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Volume 45 Issue 2, March-April 2016



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  • SPECIAL SECTION: ANTIBIOTICS IN AGROECOSYSTEMS: STATE OF THE SCIENCE up

    • Alison M. Franklin, Diana S. Aga, Eddie Cytryn, Lisa M. Durso, Jean E. McLain, Amy Pruden, Marilyn C. Roberts, Michael J. Rothrock, Daniel D. Snow, John E. Watson and Robert S. Dungan
      Antibiotics in Agroecosystems: Introduction to the Special Section
      Core Ideas
      • Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an emerging threat to human, animal, and ecological health.
      • Agroecosystems often contain elevated levels of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.
      • The impact of antibiotics at low concentrations in the environment is not fully known.
      • Research is needed to understand the spread of antibiotic resistance within and beyond agroecosystems.
      • Standardized approaches will help bring a consensus among scientific community datasets.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2016.01.0023
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:377-393
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    • Jessica Williams-Nguyen, J. Brett Sallach, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Alistair B. Boxall, Lisa M. Durso, Jean E. McLain, Randall S. Singer, Daniel D. Snow and Julie L. Zilles
      Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Agroecosystems: State of the Science
      Core Ideas
      • We propose a simple causal model of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems.
      • Lack of data on human exposure to resistance in the environment hinders risk assessment.
      • The contribution of horizontal gene transfer to resistance in the environment requires research.
      • Antibiotics in environment may mediate effect of antibiotic use on resistance in the environment.
      • Effects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance on natural and agricultural ecosystems are largely unknown.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0336
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:394-406
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    • Diana S. Aga, Melissa Lenczewski, Daniel Snow, Johanna Muurinen, J. Brett Sallach and Joshua S. Wallace
      Challenges in the Measurement of Antibiotics and in Evaluating Their Impacts in Agroecosystems: A Critical Review
      Core Ideas
      • Analysis of antibiotics in the agroecosystem is challenged by matrix effects.
      • Bioreporters may be useful in measuring bioavailability of antibiotics.
      • Identification of transformation products and information on their toxicity are needed.
      • Knowledge on synergistic and antagonistic effects of antibiotic mixtures is lacking.
      • Measured and predicted environmental concentrations differ significantly.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0393
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:407-419
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    • Michael J. Rothrock, Patricia L. Keen, Kimberly L. Cook, Lisa M. Durso, Alison M. Franklin and Robert S. Dungan
      How Should We Be Determining Background and Baseline Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Agroecosystem Research?
      Core Ideas
      • Antibiotic resistance studies in agroecosystems are needed to understand potential health risks.
      • Improved baseline and background data for AR in the environment are necessary.
      • Standard terminology and criteria are critical to study AR in agroecosystems.
      • New decision-making tool is designed to determine the most relevant AR targets.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0327
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:420-431
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    • Jean E. McLain, Eddie Cytryn, Lisa M. Durso and Suzanne Young
      Culture-based Methods for Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Agroecosystems: Advantages, Challenges, and Gaps in Knowledge
      Core Ideas
      • Culture-based methods provide reproducible results with minimal error.
      • Culture-based methods enable isolation of specific target organisms.
      • These methods often involve screening at a range of antibiotic concentrations.
      • Culture-based methods provide key data on multiple antibiotic resistance.
      • Both molecular and cultivation methods are needed for full insight into resistomes.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0317
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:432-440
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    • Elizabeth Luby, A. Mark Ibekwe, Julie Zilles and Amy Pruden
      Molecular Methods for Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance in Agricultural Ecosystems: Prospects and Challenges
      Core Ideas
      • Molecular tools target DNA, RNA, or proteins as markers of antibiotic resistance.
      • Molecular tools test for antibiotic resistance potential, not its expression or host.
      • Molecular methods and gene targets must be consistent with research questions.
      • Experimental design, controls, and statistics are important in agroecosystem studies.
      • Need to link molecular data from agroecosystems with human health risk end points.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0367
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:441-453
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    • Lisa M. Durso, David A. Wedin, John E. Gilley, Daniel N. Miller and David B. Marx
      Assessment of Selected Antibiotic Resistances in Ungrazed Native Nebraska Prairie Soils
      Core Ideas
      • Native Nebraska prairie soils have measurable amounts of antibiotic resistance.
      • Phenotypic and genotypic measures of resistance vary within and between sites.
      • Ungrazed prairie soils can provide background data on resistance in Nebraskan soils.
      • Assessments of resistance on farms should include the collection of background data.
      • Background resistance should be considered when measuring impact of management.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0280
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:454-462
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    • Crystal A. McCall, Elizabeth Bent, Tue S. Jørgensen, Kari E. Dunfield and Marc B. Habash
      Metagenomic Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance Genes Associated with Liquid and Dewatered Biosolids
      Core Ideas
      • The biosolid plasmid-enriched metagenomes contained a wide variety of antibiotic resistance genes.
      • Nonculture based methods were used to concentrate plasmids.
      • Mobile genetic and circular elements were identified in the biosolid plasmid-enriched metagenome.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0255
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:463-470
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    • Joshua S. Wallace and Diana S. Aga
      Enhancing Extraction and Detection of Veterinary Antibiotics in Solid and Liquid Fractions of Manure
      Core Ideas
      • Efficient extraction and sensitive analysis of antibiotics in liquid and solid fractions of manures.
      • Solid–liquid separation allows for targeting of mobile and immobile antibiotic residues.
      • Analytical advances result in improved analyte detection.
      • Insights into analyte chemistry are critical in optimizing analyte extraction and analysis.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0246
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:471-479
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    • Sarah C. Hafner, Thomas Harter and Sanjai J. Parikh
      Evaluation of Monensin Transport to Shallow Groundwater after Irrigation with Dairy Lagoon Water
      Core Ideas
      • Changes in groundwater chemistry can be observed within days of field irrigation.
      • Shallow aquifer with sandy soil presents a vulnerable site for contaminant transport.
      • Monensin is not rapidly transported to groundwater after a single irrigation event.
      • Leakage from waste storage systems results in monensin groundwater contamination
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0251
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:480-487
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    • Matti Ruuskanen, Johanna Muurinen, Axel Meierjohan, Katariina Pärnänen, Manu Tamminen, Christina Lyra, Leif Kronberg and Marko Virta
      Fertilizing with Animal Manure Disseminates Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Farm Environment
      Core Ideas
      • Resistance is disseminated from Finnish farms, although the use of antibiotics is limited.
      • The antibiotic resistance genes were more abundant in stored than in fresh manure.
      • Genes encoding carbapenemase were found despite the lack of on-farm use.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0250
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:488-493
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    • Srinivas Sura, Dani Degenhardt, Allan J. Cessna, Francis J. Larney, Andrew F. Olson and Tim A. McAllister
      Transport of Three Antimicrobials in Runoff from Windrows of Composting Beef Cattle Manure
      Core Ideas
      • Antimicrobials were detected in composting windrow manure.
      • Runoff from composting windrows contained antimicrobials.
      • Order of transport in runoff: tylosin > sulfamethazine > chlortetracycline.
      • Antimicrobials dissipated during windrow composting.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0254
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:494-502
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    • Inoka D. Amarakoon, Francis Zvomuya, Srinivas Sura, Francis J. Larney, Allan J. Cessna, Shanwei Xu and Tim A. McAllister
      Dissipation of Antimicrobials in Feedlot Manure Compost after Oral Administration versus Fortification after Excretion
      Core Ideas
      • Composting enhances biodegradation of antimicrobials in manure.
      • Antimicrobial dissipation follows first-order kinetics.
      • Dissipation rate depends on whether the antimicrobial is excreted or fortified.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0408
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:503-510
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    • Stephanie B. Kulesza, Rory O. Maguire, Kang Xia, Julia Cushman, Katharine Knowlton and Partha Ray
      Manure Injection Affects the Fate of Pirlimycin in Surface Runoff and Soil
      Core Ideas
      • Dairy manure injection reduced pirlimycin in runoff compared with surface application.
      • The majority of pirlimycin lost in runoff was dissolved in runoff water.
      • Dairy manure injection resulted in a slower transformation rate of pirlimycin.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0266
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:511-518
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    • Cheng-Hua Liu, Ya-Hui Chuang, Hui Li, Brian J. Teppen, Stephen A. Boyd, Javier M. Gonzalez, Cliff T. Johnston, Johannes Lehmann and Wei Zhang
      Sorption of Lincomycin by Manure-Derived Biochars from Water
      Core Ideas
      • Manure-derived biochars had lasting sequestration potential to lincomycin.
      • Lincomycin sorption on manure-derived biochars followed two-phase kinetics.
      • Long-term lincomycin sorption was controlled by slow diffusion into biochar pores.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0320
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:519-527
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    • Shanwei Xu, Srinivas Sura, Rahat Zaheer, George Wang, Alanna Smith, Shaun Cook, Andrew F. Olson, Allan J. Cessna, Francis J. Larney and Tim A. McAllister
      Dissipation of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Composted and Stockpiled Beef Cattle Manure
      Core Ideas
      • Dissipation of antimicrobial resistance genes was higher in composted than stockpiled manure.
      • Inclusion of antimicrobials in diet did not increase most anti-microbial resistance genes in manure.
      • Antimicrobials did alter copy numbers of bacteria in manure.
      • Measured genes declined from 0.5 to 3 log in stockpiled and composted manure.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.03.0146
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:528-536
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    • Caitlin P. Youngquist, Shannon M. Mitchell and Craig G. Cogger
      Fate of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance during Digestion and Composting: A Review
      Core Ideas
      • Anaerobic digestion temperature affects the removal efficiency of antibiotics.
      • Many antibiotics degrade during composting; half-lives typically range from 0.9 to 16 d.
      • Some ARB and ARGs persist during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.
      • Thermophilic treatments are more effective at decreasing ARB and ARGs.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0256
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:537-545
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    • Alison M. Franklin, Clinton F. Williams, Danielle M. Andrews, Emily E. Woodward and John E. Watson
      Uptake of Three Antibiotics and an Antiepileptic Drug by Wheat Crops Spray Irrigated with Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent
      Core Ideas
      • Wheat plants irrigated with WWTP effluent can take up certain pharmaceuticals.
      • Wheat plant uptake of pharmaceuticals varies based on chemical characteristics.
      • Pharmaceutical uptake in crops raises questions about low-level exposures in humans.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0257
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:546-554
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    • Kuldip Kumar and Satish C. Gupta
      A Framework to Predict Uptake of Trace Organic Compounds by Plants
      Core Ideas
      • The “Rule of 3” is an important tool to predict uptake by crops.
      • Organic chemicals with certain chemical properties may not be taken up by crops.
      • Organic compounds following the “Rule of 3” may be better candidates for phytoremediation.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0261
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:555-564
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    • Rebecca M. Nordenholt, Keith W. Goyne, Robert J. Kremer, Chung-Ho Lin, Robert N. Lerch and Kristen S. Veum
      Veterinary Antibiotic Effects on Atrazine Degradation and Soil Microorganisms
      Core Ideas
      • Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) did not affect atrazine degradation kinetics.
      • Atrazine mineralization was reduced 25 to 50% in soil treated with VAs.
      • VAs had limited effect on the activities of particular soil microbial enzymes.
      • Soil microbial community structure was adversely altered by VAs.
      • VAs inhibit atrazine metabolite degradation due to microbial community change.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0235
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:565-575
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    • Marilyn C. Roberts and Stefan Schwarz
      Tetracycline and Phenicol Resistance Genes and Mechanisms: Importance for Agriculture, the Environment, and Humans
      Core Ideas
      • Updates resistance genes that are important in the environment, agriculture, and humans.
      • Suggests best genes to use for screening the environment.
      • Provides correct nomenclature for tetracycline and phenicol resistance genes.
      • Provides tables that will be useful to researchers.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.04.0207
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:576-592
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    • Michael J. Rothrock, Kelli L. Hiett, Jean Y. Guard and Charlene R. Jackson
      Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Major Zoonotic Pathogens from All-Natural, Antibiotic-Free, Pasture-Raised Broiler Flocks in the Southeastern United States
      Core Ideas
      • Determining background levels of AR in antibiotic-free agroecosystems is essential.
      • AR within antibiotic-free broiler production is dynamic among the zoonotic pathogens.
      • Multidrug resistance was greater in Salmonella and Listeria.
      • Multidrug resistance was farm specific for Salmonella and Campylobacter.
      • E. coli was not an appropriate indicator of AR in other Gram-negative organisms, including Salmonella.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0366
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:593-603
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    • Terence R. Whitehead and Michael A. Cotta
      Examination of the Aerobic Microflora of Swine Feces and Stored Swine Manure
      Core Ideas
      • The aerobic microflora of swine feces and manure contain novel bacterial species.
      • Antibiotic-resistant aerobic bacteria are present in swine feces and manure.
      • Tetracycline resistance genes can be identified in the bacterial isolates.
      • Aerobic bacteria contribute to the total antibiotic resistance reservoirs.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0248
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:604-608
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    • Martha R. Zwonitzer, Michelle L. Soupir, Laura R. Jarboe and Douglas R. Smith
      Quantifying Attachment and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Conventional and Organic Swine Manure
      Core Ideas
      • Greater levels of attachment were found in E. coli from conventional swine systems.
      • A significant relationship exists between resistance and attachment for organic swine systems.
      • Greater resistance to 9 of 13 antibiotics was found in conventional swine system E. coli.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0245
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:609-617
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    • Murugan Subbiah, Shannon M. Mitchell and Douglas R. Call
      Not All Antibiotic Use Practices in Food-Animal Agriculture Afford the Same Risk
      Core Ideas
      • The use of antibiotics in agriculture is thought to contribute to antibiotic resistance worldwide.
      • Risk assessment should focus on the largest potential contributors to antibiotic resistance.
      • Antibiotic dose and administration practices are key variables.
      • Excreted antibiotics may play an important role, but not all antibiotics remain active in soil.
      • The use of quinolones in agriculture deserves special scrutiny.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0297
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:618-629
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  • ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS AND TRACE GASES up

    • Mindy J. Spiehs, Tami M. Brown-Brandl, David B. Parker, Daniel N. Miller, Elaine D. Berry and James E. Wells
      Ammonia, Total Reduced Sulfides, and Greenhouse Gases of Pine Chip and Corn Stover Bedding Packs
      Core Ideas
      • Producers can use bedding material to help reduce gas emissions from livestock facilities.
      • Ammonia concentrations were highest when bedding contained 20% or less pine chips.
      • Total reduced sulfides were highest when 100% pine chips were used in the bedding mixture.
      • Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by including pine chips in bedding mixtures.
      • Bedding materials of 30–40% pine and 60–70% corn may be ideal to reduce gas emissions.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0466
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:630-637
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    • Chris Pratt, Matthew Redding, Jaye Hill, Grant Brown and Maren Westermann
      Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures
      Core Ideas
      • Technologies to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions are in demand.
      • We tested the ability of clays to abate GHG emissions from soil + manure mixes.
      • To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind.
      • The clays showed strong promise to decrease N emissions by as much as 90%.
      • The clays also showed potential to boost C retention in soil + manure systems.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.11.0569
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:638-645
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  • BIOREMEDIATION AND BIODEGRADATION up

    • Brandon H. Gilroyed, Cheyenne Conrad, Xiying Hao, Tim A. McAllister, Kim Stanford and Tim Reuter
      Composting for Biocontained Cattle Mortality Disposal and Associated Greenhouse Gas and Leachate Emissions
      Core Ideas
      • Mortality composting limits environmental emission of unwanted substances tested.
      • Greenhouse gases are significantly lower with wood shaving as envelopment versus manure.
      • DNA fingerprints in soil show increased bacterial and gene diversity from compost leachate.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0314
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:646-656
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  • ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY up

    • Melissa L. Partyka, Ronald F. Bond, Jennifer A. Chase, Luana Kiger and Edward R. Atwill
      Multistate Evaluation of Microbial Water and Sediment Quality from Agricultural Recovery Basins
      Core Ideas
      • Pathogen occurrence in on-farm recovery basins varies by region and irrigation water source.
      • Wildlife, domestic animals, and vegetation were not correlated with pathogen occurrence.
      • Allowing captured sediments to dry may greatly reduce microbial load before reapplication.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0323
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:657-665
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  • ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS, MODULES, AND DATASETS up

    • Michael A. Jahne, Shane W. Rogers, Thomas M. Holsen, Stefan J. Grimberg, Ivan P. Ramler and Seungo Kim
      Bioaerosol Deposition to Food Crops near Manure Application: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment
      Core Ideas
      • Leafy green crops may be contaminated by bioaerosols from nearby manure sources.
      • Estimates of deposition and associated risk have not previously been established.
      • Field-based measurements, models, and QMRA were used to assess these risks.
      • Median and peak risks were 1:6700 and 1:18 at 100 m, 1:92,000 and 1:1200 at 1000 m.
      • A 160-m setback distance is recommended based on a 1:10,000 acceptable median risk.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.04.0187
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:666-674
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    • Ao Li, Benjamin D. Duval, Robert Anex, Peter Scharf, Jenette M. Ashtekar, Phillip R. Owens and Charles Ellis
      A Case Study of Environmental Benefits of Sensor-Based Nitrogen Application in Corn
      Core Ideas
      • Efficient use and application of N fertilizer likely reduces environmentally harmful N losses.
      • Sensor-based N fertilization has the promise of maximizing yield while minimizing N loss.
      • Sensor-based fertilization maintained corn yield and reduced losses of NO3− and N2O.
      • Sensor-based fertilization yielded life cycle GWP, acidification, and eutrophication benefits.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0404
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:675-683
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  • HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT up

    • Jordan G. Hamilton, Richard E. Farrell, Ning Chen, Renfei Feng, Joel Reid and Derek Peak
      Characterizing Zinc Speciation in Soils from a Smelter-Affected Boreal Forest Ecosystem
      Core Ideas
      • Zinc was found to be a mixture of franklinite, aqueous Zn, and adsorption species.
      • Absence or presence of an invasive grass species influences Zn speciation and concentrations.
      • The presence of invasive grasses allows tetrahedrally coordinated Zn adsorption species.
      • Zinc–Al hydroxy interlayer material shows the potential to reduce Zn phytotoxicity.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.03.0145
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:684-692
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  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE ENVIRONMENT up

    • Carla Patrícia Silva, Diana L. D. Lima, Marta Otero and Valdemar I. Esteves
      Photosensitized Degradation of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol: Role of Humic Substances Fractions
      Core Ideas
      • XAD-4 and FAs were the HSs fractions responsible for higher photodegradation.
      • t1/2 (EE2) decreased from 46 h (ultrapure water) to 2.1–6.4 h (with humic substances).
      • t1/2 (E2) decreased from 94 h (ultrapure water) to 5.7–2.9 h (with humic substances).
      • The highest photodegradation was obtained in the estuarine sample.
      • 1O2 and OH· had a minor participation on the photodegradation in the matrix studied.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0396
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:693-700
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  • PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS up

    • Bart G. H. Timmermans and Nick van Eekeren
      Phytoextraction of Soil Phosphorus by Potassium-Fertilized Grass-Clover Swards
      Core Ideas
      • Intensively harvested grass-clover is an effective tool to reduce excess P from topsoil.
      • On sandy soils a potassium source is necessary for this technique to be successful.
      • Soil P phytoextraction (“mining”) can reduce P enough for species-rich grassland development.
      • Soil balances suggest reduced leaching of P, declining the P load to surface water.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.08.0422
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:701-708
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  • SURFACE WATER QUALITY up

    • Yamen M. Hoque, Shivam Tripathi, Mohamed M. Hantush and Rao S. Govindaraju
      Aggregate Measures of Watershed Health from Reconstructed Water Quality Data with Uncertainty
      Core Ideas
      • Multidimensional WQ data were aggregated into one-dimensional time series.
      • Aggregate data retained information in original data sets; data uncertainty was quantified.
      • Risk-based indices have potential to serve as watershed health assessment tools.
      • Indices calculated from aggregate data and uncertainty showed overall watershed health.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.10.0508
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:709-719
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  • URBAN POLLUTANTS up

    • Lisbeth L. Johannsen, Karin Cederkvist, Peter E. Holm and Simon T. Ingvertsen
      Aluminum Oxide–Coated Sand for Improved Treatment of Urban Stormwater
      Core Ideas
      • Methodology to coat sand with Al oxides for use in engineered soils was developed.
      • We successfully upscaled coating method to large-scale production.
      • Coating stable toward mechanical stress, NaCl, pH, and redox sensitivity.
      • Coating with Al oxides increased sorption capacity toward DOC significantly.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.06.0287
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:720-727
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  • WASTE MANAGEMENT up

    • Shital Poudyal, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell and Thijs Kelleners
      Coal-Bed Methane Water Effects on Dill and Its Essential Oils
      Core Ideas
      • Coal-bed methane production results in coproduced waste water, also called CBMW.
      • Sustainable disposal of CBMW is a challenge.
      • We determined the effect CBMW on soil and on the biomass and essential oil composition of dill.
      • CBMW increased dill ether but reduced carvone in the oil; biomass and oil yields were not affected.
      • CBMW increased electrical conductivity and Na but not pH or cation exchange capacity.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.05.0215
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:728-733
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    • Ajaykannan Ilango and Olivier Lefebvre
      Characterizing Properties of Biochar Produced from Simulated Human Feces and Its Potential Applications
      Core Ideas
      • Biochar was produced successfully from simulated human feces.
      • Maximum energy densification and improved combustion properties achieved at 400°C.
      • Biochar aromatization increased with temperature between 400 and 600°C.
      • Black carbon was obtained at 800°C.
      • Applications are soil amendment (low T), carbon sequestration, and fuel (high T).
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0397
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:734-742
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  • WETLANDS AND AQUATIC PROCESSES up

    • D. E. Fenstermacher, M. C. Rabenhorst, M. W. Lang, G. W. McCarty and B. A. Needelman
      Carbon in Natural, Cultivated, and Restored Depressional Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain
      Core Ideas
      • Drainage and conversion of depressional wetlands to agricultural land lower soil C stocks.
      • In RSWs, C levels did not differ significantly from those in prior converted cropland.
      • The scraping/excavation approach to restore wetlands appears to lower C stocks in RSWs.
      • The scraping/excavation technique causes soil compaction, affecting C sequestration rates.
      • Alternate restoration techniques should be used to help assure function of restored wetlands.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.04.0186
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:743-750
      [ Abstract ][ Full Text ] [ PDF ] [ Tables Only ] [ Figures Only ] [ Get Permissions ]
  • SHORT COMMUNICATIONS up

    • Sarah M. Collier, Andrew P. Dean, Lawrence G. Oates, Matthew D. Ruark and Randall D. Jackson
      Does Plant Biomass Manipulation in Static Chambers Affect Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Soils?
      Core Ideas
      • Biomass manipulation infrequently affects nitrous oxide emission.
      • Effects of biomass manipulation on emissions may vary by system.
      • Effects of biomass manipulation on emissions do not appear to intensify with time.
      • Considered collectively, minor treatment effects may amount to significant trends.
      • Biomass presence has a small but significant effect on volume and flux estimation.
      doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0377
      Journal of Environmental Quality 2016 45:751-756
      [ Abstract ][ Full Text ] [ PDF ] [ Tables Only ] [ Figures Only ] [ Get Permissions ]
      unlockOPEN ACCESS
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