In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks (FS) as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. The objectives of this study were to determine if FS with or without the addition of a flocculation agent to the FS system can significantly remove (i) suspended clay and silt particulates, (ii) ammonium nitrogen (NH4–N) and nitrate-nitrite nitrogen (NO3–N), (iii) fecal bacteria, (iv) heavy metals, and (v) petroleum hydrocarbons from storm water runoff. Five separate (I–V) 30-min simulated rainfall-runoff events were applied to soil chambers packed with Hartboro silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic fluvaquentic Endoaquepts) or a 6-mm concrete veneer on a 10% slope, and all runoff was collected and analyzed for hydraulic flow rate, volume, pollutant concentrations, pollutant loads, and removal efficiencies. In corresponding experiments, runoff was analyzed for (i) size of sediment particles, (ii) NH4–N and NO3–N, (iii) total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli, (iv) Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, and (v) gasoline, diesel, and motor oil, respectively. Results showed that: (i) FS removed 65% and 66% of clay (<0.002 mm) and silt (0.002–0.05 mm), respectively; (ii) FS removed 17%, and 11% of NH4–N and NO3–N, respectively and when NitroLoxx was added to the FS, removal of NH4–N load increased to 27%; (iii) total coliform and E. coli removal efficiencies were 74 and 75%, respectively, however, when BactoLoxx was added, removal efficiency increased to 87 and 99% for TC and 89 and 99% for E. coli, respectively; (iv) FS removal efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 37 to 72%, and, when MetalLoxx was added, removal efficiency ranged from 47 to 74%; and (v) FS removal efficiency for the three petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 43 to 99% and the addition of PetroLoxx increased motor oil and gasoline removal efficiency in the FS system.