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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 33 No. 3, p. 473-475
    Received: Sept 17, 1968
    Accepted: Jan 24, 1969

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Interlayer Spacings of Expanded Clay Minerals at Various Swelling Pressures: An X-Ray Diffraction Technique for Direct Determination1

  1. J. D. Rhoades,
  2. R. D. Ingvalson and
  3. H. T. Stumpf2



An X-ray diffraction technique for determining interlayer spacings of expanded clay minerals at various swelling pressures has been developed. A swollen clay sample that has been equilibrated with an electrolyte solution is placed in a holder containing a porous ceramic plate, collection well, and drain outlet. The holder with sample is placed in a diffractometer mounted environmental chamber and then X-rayed at various applied air pressures. Brief results are given to demonstrate the applicability of the technique. These results show that a very stable average diffraction spacing of 45A persisted during the drying of a previously swollen Na-saturated montmorillonite until the air pressure exceeded 7.6 bars. With contraction the average diffraction spacings decreased from 45A to 19A in a quantized fashion without the appearance of intermediate spacings.

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