Influence of Steam Treatment and Fumigation of Soil on Growth and Elemental Composition of Avocado Seedlings1
- J. P. Martin,
- W. J. Farmer and
- J. O. Ervin2
Steam treatment or fumigation of Greenfield sandy loam and Fallbrook sandy loam with D-D, chloropicrin, ethylene dibromide, propylene oxide, or carbon disulfide decreased P absorption by Mexicola avocado (Persea americana) seedlings subsequently grown in the soils. The P deficiency was corrected by applications of 135 to 540 ppm P to the soils. Fumigation with D-D, chloropicrin, or ethylene dibromide caused halide injury on the older plant leaves. In general injury was more severe following D-D or chloropicrin treatment than following ethylene dibromide fumigation. Tests with KCl and KBr, however, indicated that Br- was more toxic than Cl- to the seedlings. Phosphorus additions to the soil accentuated the halide injury and relative growth retardation related to halide excesses. Leaf Mn was increased up to 10 fold by steam treatment or fumigation with D-D, chloropicrin, or carbon disulfide. Additions of P to the soil enhanced Mn absorption. Leaf Mn although attaining concentrations of > 1,000 ppm did not appear to be directly related to plant growth. The treatments exerted little effect on leaf Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cu, Zn, or Fe concentrations.Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.
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