The USEPA emission factor (AP-42) of fugitive road dust (FRD) is widely used in establishing emission inventories. However, road silt loading sampling for AP-42 is expensive, time consuming, and dangerous. Therefore, a new method for establishing emission inventories based on road dust-fall (DFr) monitors is described. Between January 2006 and December 2010, DFr was monitored at 40 sites (80 samples), and background dust fall (DFb) was monitored at 14 sites in the Beijing metropolitan area. Also during this period, 58 samples of road silt loadings were taken and used in the AP-42 emission factor equation to calculate FRD with particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter [FRD(PM10)] emission from the roads. Simultaneous measurement of FRD(PM10) emissions calculated by AP-42 and ΔDF (i.e., the difference between the DFr and DFb) measured using gauges showed that the FRD(PM10) emission for road dust was proportional to the ΔDF (r2 = 0.92). The FRD(PM10) emission (kg km−1 × 30 d) was calculated using the monitored ΔDF (t km−2 × 30 d) by the formulation FRD(PM10) = 278.3 × ΔDF − 1151.2. The ΔDF showed a general decline from 2006 to 2010. In particular, there was a sharp decline in August, September, and October 2008 due to strict dust controls enforced during the 2008 Olympic Games. Although there was a small increase in ΔDF after the Games, by the end of 2010 values were still lower than those before the Games. Using the 2006 ΔDF value as a benchmark, ΔDF values declined by 24.7, 33.0, 38.3, and 31.4% in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Based on using AP-42 calculations from silt loading and traffic information in 2007, the FRD(PM10) emission distribution in the Beijing metropolitan area was mapped, and there were 2.05 × 104 tons of FRD(PM10) emitted in 2007. The FRD(PM10) from 2006 to 2010 was calculated by the ΔDF values.