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The main purpose and key elements of the four StockPlan decision support tools (DST) for cattle, sheep meat, and wool producers.

 
DST Main purpose Key elements
Drought Pack Financial consequences of management and feeding strategies. • Monthly planning period.
• Calculates nutritional requirements.
• Energy based model.
• Estimates break-even prices for classes of stock.
Feed Sell Agist (FSA) Pack Economic analysis of the decision to either feed, sell, or agist. • Can specify up to four different drought lengths.
• Provides “cash cost” and “bottom line” estimates.
• Re-establishment costs can be entered.
• Expected costs are based on the probability of an event occurring.
• Provides the opportunity to analyze the sensitivity of results.
ImPack Explores the consequences of a drought-forced reduction (i.e., feeding and restocking) through analyzing the breeding, selling, and buying strategies to re-build stock numbers to pre-drought levels. • Analysis of the herd/flock age structure, animal production, and cash flow.
• Results provided on an annual basis over a 6- or 11-year period.
• Comparative analysis between original herd or flock and alternative methods of recovery.
• Comparative analysis of management options.
PlanPack Develops a drought plan. • Progressively steps through the development of a drought plan.



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Description of terms used for calculating the amount of feed required in DroughtPack.

 
Item Description Units
CattleGainReq The amount of net energy available for gain MJ d–1
CattleMainReq Fasting metabolism per unit of metabolic weight (i.e., fasting heat production) MJ kg–0.75 d–1
CPAC Cattle physiology within animal class n
DMmaint Dry matter maintenance; amount of DM feed for maintenance g DM d–1 for sheep
kg DM d–1 for cattle
DMPer Dry matter percentage of feed %
DMreq Dry matter requirement; amount of DM feed for gain g DM d–1 for sheep
kg DM d–1 for cattle
EffOfConv Efficiency of use of ME for gain n
LW Liveweight kg
LWG Liveweight gain g d–1 for sheep
kg d–1 for cattle
MainEff Maintenance efficiency MJ d–1
M/D ME concentration of the feed MJ ME kg–1 DM
MEgain ME gain adjusted for the efficiency of use MJ d–1
SheepGainReq The amount of net energy available for gain MJ d–1
SheepMainReq Fasting metabolism per unit of metabolic weight (i.e., fasting heat production) MJ kg–0.75 day–1
SheepMEgain ME intake necessary for gain MJ d–1
SPAC Sheep physiology within animal class n
Total As-fed As-fed basis g DM d–1 for sheep
kg DM d–1 for cattle
TotalDMReq Total DM feed required g DM d–1 for sheep
kg DM d–1 for cattle



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Values for sheep physiology within animal class (SPAC) and cattle physiology within animal class (CPAC) used in DroughtPack.

 
SPAC CPAC
Animal class Value Animal class Value
Dry ewe 1.00 Dry cow 1.00
Pregnant ewe 1.33 Pregnant cow 1.30
Early lactating ewe 2.50 Early lactating cow 1.75
Late lactating ewe 1.60 Late lactating cow 1.63
Weaned† lamb 1.00 Weaned1 calf 1.00
Hogget 1.00 Young cattle 1.00
Wether 1.00 Steer 1.00
Ram 1.00 Bull 1.00
Stock not suckling.



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Description of terms used for calculating the cow breeding rate and age distribution in ImPack.

 
Item Description Units
AdultCowsSold Adult cows sold n
CAC Cow adult culls %
CAD Cow adult death %
CAgeDist Number of cows distributed across ages n
CalvesReq Calves required n
CalvesWeaned Calves weaned† n
CBR Cow breeding rate n
CCR Cow calving rate n
CCulls Cow culls n
CDeaths Number of cow deaths n
CGR Cow gestation rate n
CowDrysSold Number of dry cows sold n
CPR Cow pregnancy rate n
CFRC Cow failed to rear a calf %
CW Cow weaning %
CWD Cow weaning death %
HerdPer Herd percentage %
MaxAJ Maximum age at joining years
TCM Total number of cows mated n
TotDryCows Total number of dry cows n
TotDryCowsSold Total number of dry cows sold n
Stock not suckling.



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Description of terms used for calculating the ewe and wether breeding rate and age distribution in ImPack.

 
Item Description Units
AdultEwesSold Adult ewes sold n
EAC Ewe adult culls %
EAD Ewe adult death %
EAgeDist Number of ewes distributed across ages n
EBR Ewe breeding rate n
ECulls Ewe culls n
EDeaths Number of ewe deaths n
EFRL Ewe failed to rear a lamb %
EGR Ewe gestation rate n
ELR Ewe lambing rate n
EPR Ewe pregnancy rate n
EW Ewe lamb weaning %
EWD Ewe lamb weaning death %
EweDrysSold Number of dry ewes sold n
LambReq Lambs required n
LambsWeaned Lambs weaned† n
MaxAJ Maximum age at joining years
MaxSA Maximum shearing ages years
ReplacementWReq Number of replacement wethers required n
TEJ Total number of ewes joined n
TotEwesForSale Total number of ewes for sale n
WAC Wether adult cull %
TW Total number of wethers in the flock n
WAD Wether adult death %
WAgeDist Number of wethers distribution across ages n
WBR Wether breeding rate n
WCullForAgeSold Number of wethers culled for age sold n
WOtherCullsSold Number of other culls sold n
Stock not suckling.



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Inputs and outputs of a Drought Pack analysis of calculating a break-even price for dry and pregnant ewes (Example 1) and for weaned (stock not suckling) lambs (Example 2) using Eq. [1] to [13] for a sheep enterprise based on value of stock, cost of feed, and interest forgone.

 
Items Range Example 1
Example 2
Value Value
Inputs
Value† dry ewe on 1 March, AU$ ewe–1 80.00
Value pregnant ewe on 1 March, AU$ ewe–1 90.00
Value weaned lamb on 1 March, AU$ lamb–1 60
Costs head–1, AU$ 2.00 0.70
Planning months‡ 1 to 12 5 5
Live weight§, kg 10 to 100 50 21, 23, 25, 27, 29
Live weight gain, g d–1 –50 to 350 0 50
Feed available: oats
DM, % 1 to 100 89 89
Energy, MJ ME kg–1 12.0 12.0
Cost t–1, AU$ 190 190
Feeding out cost t–1, AU$ 20 20
Supplement¶, % 100 100
Outputs
Animal class: dry ewes
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ ewe–1 3.05
Interest on feeding#, AU$ ewe–1 0.62
As-fed, kg DM d–1 0.65
Cost of feeding††, AU$ ewe–1 16.38
Break-Even Price‡‡, AU$ ewe–1 102.05
Animal class: pregnant ewes
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ ewe–1 3.43
Interest on feeding#, AU$ ewe–1 0.82
As-fed, kg DM d–1 0.87
Cost of feeding††, AU$ ewe–1 21.91
Break-Even Price‡‡, AU$ ewe–1 118.16
Animal class: weaned lamb
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ lamb–1 2.28
Interest on feeding#, AU$ lamb–1 0.62
As-fed, kg DM d–1 0.47, 0.49, 0.51, 0.54, 0.56
Cost of feeding††, AU$ lamb–1 16.19
Break-Even Price‡‡, AU$ lamb–1 79.79
Value of ewe and lambs as at 2012 prices.
Inital month was March.
§Ewe was dry from March to June and pregnant in July; live weight was set at the same weight across all months for ewes.
Only oats was fed as a supplement.
#Interest on money borrowed and invested 9 and 4%, respectively.
††Total cost of feeding (cost of feed + cost of feeding out) across the planning period (for dry ewe at end of June = 4 × 30 × (0.65 × 0.19 + 0.65 × 0.02); for pregnant ewe at end of July 4 × 30 × (0.65 × 0.19 + 0.65 × 0.02) + 30 × (0.87 × 0.19 + 0.87 × 0.02).
‡‡Break-even price = value + costs per head + interest forgone on sale + interest on feeding + cost of feeding. Note: differences between Drought Pack output and actual calculations in Excel exist due to rounding errors.



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Inputs and outputs of a Drought Pack analysis of calculating a break-even price for dry and pregnant cows (Example 1) and for weaned (stock not suckling) calves (Example 2) using Eq. [1] to [13] for a cattle enterprise based on value of stock, cost of feed, and interest forgone.

 
Items Range Example 1
Example 2
Value Value
Inputs
Value† dry cow on 1 Mar, AU$/cow 650.00
Value pregnant cow on 1 Mar, AU$/cow 650.00
Value weaned calf on 1 Mar, AU$/calf 470
Costs/head, AU$ 0 10.00
Planning months‡ 1 to 12 5 5
Live weight§, kg 5 to 700 480 230, 248, 266, 284, 302
Live weight gain, kg d–1 –1.0 to 2.0 0 0.60
Feed available: oats
DM, % 1 to 100 89 89
Energy, MJ ME kg–1 12.0 12.0
Cost t–1, AU$ 190 190
Feeding out cost t–1, AU$ 20 20
Supplement¶, % 80 90
Feed available: hay
DM, % 1 to 100 89 89
Energy, MJ ME kg–1 9.0 9.0
Cost t–1, AU$ 120 120
Feeding out cost t–1, AU$ 20 20
Supplement¶, % 20 10
Outputs
Animal class: dry cows
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ cow–1 24.74
Interest on feeding#, AU$ cow–1 3.53
As-fed, kg DM d–1; 3 months 5.31
Cost of feeding††, AU$ cow–1 93.67
Break-Even Price‡‡, AU$ cow–1 771.94
Animal class: pregnant cows
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ cow–1 24.74
Interest on feeding#, AU$ cow–1 6.59
As-fed, kg DM d–1; 2 months 6.91
Cost of feeding††, AU$ cow–1 174.93
Break-even price‡‡, AU$ cow–1 856.26
Animal class: weaned calf
Interest forgone on sale#, AU$ calf–1 17.89
Interest on feeding#, AU$ calf–1 5.57
As-fed††, kg DM d–1 4.40, 4.60, 4.90, 5.10, 5.30
Cost of feeding‡‡, AU$ calf–1 146.33
Break-Even Price§§, AU$ calf–1 649.79
Value of cow and calf as at 2012 prices.
Inital month was March.
§Cow was dry from March to May and pregnant in June and July; live weight was set at the same weight across all months for cows; live weight at the beginning of the month for subsequent months in Example 2 were calculated as follows: 248, 266, 284, and 302 kg.
Supplement split between oats and hay.
#Interest on money borrowed and invested 9 and 4%, respectively.
††As-fed values calculated for each month.
‡‡Total cost of feeding (cost of feed + cost of feeding out) across the planning period (for dry ewe at end of June = 3 × 30 × [0.80 × (5.31 × 0.19) + 0.20 × (5.31 × 0.12) + 5.31 × 0.02]; for pregnant cow at end of July 3 × 30 × [0.80 × (5.31 × 0.19) + 0.20 × (5.31 × 0.12) + 5.31 × 0.02] + 2 × 30 × [0.80 × (6.91 × 0.19) + 0.20 × (6.91 × 0.12) + 6.91 × 0.02].
§§Break-even price = value + costs per head + interest forgone on sale + interest on feeding + cost of feeding. Note: differences between Drought Pack output and actual calculations in Excel exist due to rounding errors.



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Expected values† of feed, sell, or agist for the associated feed costs based on user determined probabilities of a drought ending within a specified number of weeks for short, medium, long, or worst case scenarios.

 
Drought ending within Probability Feed Sell Agist
%
8 weeks 85 $23,993 $7,044 $17,543
16 weeks 5 $49,059 $9,520 $16,073
24 weeks 5 $78,387 $13,491 $20,997
40 weeks 5 $141,294 $16,922 $30,872
Expected value 100 $33,831 $7,984 $18,308
The weighted mean calculated according to the probabilities that were entered for each of the drought time periods.



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ImPack inputs of maximum age at joining the herd (MaxAJ), total number of cows mated (TCM), cow weaning (CW), cow weaning deaths (CWD), cow adult culls (CAC), cow adult deaths (CAD), cow failed to rear a calf (CFRC), and age of heifers and steers sold.

 
Item Value
Inputs
MaxAJ 10
TCM 100
CW, % 88
CWD, % 3
CAC, % 1
CAD, % 2.5
CFRC, % 83.3
Age heifers sold, years 1
Age steers sold, years 1



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ImPack outputs of cow calving rate (CCR), cow gestation rate (CGR), cow pregnancy rate (CPR), number of calves required (CalvesReq), calves weaned (stock not suckling) (CalvesWeaned), total dry cows (TotalDryCows), total dry cows sold (TotalDryCowsSold), adult cows sold (AdultCowsSold), heifers sold (HeifersSold), and steers sold (SteersSold).

 
Item Value
CCR 0.90
CGR 0.02
CPR 0.92
CalvesReq 16
CalvesWeaned 1
TotalDryCows 8
TotalDryCowsSold 7
AdultCowsSold 5
HeifersSold 27
SteersSold 42



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ImPack outputs of cow breeding rate (CBR), cow distribution (CAgeDist), and herd percentage (HerdPer) of cows joined across ages.

 
Ages CBR CAgeDist HerdPer, %
0 15.64
1 1.00 15.40 15
2 0.90 13.85 14
3 0.81 12.45 12
4 0.73 11.20 11
5 0.65 10.07 10
6 0.59 9.05 9
7 0.53 8.14 8
8 0.48 7.32 7
9 0.43 6.58 7
10 0.38 5.92 6



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ImPack inputs of maximum age at joining of flock (MaxAJ), total number of ewes joined (TEJ), ewe weaning (stock not cuckling) (EW), ewe weaning deaths (EWD), ewe adult culls (EAC), ewe adult deaths (EAD), and ewe failed to rear a calf (EFRL) percentages.

 
Item Value
TEJ 2015
MaxAJ 6
EW, % 90
EWD, % 5
EAC, % 7
EAD, % 5
EFRL,% 75



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ImPack outputs of ewe calving rate (ELR), ewe gestation rate (EGR), ewe pregnancy rate (EPR), number of lambs required (LambsReq), lambs weaned (stock not suckling) (LambsWeaned), wethers, maidens, cull for age (CFA) ewes, culled ewes (CullEwes), and dry ewes (DryEwes) for a self-replacing flock.

 
Item Value
ELR 0.98
EGR 0.02
EPR 0.95
LambsReq 517
LambsWeaned 26
Wethers 861
Maidens 861
CFA Ewes 179
CullEwes 141
DryEwes 70



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ImPack outputs of ewe breeding rate (EBR), ewe age distribution (EAgeDist), and flock percentage (Flock) of ewes joined across ages for a self-replacing flock.

 
Ages EBR EAgeDist Flock, %
0 503.62
1 1.00 491.03 24
2 0.85 414.95 21
3 0.71 350.66 17
4 0.60 296.33 15
5 0.51 250.42 12
6 0.43 211.62 11



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ImPack inputs of total number of wethers in the flock (TW), maximum shearing age (MaxSA), wether adult culls (WAC), and wether adult deaths (WAD) percentages and ImPack outputs for number of replacement wether requirements (ReplacementWReq), wether cull for age (WCullForAge), and wether other culls (WOtherCulls).

 
Item Value
Inputs
TW 1000
MaxSA 10
z 2
WAD, % 2
Outputs
ReplacementWReq 119
WCullForAge 83
WOtherCulls 20



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ImPack outputs of wether flock rate (WFR), wether age distribution (WAgeDist), and wether flock percentage (Flock) of wethers joined across ages.

 
Ages WFR WAgeDist Flock, %
0 120.55
1 1.00 119.34 12
2 0.96 114.57 12
3 0.92 109.99 11
4 0.88 105.59 11
5 0.85 101.36 10
6 0.82 97.31 10
7 0.78 93.42 9
8 0.75 89.68 9
9 0.72 86.09 9
10 0.69 82.65 8