 20% WDGS manures during the first two periods. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Distillers grains diets increase manure sulfur fluxes.
      • Manure sulfur fluxes are greater than soil sulfur fluxes.
      • Soil fluxes are greater from wet, manure-impacted sites.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0480
      Published: April 1, 2016



  • BIOREMEDIATION AND BIODEGRADATION

    • Ghulam Haider, Diedrich Steffens, Christoph Müller and Claudia I. Kammann
      Standard Extraction Methods May Underestimate Nitrate Stocks Captured by Field-Aged Biochar

      Biochar (BC) has been shown to increase the potential for N retention in agricultural soils. However, the form of N retained and its strength of retention are poorly understood. Here, we examined if the N retained could be readily extractable by standard methods and if the amount of N retained varied with BC field ageing. We investigated soil and field-aged BC (BCaged) particles of a field experiment (sandy soil amended with BC at 0, 15, and 30 t ha−1) under two watering regimes (irrigated and rain-fed). (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Biochar reduced nitrate leaching from temperate sandy soil in the field.
      • Biochar particles captured nitrate amounts several-fold greater than found in soil.
      • Standard extraction methods may not retrieve all biochar-captured nitrate.
      • Field-aged biochar captured much more nitrate than ammonium.
      • Captured nitrate amounts were independent of the biochar particle size.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0529
      Published: April 1, 2016



  • ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS, MODULES, AND DATASETS

    • Tyler J. Hengen, Heidi L. Sieverding, Noel A. Cole, Jay M. Ham and James J. Stone
      Eco-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Feedlot Rations in the Great Plains, United States

      Environmental impacts attributable to beef feedlot production provide an opportunity for economically linked efficiency optimization. Eco-efficiency models are used to optimize production and processes by connecting and quantifying environmental and economic impacts. An adaptable, objective eco-efficiency model was developed to assess the impacts of dietary rations on beef feedlot environmental and fiscal cost. The hybridized model used California Net Energy System modeling, life cycle assessment, principal component analyses (PCA), and economic analyses. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Objective eco-efficiency scores can be produced using principal component analyses.
      • Large numbers of scenarios can be effectively assessed using eco-efficiency scoring.
      • Feedlot feed diets impact the sustainability of beef products.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0464
      Published: April 29, 2016



    • Elia Scudiero, Scott M. Lesch and Dennis L. Corwin
      Validation of Sensor-Directed Spatial Simulated Annealing Soil Sampling Strategy

      Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor–soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data. In the present study, two sensor-directed, model-based, sampling scheme delineation methods were compared to validate recent applications of soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa)-directed spatial simulated annealing against the more established ECa–directed response surface sampling design (RSSD) approach. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Sensor-directed sampling is valuable for mapping soil properties using few samples.
      • Apparent electrical conductivity is a good proxy for soil salinity.
      • Spatial simulated annealing and response surface design sampling are compared.
      • ECa-directed SSA is a valuable sampling approach for soil science applications.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0458
      Published: April 22, 2016



    • Amy S. Collick, Tamie L. Veith, Daniel R. Fuka, Peter J.A. Kleinman, Anthony R. Buda, Jennifer L. Weld, Ray B. Bryant, Peter A. Vadas, Mike J. White, R. Daren Harmel and Zachary M. Easton
      Improved Simulation of Edaphic and Manure Phosphorus Loss in SWAT

      Watershed models such as the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Agricultural Policy Environmental EXtender (APEX) are widely used to assess the fate and transport of agricultural nutrient management practices on soluble and particulate phosphorus (P) loss in runoff. Soil P-cycling routines used in SWAT2012 revision 586, however, do not simulate the short-term effects of applying a concentrated source of soluble P, such as manure, to the soil surface where it is most vulnerable to runoff. We added a new set of soil P routines to SWAT2012 revision 586 to simulate surface-applied manure at field and subwatershed scales within Mahantango Creek watershed in south-central Pennsylvania. We corroborated the new P routines and standard P routines in two versions of SWAT (conventional SWAT, and a topographically driven variation called TopoSWAT) for a total of four modeling “treatments”. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Dynamic manure P routines were added to the conventional SWAT model.
      • New P routines were corroborated in two versions of SWAT.
      • New P routines accurately simulated the 4R effects of manure management.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.03.0135
      Published: April 22, 2016



  • HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    • Katrin Matern and Tim Mansfeldt
      Chromium Release from a COPR-Contaminated Soil at Varying Water Content and Redox Conditions

      Many soils in the region of Kanpur, North India, are heavily affected by the leather industry and its upstream supplier sector, as indicated by elevated chromium (Cr) contents. Under reducing conditions—for instance, at water saturation after monsoon rain or flood irrigation—the dynamic and species distribution of Cr may be affected due to changes in redox potential (EH). In this study, the influence of EH on the speciation and release of Cr from a contaminated agricultural soil was investigated. A soil sample that was affected by hyperalkaline leachate from chromite ore processing residue, was taken and packed in soil columns, and subjected to a saturation–drainage–saturation cycle. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Cr(VI) was highly mobile in the investigated soil.
      • High Cr(VI) concentration prevented the reduction of Mn and Fe.
      • Cr(VI) was mobilized under oxidizing soil conditions.
      • Cr was immobilized under moderately reducing soil conditions.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0506
      Published: April 8, 2016



  • LANDSCAPE AND WATERSHED PROCESSES

    • X. C. (John) Zhang, B. L. Liu, B. Liu and G. H. Zhang
      Quantifying Sediment Provenance Using Multiple Composite Fingerprints in a Small Watershed in Oklahoma

      Quantitative information on sediment provenance is needed for improved calibration and validation of process-based soil erosion models. However, sediment source data are often limited due to difficulties in directly measuring source contributions at a watershed scale. Our objectives in this study were to estimate sediment source contributions in a 15-km2 watershed using analytical solutions to a three end-member mixing model using multiple composite fingerprints and to compare the results with those estimated with a single radionuclide, 137Cs. Surface soil samples were collected from 23 croplands, 19 rangelands, and 26 gully banks in the watershed, and 31 geochemical elements were analyzed for each sample. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Sediment source contributions were estimated using multiple composite fingerprints.
      • Contributions from analytical solutions were compared with estimates using 137Cs.
      • Source contributions varied substantially among different composite fingerprints.
      • Multiple fingerprints greatly improved accuracy/certainty to identify sediment provenance.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0538
      Published: April 29, 2016



  • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

    • Giorgio Provolo, Alberto Finzi, Francesca Perazzolo, Gabriele Mattachini and Elisabetta Riva
      Effect of a Biological Additive on Nitrogen Losses from Pig Slurry during Storage

      Additives applied to animal manure slurries can affect the chemical composition and the biological processes of slurries during storage, with possible improvement of their management and reduction of environmental problems. Some new formulations are marketed claiming a nitrogen (N) removal effect due to denitrification, with the consequence of a reduced N content in the manure after storage. This study evaluated the effects of one of these commercial additives (BACTYcomplex) on slurry characteristics and N losses at a commercial piggery. The additive was applied to four different sectors of the piggery, each with an independent under-floor slurry pit; four other sectors served as controls without treatment. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • A new biological additive with denitrification enhancement capability was tested.
      • The additive increased the total solids reduction during 6 mo storage of the slurry.
      • The total and ammonia-N losses were not affected by the additive.
      • The additive promoted stabilization of slurry but did not reduce N content.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0503
      Published: April 29, 2016



    • Geethani Amarawansha, Darshani Kumaragamage, Don Flaten, Francis Zvomuya and Mario Tenuta
      Predicting Phosphorus Release from Anaerobic, Alkaline, Flooded Soils

      Anaerobic conditions induced by prolonged flooding often lead to an enhanced release of phosphorus (P) to floodwater; however, this effect is not consistent across soils. This study aimed to develop an index to predict P release potential from alkaline soils under simulated flooded conditions. Twelve unamended or manure-amended surface soils from Manitoba were analyzed for basic soil properties, Olsen P (Ols-P), Mehlich-3 extractable total P (M3PICP), Mehlich-3 extractable molybdate-reactive P (M3PMRP), water extractable P (WEP), soil P fractions, single-point P sorption capacity (P150), and Mehlich-3 extractable Ca (M3Ca), and Mg (M3Mg). Degree of P saturation (DPS) was calculated using Ols-P, M3PICP or M3PMRP as the intensity factor, and an estimated adsorption maximum based on either P150 or M3Ca + M3Mg as the capacity factor. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Phosphorus release from flooded soils to overlying water depended on soil properties.
      • Relative increase in floodwater DRP concentration could be predicted using the model.
      • Clay percentage and the degree of P saturation influenced P release from flooded soils.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0221
      Published: April 29, 2016



    • Dustin P. Meador, Paul R. Fisher, Charles L. Guy, Philip F. Harmon, Natalia A. Peres and Max Teplitski
      Use of Dehydrated Agar to Estimate Microbial Water Quality for Horticulture Irrigation

      Petrifilms are dehydrated agar culture plates that have been used to quantify colony forming units (CFU) mL−1 of either aerobic bacteria (Petrifilm-AC) or fungus (Petrifilm-YM), depending on substrate composition. Microbes in irrigation systems can indicate biofilm risk and potential clogging of irrigation emitters. The research objective was to compare counts on Petrifilms versus traditional, hydrated-agar plates using samples collected from recirculated irrigation waters and cultures of isolated known species. The estimated count (in CFU mL−1) from a recirculated irrigation sample after 7 d of incubation on Petrifilm-YM was only 5.5% of the count quantified using sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol after 14 d. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Dehydrated agar culture plates (Petrifilms) were evaluated for bacteria and oomycetes.
      • Colony counts were quantified in irrigation water and single species cultures.
      • Petrifilm plates did not successfully culture oomycetes.
      • However, the Petrifilm was an effective method to quantify density of bacteria.
      • Petrifilms provide an easy on-farm tool to monitor irrigation water quality.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.03.0130
      Published: April 8, 2016



  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY

    • Heidi Holmroos, Jukka Horppila, Sanna Laakso, Juha Niemistö and Susanna Hietanen
      Aeration-Induced Changes in Temperature and Nitrogen Dynamics in a Dimictic Lake

      Low levels of oxygen (O2) in the hypolimnion layer of lakes are harmful to benthic animals and fish; they may also adversely affect nutrient cycles. Artificial aeration is often used in lake management to counteract these problems, but the effects of aeration on nitrogen (N) cycling are not known. We studied the effects of hypolimnetic aeration on N dynamics and temperature in a eutrophic lake by comparing continuous and pulsed aeration with a nonaerated station. Aeration decreased the accumulation of NH4+–N deep in the lake (20–33 m) by supplying O2 for nitrification, which in turn provided substrate for denitrification and promoted N removal. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Continuous hypolimnetic aeration prevented NH4+ accumulation in a lake at 20–33 m depth.
      • Continuous aeration promoted denitrification by enabling nitrification.
      • Periodical aeration did not restrict temperature changes, but NH4+ was accumulated.
      • Denitrification rate decreased during aeration pauses.
      • Benthic N removal in a lake can be enhanced via hypolimnetic aeration.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0455
      Published: April 29, 2016



    • Mats Larsbo, Maria Sandin, Nick Jarvis, Ararso Etana and Jenny Kreuger
      Surface Runoff of Pesticides from a Clay Loam Field in Sweden

      Pesticides stored at or close to the soil surface after field application can be mobilized and transported off the field when surface runoff occurs. The objective of our study was to quantify the potential pesticide losses in surface runoff from a conventionally managed agricultural field in a Swedish climate. This was achieved by measuring surface runoff volumes and concentrations in runoff of six spring-applied pesticides and autumn-applied glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Measurements were performed for 3 yr both during the growing seasons and during intervening winter snowmelt periods on a clay loam field close to Uppsala. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Pesticide concentrations often exceeded Swedish water quality standards.
      • All of the applied pesticides were found in samples taken during snowmelt.
      • Total pesticide losses were small due to small surface runoff volumes.
      • Temporal changes in hydraulic properties affected losses in surface runoff.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0528
      Published: April 22, 2016



    • Luying Wang, Qingyou Liu, Kai Zheng and Heping Li
      Assessing the Influence of Calcium Fluoride on Pyrite Electrochemical Dissolution and Mine Drainage pH

      We investigated the influence of dissolved calcium fluoride, CaF2(aq), on the electrochemical dissolution of pyrite and the corresponding environmental effects on acid mine drainage (AMD). The experimental results showed that CaF2(aq) promotes pyrite electrochemical dissolution. When the CaF2(aq) concentration increased from 0 to 10 mg L–1 up to saturation, the promoting efficiency was 15.80 and 57.25%, respectively. The reason for this phenomenon is that F- and Fe2+ form FeF2, and at a higher scan potential, F and Fe3+ form the ion complex FeF63−. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Results showed CaF2 could effectively promote pyrite electrochemical dissolution.
      • F– and Fe2+ form FeF2, and at a higher scan potential, F– and Fe3+ form the complex FeF63–.
      • Iron fluorine complex formation decreases charge transfer resistance at the double layer.
      • Strong penetration of F–into the double layer decreases the resistance at the cover layer.
      • AMD was significantly aggravated because CaF2 promoted the pyrite dissolution.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0275
      Published: April 22, 2016



  • VADOSE ZONE PROCESSES AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT

    • Gurpal S. Toor and J. Thomas Sims
      Phosphorus Leaching in Soils Amended with Animal Manures Generated from Modified Diets

      New dietary modifications for dairy (reducing P content in feed) and poultry (addition of feed additives such as phytase) aim to reduce P excretion in manures. Our objective was to investigate if dietary changes were effective at reducing P leaching loss on land application of manures. We used 54 undisturbed lysimeters (30 cm diameter, 50 cm deep) collected from three typical mid-Atlantic soils. Lysimeters received 85 kg total P ha−1 from fertilizer (superphosphate), dairy manures generated from low- or high-P diets, or broiler litters generated from normal diet or reduced P- and phytase-amended diets. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Dissolved unreactive P was the major form leached from the mid-Atlantic soils.
      • Existence of preferential flow pathways in soils caused greater P leaching.
      • Soil and manure characteristics controlled P leaching from soils.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0542
      Published: April 22, 2016



  • WASTE MANAGEMENT

    • Dandan Song, Shengkang Liang, Lele Yan, Yujun Shang and Xiuli Wang
      Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid–Sophorolipid Biosurfactants

      Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (Km). Rughbin’s model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL–SL micelles. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Micellization behaviors of rhamnolipid–sophorolipid systems (RL–SL) were investigated.
      • Mixed RL–SL systems generally enhanced the water solubility of PAHs.
      • Mixed biosurfactant systems might be used for surfactant-enhanced PAH remediation.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.08.0443
      Published: April 29, 2016



    • Kenneth A. Barbarick, James A. Ippolito and Jacob P. McDaniel
      Path Analyses of Grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a Biosolids-Amended Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem

      Land application of biosolids is an effective means of recycling plant nutrients and is the primary method of biosolids reuse endorsed by the USEPA. One issue concerning biosolids application is the extent of the contribution of biosolids-borne plant nutrients to the overall crop concentration and uptake or removal of these nutrients. We studied the effects of biosolids application on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni concentrations and uptake (removal) at two dryland agroecosystem sites from 1993 to 2014. We hypothesized that biosolids would have the greatest impact on wheat grain and uptake compared with ammonium bicarbonate–diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (AB-DTPA)-extractable nutrient levels, soil pH, or soil organic C concentrations. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Path analysis identifies nutrient source in biosolids-amended winter wheat.
      • Cumulative biosolids applications affect P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni grain removal.
      • Cumulative biosolids applications did not affect P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni grain concentrations.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0303
      Published: April 8, 2016



    • Peter L. O’Brien, Thomas M. DeSutter, Francis X. M. Casey, Nathan E. Derby and Abbey F. Wick
      Implications of Using Thermal Desorption to Remediate Contaminated Agricultural Soil: Physical Characteristics and Hydraulic Processes

      Given the recent increase in crude oil production in regions with predominantly agricultural economies, the determination of methods that remediate oil contamination and allow for the land to return to crop production is increasingly relevant. Ex situ thermal desorption (TD) is a technique used to remediate crude oil pollution that allows for reuse of treated soil, but the properties of that treated soil are unknown. The objectives of this research were to characterize TD-treated soil and to describe implications in using TD to remediate agricultural soil. Native, noncontaminated topsoil and subsoil adjacent to an active remediation site were separately subjected to TD treatment at 350°C. (continued)

      Core Ideas:
      • Soil from a crude oil spill site was remediated using thermal desorption.
      • Thermal desorption treatment reduced SOC, SSA, and aggregation.
      • Changes to physical properties caused increased Ks and decreased water retention.
      • Soils subjected to TD may be less effective in crop production than native soil.
      • Adding organic amendments to TD-treated soil may ameliorate some effects of TD.

      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.12.0607
      Published: April 8, 2016



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