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This article in SSSAJ

  1. Vol. 42 No. 6, p. 858-863
    Received: June 6, 1978
    Accepted: July 31, 1978

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The Applicability of Dual Gamma Scanning to Freezing Soils and the Problem of Stratification1

  1. J. B. Goit,
  2. P. H. Groenevelt,
  3. B. D. Kay and
  4. J. G. P. Loch2



The attenuation of a dual energy gamma beam provides a powerful technique for studying the swelling phenomenon associated with soil freezing. However, the development of a stratified system due to the formation of a discrete ice lens in the same plane as the gamma beam requires special attention. Erroneous results are obtained when attenuation equations which are developed for homogeneous mixtures are applied to stratified media. The calculated dry bulk densities are then always lower than the averaged actual dry bulk densities and sometimes even negative. The calculated water contents are then always higher than the averaged actual water contents and sometimes in excess of 1 g/cm3. Stratification may also occur during the shrinking of unfrozen soil when cracks form in the same plane as the gamma beam. The equation describing the attenuation of a gamma beam in a stratified medium is formulated. A technical modification in the scanning procedure is suggested in order to solve the appropriate equations and to locate the interface.

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