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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 33 No. 3, p. 392-396
    Received: Dec 2, 1968
    Accepted: Jan 16, 1969

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Interactions of pH-Dependent and Permanent Charges of Clays: II. Calcium and Rb Bonding to Bentonite and Illite Suspensions—Clay-Phase Retention1

  1. G. H. Snyder,
  2. E. O. McLean and
  3. R. E. Franklin2



Panther Creek bentonite and Fithian illite suspensions were reciprocally saturated with Ca and Rb. 45Ca and 86Rb were added as tracers for Ca and Rb, respectively. Increments of H-clay were added as a source of (i) permanent charges for adsorbing Ca and Rb, and (ii) H ions for inactivation of pH-dependent charges. Fifty-milliliter volumes of clay suspensions were membrane-equilibrated with similar volumes of water. Three-component systems of bentonite, illite, and dialyzate were also equilibrated. After equilibration, assay of Ca and Rb was made in each phase.

Except where Rb fixation occurred, decreasing the Ca and increasing the Rb saturations (decreasing Ca/Rb ratio) shifted Ca from pH-dependent to permanent charges, causing increased bonding and thus increased retention of Ca by the clays. Similarly, decreased Ca/Rb ratio increased the number of Rb ions adsorbed to permanent charges causing increased percentage retention. Rubidium fixation by illite markedly increased percentage Rb retained and decreased Ca retained. When pH-dependent charges were inactivated by addition of H, retention of both cations increased and became uniform at all Ca/Rb ratios. The distribution of ions in the three-component systems was predictable from the results of the two-phase systems.

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